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BIOLOCY

Every organism needs the transport of materials from where they are formed to body parts where they are needed. Some materials have to be distributed while waste products have to be collected and transported to site of elimination. This function requires circulation of fluid and circulation of body fluid is called circulatory system. The circulatory system is an organ system that passes nutrients, gases, hormones, blood cells, etc. to and from cells in the body to . help fight diseases, stabilize body temperature and pH and to maintain homeostasis. '

is present which iis pumped to tissues by a special contractile pumping organ called heart with the help of tubes called blood vessels. The blood vascular system and lymphatic system are together referred to as circulatory system.

Blood Vascular System


Blood vascular system is also called cardio vascular system which distributes blood and lymphatic system which retufns excess filtered blood plasma from the interstitial fluid as lymph. Blood vascular system consists of a (a) Circulatory fluid called Blood (b) A pumping organ heart (c) A system of tubes called blood vessels Types of blood vascular system: 1. Closed circulatory system: Humans inverteberates such a annelids, mollusks and other vertebrates have a closed' cardiovasulac system which means blood never leaves the network of arteries, veins and capillaries. Blood never come in contanct with tissue cells. Blood leaves the heart by a large blood vessel called Arteriole, which divides to form arteries. Each artery when enters into an organ divides to form smaller branches called arteriale which further forin a network of fine blood vessels capillaries. Capillaries have very thin walls and nutrients, gases, waste products and hfmones are exchanged between blood and surrounding tissue cells through the thin walls of capillaries. Capillaries unite to form larger vessels called venules which further join to form larger vessels called veins. The vein from one organ joins with other veins and in this way veins from all over body form two or three very large veins called venae cava which bring deoxygenated blood from all over the body into heart. ' v Open circulatory system: It is a system in which fluid called haemolymph in a cavity called hemocoel bathes the organ directly with oxygen and nutrients and there is no distinction between blood and interstitial fluid, this combined flOidis clalled Haemolymph. Haemolymph in direct contact with tissue cells. Haemolymph flows in open space like sinuses and lacunae so that is directly bathes the living cells. Thus there is a direct exchange of gases, nutrients, wapte products between the living cells of organs, tissues etc and haemolymph. Open circulatory system is present in most Arthopods, some molluscs, tunicates etc.

Fluid Circulation in animals


Animals have many types of fluid circulation 1. Intracellular circulation Small animals do not require any special irfeans to distribute nutrients and gases or to collect wastes because every cell in the body is near to a source of food. In unicellular organsims such as parametium and amoeba cytoplasm show regular streaming movement called cyclosis which distributes nutrients and gases and collects waste. 2. Extracellular circulation (a) Water circulation: Some lower animals such as sponges and Hydra circulate the surrounding water through their body with the help of flagella because circulatory fluid is absent. (b) Body fliiid circulation: Higher animals have high metabolic rate. Thus they have evolved a circulation of body fluid which can supply food and oxygen to the tissues and can collect carbon dioxide and wastes from tissues quickly. Body fluid circulation is of four main types: 1. Parenchymal circulation: It is present in platyhelimithes such as Fasciola (liver fluke). In this animals coelom is absent and the space between internal ograns Of body and body wall consist of special tissue of irregular cells called parenchyma. It .encloses a network of fluid filled spaces. Contraction of body cause irregular movement of this fluid to distribute the food material. 2. Coelomic circulation: It: is present in Aschelminthes e.g. Ascaris where true coelm is absent. A fasle coelom called pseudocoelom is present which is filled with a fluid called PseudocoelmiC fluid. This fluid helps in transport of material. 3. Lymphatic system: It occurs in all vertebrates. It ( consists of lymph which is colourless fluid, special lymphatic capillaries, vessels and lymph nodes. 4. Blood vascular system: It is present in higher invertebrates and chordates. A circulatory fluid called blood

FOUNDATION OUKSE-XI
External Structure of heart Human heart has four chambers two auricles and two ventricles which are separated from each other by three grooves or sulci. < (a) Coronary sulcus or atrioventricular groove: It lies between the atrial and ventricular regions. (b) Interatrial groove: It divides the atrial region into two parts right atrium right and left atrium. (c) Interventricular groove: It divides the ventricle into two parts right and left ventricle. The point where interatrial, atrioventricular and posterior interventricular and posterior interventricular groove unites is called crux of heart. External grooves correspond to internal septa e.g. interatrial septum between right and left atrium, interventricular septum between right and left ventricle and atrioventricular septum between atria and ventricicles. Auricles form a small upper part of heart and ventricles form a large lower part of heart;
INNOMINATE SUPERIOR VENA C/A RIGHT PULMONARY ARTERY RIGHT PULMONARY, VEINS L E T COMMON CAROTID SUBCLAVIAN AORTIC ARCH UGAMENTUM ARTERIOSUM LEFT PULMONARY ARTERY LEFT PULMONARY VEINS EFT AURICLE iONARY LCUS LEFT VENTRICLE INTER-VENTRICULAR GROOVE

