A Census of Monk Musicians at El Escorial during the Reigns of Philip II and Philip III Author(s): Michael Noone Source

: Early Music, Vol. 22, No. 2, Iberian Discoveries II (May, 1994), pp. 221-234+236 Published by: Oxford University Press Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3128136 . Accessed: 11/09/2013 04:56
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) musicians who are known to have worked there during these yearsare given in tabular form. I reign Philip present El the musical of Escorial's monk musicians.however. on 23 April 1563 the foundation stone of the royal architect Juan Bautista de Toledo in a simple ceremony before a few workmen and monks. neither on any day nor feast'5To this end EARLY MUSIC MAY 1994 221 This content downloaded from 146. Espaiiapintoresca n.' The entire complex.seminary. 11 Sep 2013 04:56:24 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Despite the unquestioned political and symbolic importance of El Escorialand its liturgy. college and a royal palace.33 on Wed. (2) 1586-98.d. library. responsibilities ImportMichaelNoone is University Research ant to be addressed include the cultiquestions repertories remaining Fellowat the University New South of vated and performed at El Escorial. the ways in which the music of Wales(Sydney)and editorof the journalMusicologyAustralia.In 1990o these repertorieswas performed. polyphony 'in any manner.48 kilometres north-west of Madrid. taking us from the completion of the basilicato Philip II'sdeath.and (3) 1598-1621. For convenience. the performanceof music at El Eshis research on El Escorial won the corial by visiting musicians.and notwithstandingPhilip II'sstatus as 'the leading international music patron of his age'.p.94.coinciding with the early growth of El Escorial's monastic community.m. they are divided into three periods: (1) 1571-86. By 1586elaborate preparationswere under way for the dedication of the newly completed basilica. The names and tenure of all the y artistica(n.MichaelNoone A census of monk musicians at El Escorial during the reigns of Philip I and Philip II At monastery of San Lorenzo el Real de El Escorialwas laid by the N411 ?? 11 a. Espaihola In the foundation statutes for El Escorial.. dynastic mausotil leum.155. basilica. (1556-98) and Philip III (1598-1621).4 This articlepresentsthe findings of recentarchivalresearchinto the of the basilicaof ElEsco1 Interior musical personnel at El Escorial during the reigns of Philip II rial:Francisco de PaulaVan Halen. the Sociedad de Musicologia. embracingthe entire of shall also here some information about III. which was intended by Philip II to be the actual and symbolic centrepiece of a minutely planned Counter-Reformation ril strategyin which liturgicalmusic playedan essential role. he prohibited Fellowin theDepartment Music of at CornellUniversity. sited in the rockyfoothills of the Sierra de Guadarrama. and biographies of the monk musicians annualprizefor musicresearch from named here:these issues I shall addressin a forthcoming study. no systematic study of the musicians who worked at the monastery-palaceonce known as the 'eighth wonder of the world'3has yet appeared. was eventually to comprise a monastery. Philip II ordered that He is currently VisitingFulbright Mass and the divine office be celebratedin plainsong.

Santos and Sepuilveda together with the chronicles of the lay historian Cabrerade C6rdoba.7 It was also the king's wish that no salaried musicians be employed at El Escorial.the musical life of the institution.corrector in the are offered following paragraphs. Nevertheless. as a recently published secondary source. poses specialproblems for the music historian.privatehouseholds. and because of the ready availability of monks willing and able to undertakethe task. cathedrals and collegiate churches. Such a function demanded a particular organizational structurewhich has not alwaysbeen recognized in previous studies of El Escorial's musical foundation. rather than translations of the sections dealing with the key offices del canto and (cantor. 11 Sep 2013 04:56:24 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .8The determinationof this structure.13 Since both these manuscripts are tiresomely repetitious and prolix-even by the standards of the age-summaries.in a class by itself. seminariansor novices. monastic. liturgical and historical documents. and care must be taken so that the many voices sing del canto conducts the choir as one. San Jer6nimo. often only tangentially.33 on Wed. is well served by a good number of such sources. the primarypublished sources. succentor. is the collection of biographicalnotes on Spanish musicians that forms a part of the extraordinarylegacy of the indefatigable 19th-century musicologist Francisco Barbieri (1823-94)held in the BibliotecaNacional." The monastery's musicians The duties and responsibilities of the key musical offices at El Escorial are set out in some detail in and the Quadernode las the Librode las costumbres costumbres. El Escorial. The cantor and the succentor are responsible for the placing. arrangement. The corrector This content downloaded from 146. The works of the monks Sigiienza. When singing responsorially(a choros) no one may sing with the opposite choir. the Actas capitulares. which illuminate.chorister. Madrid. organist) The cantor and the succentor exchange roles once a week and occupy the highest of the low choir stalls.so too he promoted within it a musical foundation whose dual function as chapel royal and as monastery in the service of a Counter-Reformationmonarch was unique. Becauseof its centralrole in Philip II'sgovernment.1'Of these. The sources for evidence concerning the musicians who were responsiblefor the selection. In the absence of payrolls and registers of personnel.the so-called Pruebas de limpieza de sangre and the Familia religiosaof Francisco de Paula Rodriguez (1756). especially during its founder's reign. comprises the 222 EARLY MUSIC MAY 1994 writings of contemporary chroniclers and historians. only Sigfienza has previously attracted the attention of musicology.however. Villacastin.9 A second class. The first and most important of these embracesthe following primary manuscript sources: the monastery necrology (commonly referred to as the Memorias sepulcrales). from which they intone the hymns and psalms. dynastic and symbolic functions in El Escorial. ordained monks. The cantor intones the responses and the first Kyriein processions. and in spite of the restatementof the prohibition of polyphony in 1592.' Finally. maintenance and performance of El Escorial'smusical repertoryfall into three classes.94. management and removal of books on the lectern.who is denied the kind of precision afforded by the records of payment kept by such non-monastic musical institutions as chapelsroyal. the scholar must turn to a wide variety of archival.he commissioned the largest and most expensive set of plainsong choirbooks ever copied. whether lay brothers. Other intonations are made in the middle of the choir.155. both published and unpublished. courtly. are the most important. Justas Philip II createda unique synthesis of political.6 there is strong evidence to suggest that a simple kind of polyphony-probably improvised and consisting of the addition of contrapuntal lines over a plainsong-was permitted. Indeed.'4 The term 'chorister'is applicableto all who participate in the celebration of the divine offices in choir.economic. it seems likely that this style of polyphony was developed at El Escorial by Martin de Villanueva in direct response to the king's wishes.

