Beaker A beaker is a simple container for stirring, mixing and heating liquids commonly used in many laboratories.
Beakers are generally cylindrical in shape, with a flat bottom and a lip for pouring. Many also have a small spout to aid pouring as shown in the picture. Beakers are available in a wide range of sizes, from one millilitre up to several litres.
Standard or "Low-form" beakers typically have a height about 1.4 times the diameter. The common low form with a spout has been called the Griffin form. "Tall form" beakers have a height about twice the diameter. These are sometimes called Berzelius beakers. A beaker is distinguished from a flask by having sides which are straight rather than sloping. The exception to this definition is a slightly conical sided beaker is called a Phillips beaker. Beakers are commonly made of glass (today usually borosilicate glass), but can also be in metal (such as stainless steel or aluminum) or certain plastics, (notably polythene, polypropylene, PTFE). Beakers are often graduated, that is, marked on the side with lines indicating the volume contained. For instance, a 250 mL beaker might be marked with lines to indicate 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 mL of volume. These marks are not intended for accurate measurement, where a measuring cylinder would be used. The presence of a lip means that the beaker cannot have a lid. However, when in use, beakers may be covered by a watch glass to prevent contamination or loss of the contents, but allowing venting via the spout.
Test Tube A test tube, also known as a culture tube or sample tube, is a common piece of laboratory glassware consisting of a finger-like length of glass or clear plastic tubing, open at the top, usually with a rounded U-shaped bottom. A large test tube, designed specifically for boiling liquids, is called a boiling tube. Test tubes are widely used by chemists to hold, mix, or heat small quantities of solid or liquid chemicals, especially for qualitative and experiments and assays. Their round bottom and straight sides minimize mass loss when pouring, make them easier to clean, and allow convenient monitoring of the contents. The long narrow neck slows down the spreading of vapors and gases to the environment.
A test tube filled with water and upturned into a water-filled beaker is often used to capture gases, e.g. in electrolysis demonstrations.
Culture tubes are often used in biology for handling and culturing all kinds of live organisms, such as molds, bacteria, seedlings, plant cuttings, etc.; and in medicine and forensics to store samples of blood or other fluids. A test tube with a stopper is often used for temporary storage of chemical or biological samples. Test tubes are usually held in special-purpose racks, clamps, or tongs. Test tubes are sometimes put to casual uses outside of lab environments, e.g. as flower vases or containers for spices.
Test Tube Holders To hold test tubes upright to keep them from spilling.
Test tube racks are used in chemistry laboratories to store test tubes, either dry or containing some chemicals (waiting for further operations). Since a test tube has a rounded bottom, it cannot stand by itself and thus the rack is a convenient and necessary piece of laboratory equipment for storage of test tubes.
Volumetric flask A volumetric flask is a piece of laboratory glassware used in analytical chemistry for the preparation of solutions. It is made of glass or plastic and consists of a flat bottomed bulb with a long neck, usually fitted with a stopper. The stopper is normally made in a chemically resistant plastic such as polypropylene rather than glass. The neck has a single ring graduation mark and a label. The label should show the nominal volume, tolerance, calibration temperature, class, relevant manufacturing standard and the manufacturer’s logo. The glass or plastic is generally clear but may be amber colored for handling light sensitive compounds such as silver nitrate or vitamin A.
Volumetric flasks are used for making up solutions to a known volume. A typical procedure to make up a 1M solution of sodium chloride would be to weigh out 58.4g (1Mol) of sodium chloride into a 1000ml volumetric flask and add approximately 800ml of distilled water. Swirl the flask gently until all the solid is dissolved, and then add more distilled water until the bottom of the meniscus touches the graduation line. The meniscus can be made clearer by holding a black card behind the neck just below the line of sight . The stopper is then placed in the neck and the whole flask inverted repeatedly to homogenize the solution . Care must be taken when making up concentrated solutions because 500ml of a concentrated solution added to 500ml of distilled water do not necessarily make 1000ml and thus
the volume may change when the solution is homogenized. A well known example of this found when mixing water ethanol mixtures. In this case it is better to make up near the mark, then homogenize, then make up to the mark. Volumetric flasks have also been used as decanters, for brandy, malt whisky, or other alcoholic beverages. They are less decorative than the fancy crystal decanters made by Baccarat and similar vendors, but they have stoppers that seal well enough to prevent evaporative losses.