Advantages of closed circulatory system Closed circulatory system is more efficient than open circulatory system due to following reasons: 1. Blood flows quickly in dosed circulatory system as compared to open circulatory system. Thus it transports the material quickly and more efficiently. 2. Closed circulatory system generates more blood pressure to maintain far more rapid flow of blood. Thus all the parts of body receive blood with equal efficiency. 3. Closed circulatory system has arterial musculature and precapillary sphincter tht regulates the amount and speed of blood passing into an organ according to requirement of that organ. In open circulatory system blood flows in open spaces called sinuses so such type of regulation is not possible. 4. Veins in closed circulatory system act as reservoir of blood alongwith forming Channels of backflow to heart.. 5., Respiratory pigment is present. It may be present in plasma as in earthworm or in RBCs as in most vertebrates. Human circulatory system ' Blood vascular system or circulatory system of man consist of a heart, a circulatory Fluid'blood and a network of blood vessels. 1 . Human Heart: Human heart is a hollow, conical musculaf organ located in the middle of thoracic cavity between the two lungs. It is reddish brown in colour and its weight is 300g in adult male and 250g in adut female. It has broad base which faces upward and backward and narrow * apexwhich is directed downward, forward and slightly, to the left and it rests on the diaphragm, obliquely between 5th and 6th ribs. Protective covering of heart , The heart is covered by a fibroserous sac called pericardium. It has two layers, outer layer is formed of tough connective tissue caHed pericardium. It prevents excessive expansion of the heart. Inner layer is called serous pericardium which further consist of two membranes, external parietal pericardium and internal vseral pericardium. The parietal layer is in contact with outer fibrous layer and visceral layer adheres to heart and form its outer covering called Epicardium. A space called pericardial cavity is present in between parietal and visceral layer which is filled with a watery fluid called pericardial fluid. This fluid plays a very important role and serves following functions. 1. It keeps the heart moist. 2. It allows the frictionless movement of heart when the heart beats. 3. It acts as a protective device against mechanical shock . ' 4. It also checks the overstreching or overfilling with blood. ,

RIGHT AURICLE.

RIGHT VENTRICLE INFERIOR VENA CAVA

Internal Structure
Auricles: Aurifles receive blood from different parts of body. They have thin walls because they force blood into ventricles which lies just below the auricles. The inner surface of auricles is smooth but it has a number of parallel muscular ridges called musculi pectinati in the region of uricular appendages. The two auricles are separated from each other by interauricular septum. This septum bears a small oval thin area called fossa ovalis. It represents the area where an opening Called foramen ovale occurs between two auricles in foetus. * Right auricle receives three large veins and a number of Small veins. They are superior vena cava which bring deoxygenated blood from head, neck and upper part of body. ' Inferior vena cava which brings deoxygenated blood from middle and lower part Of body and coronary sinus which brings deoxygenated blood from walls of heart. Left auricle receives four pulmonary veins which bring oxygenated blood from the lungs. . Ventricles: Ventricles form a large lower part of the

BLOOD CIRCULATION
heart, they act as distributing chambers and supply blood to different parts of body. Ventricles have thicker walls than the auricles and the wall of left ventricles is three times thicker than the wall of right ventricles. This is because the left ventricle has to pump blood to farthest end of body while right ventricle sends blood to lungs which are present nearby. A muscular band called moderator band connects the interventricular septum with the parietal wall of ventricle. The inner surface of ventricle possesses a number of irregular muscular ridges called trabeculae carneae or columnae carnease. A few large, conical mascular elevations called papillary muscles are inserted at one end over the ventricle wall. They are continued at the other end with collagenous cords called chordae tendinae. Great blood Vessels The blood vessels ntering or leaving the heart are called great blood vessels. They include superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, coronary sinus, pulmonary veins, systemic aorta and pulmonary aorta. , 1. Superior Vena cava: Right auricle receives deoxygenated blood from all over the body through three blood vessels. Superior vena cava brings deoxygenated blood from head, neck and upper part of body. 2. Inferior vena cava: The inferior vena cava brings deoxygenated blood from middle and lower parts of body. The opening of inferior vena cava is guarded by a memberanons flap like valve called Eustachian valve. III. Coronary simuit opens in the middle part of right atrium. It brings deoxygenated blood from walls of the heart. Its opening has a fold called valve of thebsius. IV. Right Auriculo-Ventricular Aprture: Th right auricle opens into right ventricle by a wide apperture called right A-V aperture. It is is largest valvular orifice and triangular in outline. This orifice is guarded by a one way valve called tricuspeid valve. ! This valve consist of three membranous flaps of different sizes. They are attached to margin of right A-V aperture above and has free ends which projects into ventricles. These free lower ends are fixed to papillary muscles of right, ventricle by a number of tough white cords called chordae tendineae. Chordae tendineae check the pushing of flaps into auricles during contraction of ventricle. V. Pulmonary Arch: The upper left comer of right ventricle gives off a large blood vessel called pulmonary aorta which divides into right and left pulmonary arteries that carries deoxygenated blood from right ventricle to lungs for oxygenation. The opening is guarded by pulmonary valve made up of ring of three semilunar cusps or flaps. This valv enables the blood to flow from right ventricle into pulmonary aorta but not in reverse direction.
IFF CAROTID ARTERY LEFT SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY BRACHIOCEPHALL ARTERY UOAMENTUM ASCENDING ARTERK30UM AORTA AORTIC ARCH DESOENOMO AORTA PULMONARY ARCH LEFT PULMONARY ARTERY LEFT PULMONARY VEINS . OPENINGS OF PULMONARY VEINS LEFT AURICLE AORTIC SEMILUNAR VALVES FLAPS OF BICUSPID VALVE HOROAE TENDINEAE RIGHT AURICLE FLAPS O P TRICUSPID VALVE CHDROAE TEMOMEAE LARY MUSCLE COLUMNAE CARNEAE LEFT VENTRICLE INTER VENTRICULAR SEPTUM / ' COTUMN.^ CARNEAE PAPILLARY USCLE