second and a third who possess the same qualities are to be appointed.. and so that it begins and ends exactly with the actions and movements of the priests at the altar.. be it chant or word. At all times.b ~ ~ :.and his direction must be followed diligently. the corrector must examine all that is to be said or done in the choir. A description and (westby north):Francisco Perspective rendering of theroyal palace... which sounds as one voice.The prelate and his deputies always choose for this office a person well informed. permitted to alter any books without the authority of the prior. The organist must take care to observe unanimity with the choir. In the absence of the prior or the vicar. discreet.. Decorum is to be maintained in the choir at all times.modest. the correctoris responsible for granting permission to those who for various reasons must absent themselves from the divine offices.. In the alterationwhich he makes from slow to fast... ~~~~ ?" ~ ~ .l /.. the errors must be eliminated. In a order that the choir never be without a corrector. calledtheEscurial. 2 of ElEscorial de los Santos.and in such a manner that it will not be sudden.The corrector also ensures that in processions the choir does not lose pitch and. he should be mindful that it is done gradually. he correctsit.Sanctus.. and he must beat time in the choir in such a way that the divine office finishes at the appropriatetime for meals and for sleep accordingto the rules of the keeper of the clocks. He beats time in the same manner in the Offertory.33 on Wed. and so that the people will remain unawareof it.z.155.. The corrector del canto must also take the dura- tion of the office into consideration.94. as for the monastery. monastery of St Laurence. as much in the sound and consonance and melody of the choir's chant. and of thechapel Translated royalof thePantheon. however. Agnus and Postcommunion so there will alwaysbe song in the church.. because if possible it is to be altered without causing disorder.. ~ .• ~:• t' ~ ~ ~ ~ : ••. fromtheSpanish by G. 11 Sep 2013 04:56:24 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Thompson(London. since in all that which is said in common. elderlyand skilled in the chant.:?? . 1760) EARLY MUSIC MAY 1994 223 This content downloaded from 146. He is not. if it does.15 The office of the corrector del cantois of greatimas much for the divine office. or from fast to slow. which is the portance of the principal occupation Jeronymite Order. as in observing the beat and tempo kept by the choir. but especiallywhen the office is not familiar. .

instrument to be played by a member of the assumed that each monk lived continuously at El Jeronymitecommunity. to suggest that these singers constituted a dateof arrival mented(anearlier formal capilla with its own maestro and a clearly start of table Dateof arrival preceding defined liturgical role. along strictly monastic lines. Although no documents listing its mu. ered.Definite sacred polyphony. Almented(a laterdateof departure is likely) though no documents have been found which refer Date of end of table departure postdating ) specifically to the unbroken voices of the semin224 EARLY MUSIC MAY 1994 arians. no attempt has been made to account for a monk's possible temporaryabsence from the mon.'7In addition to their keyboard skills. and one.period. Keyboard musicians Of the 11 keyboard musiwas entrusted to monks under the jurisdiction of cians who were active in the first period (see table the prior. the majority were members of the Jeronymite sical personnel as such have thus far been uncov. For the purpose of the tables. full enough to allow an approximatereconstruction Diego de la Concepci6n.94.phony.2). must have performed music over and above that required of all members of the community. of the musical establishment who are known to have been active at El Escorial between 1571and Other musicians The three correctores del canto 1586. like every Jeronymite house.Musical personnel.He died The 12 monks as named singers during in 16o8 (see table 12). We period upon which these and subsequent similartables are know that were all skilled of they singers polybased. fabordones and recreational ? Uncertaindate of arrival S . There was only one monk Singers this first period are listed in table i. apart from keyboard instruthe monastery carillon was the only other astery.villanescas. It seems that. Horizontal barsrepresent the presence were called upon when there was a need for music Thetermini as follows: of thebarsareto be interpreted more elaborate than plainsong. from the performance of music to the baking of bread.and probably ? Uncertaindate of departure others-were brought to the Escorial community Date at which presenceis last docuspecifically because of their musical skills. the surviving documentation is nevertheless four of them were also active as singers.. Date at which presenceis firstdocuis likely) however.if he comsong for Mass and the divine office.community. 1571-86 El Escorial was organized. This content downloaded from 146. who is known to have played the carillon. The presenceat El Escorial Escorialuntil his death. Since the entire with any aptitude for composition during this Jeronymitecommunity joined in singing the plain. many are named in the chroniclers'accounts of the singing of dateof arrival i . Almost every aspect of life within the monastery precincts. The fact that three of them are named as basses and three as altos further suggests that their services Note on the tables of an individual. is first reported in 1575. Tablesi to 3 detail all those members to sing. At least two of the singersof date departure ]Definite PedroMarinand Agustin de Valencia. Indeed. of Andres de San Lorenzo. taught the seminarians of such a list. 11 Sep 2013 04:56:24 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Fray Hernando de Ciudad Real. No evidence has yet come to light. it has been ments. we know that they sang a daily dawn Mass on their own.155.33 on Wed. it may be posed any works at El Escorial they are not known assumed that those monks singled out as singers to have survived.16 Because of the nature of the documentation who in served in this are listed table 3.