Erlenmeyer flask An Erlenmeyer flask, commonly known as a conical flask or E-flask, is a widely used type of laboratory flask which features a conical base and a cylindrical neck. They are usually marked on the side (graduated) to indicate the approximate volume of their contents. It is named after the German chemist Emil Erlenmeyer, who created it in 1861.
The conical flask is similar to the beaker, but is distinguished by its narrow neck. The neck allows the flask to be stopper using rubber bungs or cotton wool. The conical shape allows the contents to be swirled or stirred during an experiment (as is required in titration); the narrow neck keeps the contents from spilling. The smaller neck also slows evaporative loss better than a beaker. The flat bottom of the conical flask makes it unlikely to tip over, unlike the Florence flask. Erlenmeyer flasks are used for pH titrations and in microbiology for the preparation of microbial cultures. Plastic Erlenmeyer flasks used in cell culture are pre-sterilized and feature closures and vented closures to enhance gas exchange during incubation and shaking. If the flask is to be heated in an oil or water bath, a 'C' shaped lead or iron weight may be placed over the outside to keep the flask firmly planted. When heating, it is usually placed on a ring held to a ring stand by means of a ring clamp. The ring keeps it over a Bunsen burner so that it is heated by the flame of the burner. When set up this way, a wire gauze mesh or pad is placed between the ring and the flask to prevent the flames from directly touching the glass. An alternative way to set up the apparatus is to clamp the flask directly to the ring stand by means of holding it with a test tube clamp around the neck of the flask.
Florence flask A Florence flask (also known as a boiling flask) is a type of flask used as an item of laboratory glassware. It can be used as a container to hold solutions of chemicals. A Florence flask has a round body with a single long neck and with either a round or a flat bottom. A Florence flask with a flat bottom may stand upright alone on a flat
surface; flasks with round bottoms need support to stand upright. It is designed for uniform heating and ease of swirling; it is produced in a number of different glass thicknesses to stand different types of use. They are often made of borosilicate glass to prevent cracks or defacing of the glass. The flask is named after Florence, Italy. "Traditional" Florence flasks typically do not have a ground glass joint on their rather longer necks but typically have a slight lip or "flange" around the tip of the neck. A common size for a Florence flask is a volume of 1 liter.
Round-Bottom flask Round-bottom flasks (also called round-bottomed flasks and Erlenmeyer Bulbs) are types of flasks having spherical bottoms used as laboratory glassware, mostly for chemical or biochemical work. They are typically made of glass for chemical inertness; and in modern days, they are usually made of heat-resistant borosilicate glass. There is at least one tubular section known as the neck with an opening at the tip. Two or three-necked flasks are common as well. Round bottom flasks come in many sizes, from 5 mL to 5 L, with the sizes usually inscribed on the glass. In pilot plants even larger flasks are encountered.
The ends of the necks are usually conical (female) ground glass joints. These are standardized, and can accept any similarly-sized tapered (male) fittings. Standard Taper 24/40 is common for 250 mL or larger flasks, while smaller sizes such as 14 or 19 are used for smaller flasks. Because of the round bottom, cork rings are needed to keep the round bottom flasks upright. When in use, round-bottom flasks are commonly held at the neck by clamps on a stand.
Watch Glass A watch glass is a circular, slightly concave piece of glass used in chemistry as a surface to evaporate a liquid, to hold solids while being weighed, or as a cover for a beaker. The latter use is generally applied to prevent dust or other particles entering the beaker; the watch glass does not completely seal the beaker, and so gas exchanges still occur.
When used as an evaporation surface, a watch glass allows closer observation of precipitates or crystallization, and can be placed on a surface of contrasting colour to improve the visibility overall. Watch glasses are so named because they are identical to the glass used for the front of old-fashioned pocket watches. In reference to this, large watch glasses are occasionally known as clock glasses.
Evaporating Dish The evaporating dish is used to heat and evaporate liquids.
This porcelain item resembles a shallow bowl with a spout. Evaporating dishes are traditionally used to evaporate solvent to concentrate a solution; however they can also be used to hold sand for a sand bath, as a small water bath, or as a drying dish (like a watch glass). If heated by a direct flame, it will often be placed on a clay triangle for support.
Wire Gauze Gauze is a thin, translucent fabric with a loose open weave. Its name may derive etymologically from the Persian word for silk, via the Spanish word "gasa". On the other hand the loose weave was typically woven in Palestine and the word might be an allusion to the city of Gaza.