1571-86 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 Lorenzo de Sevilla de Ciudad Real Hernando Diego de Toledo Jer6nimode Zaragoza tecla' tecla organ organ 1 Romero Miguel Franciscode SantaAna Pedro de Buendia Crist6balde Aguila organ tecla organ organ 1 ] Diegodela Concepci6n Pedro de Orche Carlosde Lila teclalorgan teclalorgan organ 'The sourcesoften reporta monk playingkeyboard(tecla)without offeringfurtherdetails.1571-86 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 Real de Ciudad Hernando Diego de Toledo singer singer 1 1 Romero Miguel singer alto Gasparde la Torre bass de Le6n Gaspar Pedro de Navarra singer alto Agustin de Valencia Bartholomede Santo Domingo alto bass Matheode Avila bass Pedro Marin Pedro de Buendia singer ] | Nicolisde SanLorenzo singer ) Table 2 Keyboard players at El Escorial.Table i Singersat El Escorial.1571-86 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 Gasparde Le6n Pedro de Navarra Pedro Marin EARLY MUSIC MAY 1994 225 This content downloaded from 146. Table3 Correctores del canto at El Escorial.33 on Wed.94. 11 Sep 2013 04:56:24 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .155.

Qualitatively. The list may be broken down to give.two scribes and one composer.94. player of the vihuela del arco.he was both an organist and composer. organist singer del canto singer. and the alto Bartholome de Santiago.corrector singer singer ond period are listed in table 7. Table4 Escorial musicians listedin thecensusof 1597 de Le6n Gaspar Diegode Toledo Josede Sigtienza de Avila Matheo PedroMarin Ginds de Olmedo Pedro de Navarra Singers Table5.All seven are also listed as singers:the fact that so many monks were engaged in this office is a reflection of the heavy burden of Masses. corrector del canto Keyboard musicians and other instrumentalists delcanto The seven keyboard players active during the sec(alto). offices and commemorations borne by the Jeronymitecommunity.we know from documents such as the monastery necrology that at least 16 of those mentioned in the census performed some sort of musical role.2' singer five organists were available del canto corrector from the monastic community. Juan keyboard player. del corrector (bass). singer. especially valuable is the census of 1597. As well as being a skilled singer.33 on Wed.a second and a del canto were appointed in addition third corrector to the principal correctormayor del canto.Musical personnel. together with a brief summary of what is known of their contribution to the music at El Escorial. one keyboard player. As the Librode costumbres makes clear. the bass and corrector del canto Pedro Marin.'9 corrector del (bass). singer singer(bass) corrector del (bass). according to their musical roles. The names of these 16 appearin table 4. An acquisition of particularsignificance for the development of music at El Escorial was Martin de Villanueva. singer canto (tenor). the number of musical personnel available in 1597. for instance. Andris de San Lorenzo. de la Fuente (bass). which lists those monk musicians active as singers in the second period.155. musician. and six were organists. Our listings for 1586-98 seem to show the resultsof a conscious effort to improve the musical calibreof El Escorial. one was a tenor and del canto. have taken sole chargeof the playing of the carillon.there is an increasetoo. were played together. 11 Sep 2013 04:56:24 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . During the entire de SanLorenzo carillonist Andres period a single monk. 1586-98 In the absence of annual (or even less frequent)lists of the monastery'sinhabitants and the offices they held. singer canto organist singer. for this is the first period in which we find the presence of the adult tiple. This content downloaded from 146. singer scribe In 1587. Table4 is the closest approximationwe have to a list of the Jeronymitemusiciansworking at El Escorial in the penultimate year of Philip II's reign. shows a small numerical augmentation over the period 1571-86. Juan organist de la Fuente is describedsolely as a keyboardplayer. and he served for some years as correctormayor del canto.20 The obligations of this office were clearlyundertakenby the most skilled and experienced musicians. organist.Monks such as the tenor and organist Gines de Olmedo. Four of them were singer also active as singers. singer. who similarly was brought from the Jeronymite monastery of San Ger6nimo in Granada. 226 EARLY MUSIC MAY 1994 composer.corrector Martin deVillanueva Bartholome de Santiago de SanLorenzo Nicolas Pedro de Alcali Carlos de Lila Pedro de Estremera Correctores del canto The seven monks who served as correctores del canto in the second period table (see 6) representa significantincreaseover the four monks who served in the period 1571-86.There were 14 singers-of whom we know that four were basses.must scribe vihuela Francisco de Alcalh player.the earliest census of its inhabitants thus far uncovered. four another was an alto-six correctores one one carillonist.when Septilvedatells us that all the organs canto. were brought from the monasteries of their first profession on account of their musical skill. organists.'8 Although it specifies no musical posts or responsibilities.

Bartholom6 1 Nothing is known of this monk's life apartfrom the fact that in Holy Week of 1587 de Santiago.1586-98 86 Gasparde la Torre Diego de Toledo Gasparde Le6n Pedro de Navarra Matheo de Avila Pedro Marin Nicolhs de San Lorenzo Martinde Villanueva Pedro de Alcal•' Pedro de Estremera Bartholomede Santiago Josede Sigtienza Gindsde Olmedo Diego de SantaMaria Juande la Fuente alto singer bass singer bass bass singer singer singer bass alto singer tenor tiplelalto bass ? C ( ( 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 ( ( ( ( | Francisco de Alcali singer he sang polyphonic Passionswith Martinde Villanueva. Table 6 Correctores del canto at El Escorial.1586-98 86 Gasparde Le6n Pedro de Navarra Pedro Marin Martinde Villanueva Pedro de Estremera Bartholomede Santiago Juande la Fuente 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 Table 7 Keyboardplayersat El Escorial.Table 5 Singersat El Escorial.94.Pedro Marinand Gasparde Le6n.33 on Wed.155.1586-98 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 Diegode la Concepci6n Pedro de Orche Diegode Toledo Carlos de Lila Martin de Villanueva de Ginds Olmedo de la Fuente Juan tecla/organ teclalorgan organ organ organ organ tecla EARLY MUSIC MAY 1994 227 This content downloaded from 146. 11 Sep 2013 04:56:24 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .

travelledtoEl Escorialfor the feastof St Lawrencein 1587.arco'. 1586-98 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 Andres de SanLorenzo carillon ( Alonsode Baezal dulcian Francisco de Alcala vihuela delarco 'This musician.22 Visiting chapels.23 music at El Escorialduring the latter part of Philip 1597census is known to have played an instrument II'sreign.who 'playedthe dulcianand other instruments'. he fell ill soon afterand died. 11 Sep 2013 04:56:24 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .155.24The participation of such an instrument ments other than the organ which we do have in the strictly controlled and regulated musical Table8 Otherinstrumentalists at ElEscorial. But regularuse of any instruments other than the organ the obituary notice of Francisco de Alcala states by the Jeronymite community. Neither is there evidence to document the other than the organ or carillon (see table 8).Wfr~?~. less frequently. 228 EARLY MUSIC MAY 1994 This content downloaded from 146.concerns the monk Alonso de Vaeza who 'played monies both the capillasrealesand./ -01? co ~~. The one slender nothing more than that ''he played the vihuela del piece of evidence concerning the playing of instru. the baj6nand other instruments'and who came to the capillas of the cathedrals of both Avila and El Escorialfrom the monastery of San Jer6nimo at Toledo travelledto El Escorialto sing and play for Yustefor the feast of St Lawrence.of course. brought their own instrumentalistswith Only one monk whose name appearsin the gest that secularmusicians participatedin liturgical them.x?i r?.Brambilla]. 1832) Colecci6n Although it is known that for certain major cere.94.?~an.33 on Wed. (Madrid. L1 ~'PT~t:': Y de lasvistasdel r[ea]l sitiodes[a]n Lorenzo 3 Viewof monks'choir:[F. important ceremonies. there is no evidence to sug.

No secular musicians were employed and it was therefore not possible for the monastery to compete for musicianswith such institutions as cathedrals and chapels royal which advertised salaried positions on their musical staffs.with a population of over 150. the best musicians were actively sought in order to add splendour. The other significant factor distinguishing El Escorial from other Jeronymitehouses is a corollary of the first:it is the extraordinary wealth with which it was endowed. In the governance and execution of its day-today functions. These were often the same monks who.directedthe community in its plainsong.the populations of which stood at about 40 each. defender of the faith against the Reformation and showcase of Catholic orthodoxy.25 For the 17 years 1586-1603Villanueva was the only composer working at El Escorial. one of the most characteristic features of 16th-century Spanish church music. As a musical institution. In any other even vaguely comparable royal or ecclesiasticalfoundation of the time. of the intervention of instruments other than the organ in liturgical music. a smaller number of skilled singers was availableto perform polyphony. And since there was no formallyconstituted capilla.26 At Philip II's death El Escorial comprised three mutually dependent foundations. then. centre of the government of an empire. While all the monks were involved in the performance of plainsong. was expressly forbidden. Philip II sparedno expense in equipping El Escorial musically.as both structureand symbol. the participation of instrumentalists. in principle. legitimacy to the foundation.there was no need of a position such as a maestrode capilla. Yet he insisted. in paragraph38 of the letter of foundation. El Escorial functioned within a strictly monastic framework.and it is his musical style that is characteristicof the royalmonasteryduring the lateryearsof the reign of Philip II and the earlyyearsof that of Philip III.Two factors.Under the jurisdiction of the monastery stood the college and the seminary. magnificence and.76. that the personnel responsible for the music be drawn entirely from the monastery.94. 11 Sep 2013 04:56:24 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .First.33 on Wed. as correctores del canto.The ill tcuc ccn nicisr coin t choirbook 4 Plainsong no. In fact the sums paid for the copying of the plainsong choirbooks and the building of the organs were unprecedentedanywherein the world. indirectly. however. In addition.Evenas late as 1630the Escorial monk Martin de la Vera voiced the Order's disapproval. The largest and most important was the monastery. distinguish it in a decisive way from other monasteries of the Order.writtenby thescribeJose in 1579 and corrected HernanRodriguez by Francisco dez in 1580 EARLY MUSIC MAY 1994 229 This content downloaded from 146. No other Jeronymitemonastery-indeed.environment of El Escorial during the reign of Philip II seems unlikely. In the same way as other Renaissance princes lavishly endowed their palaces and chapels. no other Renaissance institution-combined the functions of dynastic mausoleum. El Escorial was essentially like any other Jeronymitemonastery.155. it embodied a unique synthesis of the roles which its founder perceived as inseparable.