Uses and types * Gauze was originally made of silk. Now used for medical purposes gauze sponges are in high demand. * When used in film and theatre, gauze is often fashioned into a scrim. * Gauze is also made of cotton, especially for use in bandages. It is especially useful for dressing wounds where other fabrics might stick to the burn or laceration. Many modern medical types of gauze are covered with a plastic porous film such as Telfa or a polyblend which prevents direct contact and further minimizes wound adhesion. * Modern gauze is sometimes made of synthetic fibers, especially when used in clothing. * Gauze can also be made of metal, such as a wire gauze placed on top of a Bunsen burner, used in a safety lamp or sparks arrestor, or used as a fence.
Bunsen Burner A Bunsen burner is a common piece of laboratory equipment that produces a single open gas flame, which is used for heating, sterilization, and combustion. The device in use today safely burns a continuous stream of a flammable gas such as natural gas (which is principally methane) or a liquefied petroleum gas such as propane, butane, or a mixture of both.
The burner has a weighted base with a connector for a gas line (hose barb) and a vertical tube (barrel) rising from it. The hose barb is connected to a gas nozzle on the lab bench with rubber tubing. Most lab benches are equipped with multiple gas nozzles connected to a central gas source, as well as vacuum, nitrogen, and steam
nozzles. The gas then flows up through the base through a small hole at the bottom of the barrel and is directed upward. There are open slots in the side of the tube bottom to admit air into the stream via the Venturi effect, and the gas burns at the top of the tube once ignited by a flame or spark. The most common methods of lighting the burner are using a match or a spark lighter.
Thermometer A thermometer is a device that measures temperature or temperature gradient using a variety of different principles; it comes from the Greek roots thermo, heat, and meter, to measure. A thermometer has two important elements: the temperature sensor (e.g. the bulb on a mercury thermometer) in which some physical change occurs with temperature, plus some means of converting this physical change into a value (e.g. the scale on a mercury thermometer). Thermometers increasingly use electronic means to provide a digital display or input to a computer.
Thermometers can be divided into two separate groups according to the level of knowledge about the physical basis of the underlying thermodynamic laws and quantities. For primary thermometers the measured property of matter is known so well that temperature can be calculated without any unknown quantities. Examples of these are thermometers based on the equation of state of a gas, on the velocity of sound in a gas, on the thermal noise (see Johnson–Nyquist noise) voltage or current of an electrical resistor, and on the angular anisotropy of gamma ray emission of certain radioactive nuclei in a magnetic field. Primary thermometers are relatively complex. Secondary thermometers are most widely used because of their convenience. Also, they are often much more sensitive than primary ones. For secondary thermometers knowledge of the measured property is not sufficient to allow direct calculation of temperature. They have to be calibrated against a primary thermometer at least at one temperature or at a number of fixed temperatures. Such fixed points, for example, triple points and superconducting transitions, occur reproducibly at the same temperature. There is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale. Internationally agreed temperature scales are designed to approximate this closely, based on fixed points and interpolating thermometers. The most recent official temperature scale is the International Temperature Scale of 1990. It extends from 0.65 K (−272.5 °C; −458.5 °F) to approximately 1,358 K (1,085 °C; 1,985 °F).
Burette A burette (also buret) is a vertical cylindrical piece of laboratory glassware with a volumetric graduation on its full length and a precision tap, or stopcock, on the bottom. It is used to dispense known amounts of a liquid reagent in experiments for which such precision is necessary, such as a titration experiment. Burettes are extremely accurate: class A burettes are accurate to ± 0.05 cm3. Pipette A pipette (also called a pipet, pipettor or chemical dropper) is a laboratory instrument used to transport a measured volume of liquid. Pipettes are commonly used in chemistry and molecular biology research as well as medical tests. Pipettes come in several designs for various purposes with differing levels of accuracy and precision, from single piece glass pipettes to more complex adjustable or electronic pipettes. A pipette works by creating a vacuum above the liquid-holding chamber and selectively releasing this vacuum to draw up and dispense liquid.