in foundation the enshrined carefully Singers Duringthe reignof PhilipIIIthe number of adultmonkswho wereknownwithinthe communityfor theirsingingabilityrangedfromabout 11in 1611 to about 17in 1620. there must have been some dissatisfactionwith the musical tuition being provided for the seminarians.anscribed otheras a tiplelaltoand threeas tiples. moreover.3? As early as 1594.28 This is the first reference thus far uncovered to a specifically musical decision made by Philip III."33 Although the proposalwas supported by the community.who served as prior 1642-8. 1598-1621 esdeathin 1598 the musical Bythe timeof Philip's had developedits own of El Escorial tablishment since. although there is no evidence to suggest that the two places reservedfor singers of polyphony were open to any but monk musicians. nine singers were and11newsingers diedor leftthe community admitted.They are listed in table 9. for instance. been exwhich have lines might development along musicalfoundapected of a typical16th-century tion.94. such as Baltasar de Fuenlabrada. Many of them undertook other musical responsibilities. though.29 An entry of 16o8 in the same document. as a prohibition of polyphony sung by secular musicians.From an entry in the of 16o1. it was one which existed entirely within a monastic framework. and some.since the compositionand performance of a decline thebeginning PhilipII'sdeathsignalled which he so of the restrictions in the observance statutes.155. long thismonkremained at El encountered were castratos certainthat rarely Escorial.it couldboastseveralskilledmusicians. It is a decision. forcesatworkin wasto see quitedifferent however.created which nurtured more ditions practices rigidlyorthodox than those embracedanywhereelse in Catholic Christendom. since in May of that year the Jeronymiteswere informed of the king's approvalfor the creation of a salaried post of maestrode canto in the seminary. For 15 of these singersthe documentsdo not six are despecifyvoice types.One of the de Pedro asa tiplewasthecastrato described singers how known not it is Unfortunately. Musical personnel. as the evidence suggests. Pedro de Hu scar occupied 'one of the two places which His Majesty [Philip III] assigned for those who would know polyphony and would be able to assist in the capilla'.33 on Wed.27 During this third period.at this time. Of the remainder.JuanAlonso de Almela informs us.3'The first monk we know to have held this post was JuanBaptista. If something of an informal polyphonic capillawas functioning from this time.at El polyphony theysangwasof a type developed in directresponse to the expressed Escorial wishes for a strictinterpretation of PhilipII. scrupulousproscriptions.32By 1617. 230 EARLY MUSIC MAY 1994 who probably entered the Escorial seminary in about 1602. It seems likely that the founder's prohibition of polyphony was interpreted. Its ments. of music.in additionto its secureendowmomentum. In legislating of Tridentine and muorthodoxyin the liturgical of his monastery-palace. The presence of the young Pedro de Hubscar. no record of a subsequent appointment has been found.heraldsa new development in the monastery's musical establishment.one as a tenor.it is clear that the ability to Actascapitulares criteria employed in the selecone of the was sing tion of novices. The incumbent of this new position was to be occupied solely in teaching the seminarians to sing and would be requiredto be able to play the baj6n in the choir.who received the habit at El Escorial in 1605.which contrasts directlywith his father's prohibition of polyphony. 11 Sep 2013 04:56:24 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .however. the 'most sicalobservance conCatholic king'as Philipstyledhimself.one as an alto. This content downloaded from 146. had been checkedby the founder's The reignof PhilipIII. but it is at the monastery. According to his obituary notice. a position of maestrode la masica existed in the Escorial seminary. rose to high rank within the monastery. Antequera. as basses. states simply that 'Joan de Cuenca was admitted to the habit for being very capableand having a voice'. was admitIt is probablethat Miguel de Talavera ted to just such a place in 1614.

1598-1621 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Gasparde Le6n Martinde Villanueva Pedro de Navarra Pedro Marin Josede Sigtienza Diego de Toledo Gines de Olmedo Franciscode Alcali Matheo de Avila Nicolas de San Lorenzo Pedro de Estremera Bartholomede Santiago Diego de SantaMaria Juande la Fuente Pedro de Huescar Faustinode Santorcaz JuanBaptista Baltasar de Fuenlabrada Pedro de Antequera Pedro de Balconete Pedro de Tafalla Miguel de Talavera Franciscode Colmenar Martinde la Cruz Diego de Colmenar Juande San Miguel Pedro de Castellon' bass singer singer bass singer singer tenor singer bass singer bass alto tiplelalto bass tiple singer singer singer castrato singer singer tiple singer bass singer singer singer ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ? 1 The dates of this monk's short stay at El Escorialare not known.1598-1621 Tableto Correctores 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Gasparde Le6n Martinde Villanueva Pedro Marin Pedro de Navarra Pedro de Estremera Bartholomede Santiago Juande la Fuente JuanBaptista Baltasar de Fuenlabrada Pedro de Balconete ( EARLY MUSIC MAY 1994 231 This content downloaded from 146.155.94.Table 9 Singersat El Escorial. del canto at El Escorial.33 on Wed. 11 Sep 2013 04:56:24 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .

During this time. Three Other instrumentalists Table12 lists those musimonks who had held the office in Philip II's reign cians who played instruments other than keyboard outlived Philip III. five new key. During this period Philip II and Philip III.it seems listed in table 11. The polyphony.part of Philip II's reign was characterizedby an nueva (d 1605). From 1612onwards. About Pedro de Castel. 11 Sep 2013 04:56:24 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . The other two newcomers were the composers Crist6bal de San Composers Martinde Villanuevawas the last and Jer6nimo and Pedro de Tafalla. monks were available. outlived both III's reign are listed in table io. exemplifiedmost clearlyin the works of Table 11 Keyboardplayersat El Escorial. Pedro de Huescar and Faustino de Santorcaz.and the vinumber of monks availableto fulfil its duties dur.community's music-making for the participation 16n. Three of those organists who had corial during Philip II's lifetime. This contrasts significantly which was sung by the informal capilla. Whereasthe latter served during Philip II's reign-Martin de Villa. 1612) virtually nothing is known. was The musicians musicians availablefor a mere two years. Andres de San Lorenzo continued to portant and burdensome one.The fact that Pedrode Tafalla reign (1603-21) El Escorial was served by two bajonwas the first important musician at El Escorialnot istas. six cdrial until his death in 1611.155. four of the monks who held this office in Philip II's reign died and were replacedby three others.huelista del arco Francisco de Alcala lived at El EsFor most of Philip III's ing this period was four. however.33 on Wed. with the situation during the reign of Philip II. was available.1598-1621 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Martinde Villanueva Diego de Toledo Gines de Olmedo Carlosde Lila Juande la Fuente Juande la Cruz (d 1612) Juande la Cruz (d 1605) Pedro de Tafalla Pedro de Castellon1 organ organ organ organ tecla organ " ( ( de SanJer6nimo organ Crist6bal tecla organ organ ? j .Correctoresdel canto Those monks who held the Flemish organist Carlos de Lila and the keyboard office of corrector del canto some time during Philip player Juan de la Fuente.instruments.that there was a growing requirement within the board musicians are found. and the minimum play the carillon until his death in 16o8. Juan de la Cruz (d 1605) and his homonym (d of such an instrument. when only one bajonista. many of whose most important composer to write at and for El Esworks survive.Juande la Cruz (d his energies to the direction of the polyphony 1605). Alonso de Baeza. to have served this office suggests that he devoted For a brief time a third bajonista. 232 EARLY MUSIC MAY 1994 This content downloaded from 146.Since Pedrode HuesKeyboard keyboard resident some time during the third period are car actuallylearnt the baj6nat El Escorial.Diego de Toledo (d 1608) and Gines idiosyncratically conservative style of liturgical de Olmedo (d 16o8)-died during this period.94. The office was evidently an im.-' ) 1 The dates of this monk's short stay at El Escorialare not known.

Trend Fund.1598-1621 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 de Villanueva Martin de SanJer6nimo Crist6bal Juan Baptista Pedrode Tafalla 111 Villanueva.the reign of Philip III was characterized. like Baptista. What is certain. I wishto thank especially Cristina JuanCarlos Asensio. on the other. Bordas. is that music-making within the confines of the monastery precincts cannot be assumed to have replicatedthat of cathedralsand chapels royal.Table 12 Other instrumentalistsat El Escorial. Rogier and Guerrero. by the works of such composers of international reputation as Palestrina. Iain Louis TessKnighton.94. Simancas and theArchivo Historico in Toledo.theArchivo theArchivo General at Nacional. JoseSierra. P. theI.the William Fundand the Barclay Squire Spanish Ministry of Foreign Affairs for me to undertake grantswhichenabled research in Spainand the USA. Tothe for thispaperwascarried archivist of theRealBiblioteca of San Lorenzo delEscorial. Prado indebted. The third composer was Pedro de Tafalla. I am especially In SpainI alsoreceived help fromthe General Biblioteca Nacional. who was professed in 1605. LuisRobledo. how far it was conditioned by its unique status. DonJosede Turienzo. PaulinoCapdep6n.Of the whooffered manyindividuals support and criticism.The first to arrivewas Crist6balde San Jer6nimo. University. Verylittle is known about him.as well as many lesser-known Iberiancomposers. B.Morales. It is a pleasure to acknowledge theassistanceof thestaffs and of thelibraries archives in whichmuchof theresearch out. which he served until his death in 1653. Lolo. Until at least one other such institution has been studied. lived long into the reign of Philip IV (1621-65). Sdnchez.155. on the one hand. Provincial In the USAI was assisted at theHispanic Socigenerously in New York etyofAmerica Cityandby Lenore Coral andJimCassaro at Cornell I amgrateful to theAlfred S. PaulLaird. although it is assumed that the three organ works and four villancicos35 that survive (attributed to a Crist6bal de San Jer6nimo) are of his composition. MartinCer6n. it will not be possible to determine.33 on Wed.36 A little later Juan Baptista received the habit and entered the community.theArchivo delPalacio Historico Real. Jorge Antonio andAlfonso de Vicente. JoseL6pezBegoha Antonio Calo. WhiteBequest.if the evidence of the monastery'schoirbooks is to be considered.34 During Philip III'sreign three new composers receivedthe habit at El Escorial(see table 13).who. Fenlon. 11 Sep 2013 04:56:24 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .and. the precise extent to which El Escorial'smusical life conformed to a typically monastic pattern. Soler MUSIC MAY EARLY 1994 233 This content downloaded from 146. however.His Excellency Ntifez. he curious musical history of Spanish monasteries during the Golden Age is one that remains to be told. Herranz.1598-1621 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Andres de SanLorenzo carillon Franciscode Alcala vihueladel arco ( ( ? ?- de Huescar dulcian Pedro de Santorcaz dulcian Faustino Juande la Cruz (d 1605) dulcian Table 13 Composersat El Escorial. Teodoro Alonso andhisassistant. Jambou.