Pipettes that dispense between 1 and 1000 μl are termed micropipettes, while macropipettes dispense a greater volume of liquid. Volumetric pipettes allow the user to measure a volume of solution extremely accurately and then add it to something else. They are commonly used to make laboratory solutions from a base stock as well as prepare solutions for titration. They are typically marked to indicate one single volume in a particular size pipette (as are volumetric flasks). Many different sizes are available. Graduated pipettes, also called Mohr pipettes, use a series of marked lines (as on a graduated cylinder) to indicate different calibrated volumes. These also come in a variety of sizes. These are used much like a burette, in that the volume is found by calculating the difference of the liquid level before and after liquid is dispensed. Typically the precision of a graduated pipette is not as great as that of a volumetric pipette. A Pasteur pipette is not calibrated for any particular volume. Rather, it is essentially a large dropper, which can be used to remove liquid from one container and add it to another. Variable volume air displacement pipettes are micropipettes which dispense an adjustable volume of liquid from a disposable tip. The pipette body contains a plunger, which provides the suction to pull liquid into the tip when the piston is compressed and released. The maximum displacement of the plunger is set by a dial on the pipette body, allowing the delivery volume to be changed.
A Beral pipette is a one-piece pipette, usually made from flexible soft plastic (polyethylene) that has a built-in bulb on the end. All glass pipettes require the use of some kind of additional suction device, typically a pipette bulb, which is a rubber bulb which sucks the liquid into the pipette and also allows you to drain the pipette in a controlled fashion. Before this, it was common practice to "mouth pipette" i.e. to aspirate fluid into the pipette by applying suction with one's mouth. The original pipette is made of glass. It is more commonly used in chemistry, with aqueous solutions. There are two types. One type, the volumetric pipette, has a large bulb, and is calibrated for a single volume. Typical volumes are 10, 25, and 50 mL. Alternatively, Mohr pipettes are straight-walled, and graduated for different volumes such as 5 mL in 0.5 mL increments. The single volume pipette is usually more accurate, with an error of ± 0.1 or 0.2 mL. The pipette is filled by dipping the tip in the volume to be measured, and drawing up the liquid with a pipette filler past the inscribed mark. The volume is then set by releasing the vacuum using the pipette filler or a damp finger. While moving the pipette to the receiving vessel, care must be taken not to shake the pipette because the column of fluid may "bounce".
Stirring Rod A stirring rod is a piece of laboratory equipment used to mix chemicals and liquids for laboratory purposes. Funnel A funnel is a pipe with a wide, often conical mouth and a narrow stem. It is used to channel liquid or fine-grained substances into containers with a small opening. Without a funnel,spillage would occur.
Funnels are usually made of stainless steel, glass, or plastic. The material used in its construction should be sturdy enough to withstand the weight of the substance being transferred, and it should not react with the substance. For this reason, stainless steel or glass are useful in transferring diesel, while plastic funnels are useful in the kitchen. Sometimes disposable paper funnels are used in cases where it would be difficult to adequately clean the funnel afterwards (for example, in adding motor oil to a car). Dropper funnels, also called dropping funnels or tap funnels, have a tap to allow the controlled release of a liquid.
The term "funnel" is sometimes used to refer to the chimney or smokestack on a steam locomotive or a ship. There is also a type of spider known as a funnel-web due to its habit of building its web in the shape of a funnel. The term "funnel" is even applied to other seemingly strange objects like a smoking pipe or even a humble kitchen bin.
Dropper A dropper is a program (malware component) that has been designed to "install" some sort of malware (virus, backdoor, etc) to a target system. The malware code can be contained within the dropper (single-stage) in such a way as to avoid detection by virus scanners or the dropper may download the malware to the target machine once activated (two stage). Graduated Cylinder A graduated cylinder is a piece of laboratory equipment used to accurately measure out volumes of objects for use in labs. They are generally more accurate and precise for this purpose than flasks and beakers. Often, the largest graduated cylinders are made of polypropylene for its excellent chemical resistance or polymethylpentene for its clarity, making them lighter to ship and less fragile than glass. Polypropylene cylinders have excellent chemical resistance and do not shatter when dropped, one problem with this type of cylinder is that they can not be heated. Polypropylene is easy to repeatedly autoclave (sterilize); however, autoclaving of some polypropylene graduated cylinders may affect their accuracy (check with the manufacturer). Centrifuge A centrifuge is a piece of equipment, generally driven by a motor, that puts an object in rotation around a fixed axis, applying a force perpendicular to the axis. The centrifuge works using the sedimentation principle, where the centripetal acceleration is used to evenly distribute substances (usually present in a solution for small scale applications) of greater and lesser density. There are many different kinds of centrifuges, including those for very specialized purposes. It can be used for viable counts, when shaking the culture e.g. yeasts, out of suspension.
Report In Science
(Common Laboratory Equipments and Apparatuses)
Submitted by: Ronica Estrada Cherry Anne Tamondong
Submitted To: Mr. John Calicdan