PP-32-40.43.ed. 208-17. my thanksgo to Paul and BeatriceBeckett. Colecci6nde documentosineditos para la historia de Espaiia. 4 The most comprehensive studythus far published is La mt'sica en el Monasterio del Escorial:actas del simposium (Madrid.ZarcoCuevas. 8 B.54-62. Noone.2-98.Patronato. Lolo.44. Real. 'Thepoliticsof austerity and musicalstylein PhilipII'sEscorLecMemorial ial'. 'Libro de memode SantLorencio riasdesteMonasterio el Real'.37. 1791.155. (1918). 1680). La Ciudad deDios. 1593). 290-304.ZarcoCuevas..el qualcomienga Lorencio desde la primera deldichoMonesFundagi6n de la RealBiblioteca del terio. ningtin delMonasDocumentos parala historia teriode SanLorenzo el RealdeElEscorial.69o.. (1919). 136. mtisica La Ciudad de Dios. fiesta. 2 R.102.36. = de limpieza Pruebas de sangre Archivo General del Palacio Madrid.14-28.Finally.122-36. PP-343-90. Historia brievedell'augustissima casa d'Austria (Bergamo.'Lacapilla de del Monasterio de ElEscorial'.Documentos para la historia delMonasterio de San Lorenzo el Realde ElEscorial.cxii (1918).cxi (1917). 253-62. and is bound in two volumeswithone systemof foliation.995. 11 Sep 2013 04:56:24 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . p. Stevenson. 3 The termwasfirstusedin Paolo Morigia. pp. vii (Madrid. 1845). cxxix(1922). 1.GordonAnderson of New England. Fr. 7 M.294-306.whose inspiredcreation of the Fundaci6n Valparaisoprovided an idyllic environmentfor the completion of this article. 104-24.33. ture(University Armidale.59-117.33 on Wed. andwasquickly takenup by J. ni en 5 'No hayaen ningunamanera. PP-35864. ni de canto dia. 5. HIIOS PROFFESOS TERIO DE S. Rubio. pp.38.686. Familiareligiosa de el r[ea]lmonasteriode S[an] Lor[en]zo distribuida por susclasses escrita de porFran[cis]co PaulaRodriguez . 6 'Enel capitulo 38.42. 300-15.816. 'Libro de memorias desteMonasterio de SantLorencio el Real'. Fr. Spanish cathedral music in the GoldenAge (Berkeley.101-12. cxiv cxv (1918). S. Legajo measures 370x 240 mm. 202-13. ii. of books3-4 of Historia 1963)[reprint de la Orden de SanJer6nimo.de Sigiienza.cxi This content downloaded from 146. 413-21. Seeespecially S. MS HC380/527.Thedistinguished Augustinian hasannounced scholarLuisHernandez his intentionto publisha documentary studyof musicandliturgyat El Escorial in the nearfuture. 105. 1. CXXX (1922).to whosepioneering Escorial scholars aredeeplyindebted.15-25.1991). 99.227-44. MSs. del o10J.178. The symposium was dedicated to the memoryof P. 175-84. pp.33-47. Nueva de AutoresEspafioles Biblioteca (Madrid. 40. 488-500. Rubio. 3. LAVRENCIO ArchivoGeneral del PalacioReal. ii.3389553. = LIBRO Y 9 Memorias sepulcrales MEMORIAL DE LOS RELIGIOSOS DE ESTE MONASEL REAL.94.ed.s. 7. p. Catdlogodel archivo de mutsica delMonasterio de San el RealdeElEscorial Lorenzo (Cuenca.'Aproximaci6n a la capilla de del Monasterio de ElEscormtisica en el Monasterio del ial'.Qvarta partede la historia de la orden de SanGer6nimo (Madrid.Jer6nimo de de San Sepilveda:monjee historiador el Real'. 1961). loo-11. 41. 1916). de los Santos. cxvii cxix (1919). 259-70.The Hispanic SocietyLibrary.23.vi. Ahode 1756. Samuel workall Rubio. Legajos 2. 'ElP. 4.Archivo Monasterio de ElEscorial. F. = Libro de losActos Actascapitulares deste de Sanct Monesterio Capitulares el Real. The manuscript Madrid. J. Lorenzo.346-56.illuminated by Fray Julian 234 EARLY MUSIC MAY 1994 ZarcoCuevas. choirbook de la Fuente del Saz 5 Plainsong no. pp. 1907-9)]. tosparala Historia delMonasterio de SanLorenzo el RealdeElEscorial.198-211. p. pp.39. cxvi (1919). OT Ix cOTinCilll tudo In licent a pp. 1.464-78. NSW.and S.35. 1976).Lamutsica Escorial: actasdelsimposium.Jer6nimo de la Ordende San Septlveda.1. se podniafiadir que se hagay se rece conformeal nuevobreviario y misal del papaPio Quinto'. clxiii (1951).46. 1 J. pp. 'Sucesosdel reinadode FelipeII de (Historiaineditadel P. New York. pp.de SanJer6nimo. J.127-37. p. See also J. 396-412. SanJer6nimo.cxxviii(1922).413-21.34.Antoniode VillaDocumencastin'. Fundaci6n Monasterio de ElEscorial (Madrid. PP.1. quetratadel oficio divinoy que no hayacantode 6rgano.LaCiudad Lorenzo de Dios. 'Memorias de Fr. 45. i (Madrid. 174-85.149. Documentospara la historia del Monasterio de San Lorenzoel Real de El Escorial.Alonso de Almelain Spainin his 'Descripci6n de la octavamaravilla del mundo'. 6rgano'.religioso en el monasterio de San Jeronimo Lorenzo el Real)'. Pp. 31. 1993).241.

San Jer6nimo. 2.2.155. MS caja 14. de Sepuilveda. 'Felipe II. see Noone. 2 vols. E. segun el P. p. 24 Memorias sepulcrales. and J. cxii (1918). f. MS 14084.pp.'Guglielmo Gonzaga and the Castrati'.199. 32 See Noone. de Sepuilveda. PP. 1930). 33 See Noone. 19 A concise biographical sketch of FrayMartin de Villanueva can be found in Noone. ii. 11 Sep 2013 04:56:24 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Sherr. Music and musicians. 2.127-53. Spanish cathedralmusic. inventories and transcriptions of the original tables of contents will be found in my forthcoming article in Revista de musicologia. p. Music and musicians. Noone. 11 J. PP-59-62.94. 28. app. 1990). (Madrid. pp. See Garcia Mercadal. 1857). 14 Librode las costumbres. Music and musicians. 'Catailen El Escorial'.c. and L. pp. Madrid.we know that he served the community for many years and taught the organ to some of the monks.f. Legajo 137. Casares. 2 vols.423. On the wider issue of Spanish castrati.. transcribed in Noone. no. 3. Noone. doc. 1876-7). 16 Brief biographies for the majority of the monks listed here and in subsequent tables are given in M.318.358-64. 1924).125r. Martin de Villanueva y el estilo desornamentado musical de El Escorial'..153.ff.It is not even known whether or not his presence was required because of his instrumental skill. seems to be based upon a misreading of this document. 13:Lista de las personas. doc. extranjeros p. Biblioteca Nacional. Cambridge U. Music and musicians. From the Actas capitulares of 1582.115. tocaron todos los 6rganos'. Music and musicians.2. pp. Renaissance quarterly.525r-v.PP-497-520o. Jose de Sigiienza'.3. The villancico repertory LorenzoEl Real del Escorial.33o. ogo de monjes mtisicos Revista de archivos. 26 See M. 2.1231. bibliotecasy museos.The Librode las costumbreswas drafted in 1567and suspended by the Jeronymite community in 16o8. doc. p.'Libro de memop. ed.7.f. doc. Documentos para la Historia del Monasterio de San Lorenzoel Real de El Escorial. Joan de cuenca por ser muy diestro y tener voz'. Memorias sepulcrales. Instruc[c]i6nde Eclesiasticos (Madrid. Catdlogo. Catdlogo. See also Francisco de los Santos. p. 18 Archivo de la Real Biblioteca del Monasterio de El Escorial.xxxiii (1980). Historia de Felipe II. 3.33-56. 31 No such position is mentioned in either the Librode las costumbresor the Quadernosde las costumbres.pp. See Noone.pp.pp. Actas capitulares. 1630).iv (Madrid.132.46-9. Al pan de los cielos is transcribed in P. 15 Librode las costumbres.384r.ff. 27 A Moroccan ambassador visiting Spain in 1690-91 reported seeing castratos in Madrid and at the Royal Palace. however.310. Cabrerade C6rdoba.See also Cabrerade C6rdoba.f. Music and musicians. 3. 2 vols. pp. de la Vera.22. app. Viajesde por Espaday Portugal.4.'Sucesos del reinado de Felipe II'. 3. 'Sucesos del reinado de Felipe II'.For a transcription. (PhD diss.693b-694. Music and musicians at the Escorial.Stevenson. see Noone. p.8o. 13 Archivo General del Palacio Real. 1986). Crist6bal de Aguila.427-85. rias deste Monasterio de Sant Lorencio el Real'.626-8. La Ciudad de Dios. let alone whether or not he joined in the liturgical musicmaking associated with the patronal festival. app.378.(1917). n. of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. states that 'it is even said that he was the [Escorial's] first maestrode capilla'.33 on Wed. 'La capilla de muisicadel Monasterio de El Escorial'. LosJer6nimosde San Lorenzoel Real de El Escorial(El Escorial.f.Rubio. 4. Relacionesde las cosassucedidas en la C6rte de Espaha. see R.378r. 2.Add. 23 The sound of the dulcians and cornets of the capilla real in El Escorial on the feast of St Lawrence (io August) 1586. 30 'En 4 de Julio [1608] fue Recibido al Habito fr. 29 See Actas capitulares. doc.pp. app. Sierra.195-6. J.34 and London. app.5.515v-516v. Qvartaparte de la historia de la orden de San Ger6nimo. J. 35 The Corpus Christi villancico.178r. doc. de LarreaPalacin. 12 FranciscoAsenjo Barbieri:Biografias y documentossobre maisica y maisicos espaholes (LegadoBarbieri).for example.59-62. desde 1599 hasta 1614(Madrid..344-5. La musica en el Monasterio del Escorial:actas del simposlum.650-51. 'Historia de varios sucesos y de las cosas notables que han acaecido en Espafiay otras naciones desde el afio de 1584hasta el de 1603'. 2. PP. at San Laird. app. doc. 3. For a transcription. is reported in Sepilveda. 36 See Rubio. 2. 1986). rey de Espaha. British Library. including physical descriptions. 22 See Memorias sepulcrales.vi (1983). Madrid.i715.7. L. 724. app. Music and musicians. Music and musicians. was not a Jeronymite. For a transcription of the entire census. 20 See Librode las costumbres. 17 Only one keyboard musician. p. A. Rubio. Zarco Cuevas. EarlyMusic Subscribenow! AUGUST 1994 Miscellaneous NOVEMBER 1994 Palestrina FEBRUARY1995 Flute MAY1995 III discoveries Iberian 236 EARLY MUSIC MAY 1994 This content downloaded from 146. (Madrid. p. 3. Such an interpretation. Revista de musicologia. lxxi (1963). Cabrera de C6rdoba. see Noone.163oc. no. ii. 1563to 1665 (PhD diss. Relacionesde las cosas sucedidas en la C6rtede Espaha. U. 'La mtisica en El Escorial. 28 See Memorias sepulcrales.756-7.419. P. 21 'Desputs entrando por la puerta de la iglesia. 34 A detailed study of the polyphonic manuscript choirbooks.99v. 25 M. pp.

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