S U P E R I O R V E N AC A V A

V E N A C * M A
RIGHT VENTRICLE

INFERIOR .

VI. Pulmonary veins: Pulmonary veins bring oxygenated blood from lungs and pour into left auricle. The opening of these veins is not guarded by any valve. VII. Left Auriculo-VentHcular aperture: Left auricle opens into left ventricle by a wide passage called left AVaperture. This passage is guarded by bicuspid or mitral valve. This valve has two flaps or leaflets. The bases of the flaps are attached to rim of left AV-aperture and their lower free ends project into left ventricle. They are connected to papillary muscles by means of inelastic cords called chordae tendineae. ' VIII. Systemic rota: Left ventricle from its right edge gives off a large blood vessel called systemic aorta. This opening is guarded by three membranous pocket shape semilunar valves which check the return of blood to ventricle. Systemic arota has three regiqns.

FOUNDATION OUKSE-XI
A. Ascending Aorta: It gives off right and left cornary arteris which supply blood to wall of heart B. Aorta Arch: It also gives off 3 large arteries 1. Brachiocephalic 2. Left common casotid 3- Left subclavian arteries C. Descending Aorta: It extends through the trunk and supplies oxygenated blood to vario.us parts except lungs. IX. Ugamentum Areteriosum: It connects the pulmonary aorta with systemic aorta. It represents the remains of embryonic connection called ductus arterosus between the two. Mechanism of working of heart (cardic cycle) Different chambers of heart undergoes alternate contraction and expansion to pump the blood to all parts of Body. The contraction of heart called systole decreases its volume and forces the blood out of it. On the other hand relaxation of heart called diastole brings the heart back to its original size to receive more blood. These events occur from the beginning of one heart beat to the beginning of next heart beat are collectively called cardiac cycle. Cardiac cycle includes. (a) Contraction of auricle called Auricular systole (b) Contraction of ventricles called ventricular systole (c) Relaxation of both auricles and ventricles called joing diastole This regular sequence of three events during one he^rt beat is called cardiac cycle. It takes about 0.8 seCond. Its three events auricular systole, ventricular systole and joint diastole take 0.1 sec. 0.3 sec, 0.4 sec respectivley. Thus heart rate increases during exercise, fever and emotions such as anger and fear, etc. Cardiac output: The volume of blood pumped by left ventricle in one minute is called caridac or heart output. Heart of normal person pumps out about 70 ml of blood during each contraction. Therefore 72 * 70 equals 5040 ml blood is pumped out by heart every minute. It is almost equal to total amount of blood present in human body. Phase of cardiac cycle Phase I Auricular Systole: Both the Auricles get filled with blood i.e., right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from all over the body by superior vena cava, inferior vena cava and coronary sinus. The left atrium receives oxygenated blood from pulmonary veins. When the auricles filled with blood they contract simultaneously and push their blood to their respective ventricles through A-V Apertures. It takes about 0.1 sec. The blood does not pass back into great veins because A. Sphineter present over the roots of veins closes the veins B. Veins are always full of blood and blood in veins offers resistance back flow from atria The wave of contraction begins at their upper ends and passes towards the ventricles. At the end of auricular systole, auricles staift relaxing, i.e., auriculardiaStoleand ventricles starts their contraction, i.e., vertfricular systole.
VenWelr Diisbole &5 Sec

RTRIIL

Diastblt
0-7 U C

Duration of different phases in cardiac cycle. Phase-H Ventricular systole: As the ventricles are getting filled up they undergo simultaneous contraction or systole. As their contraction begins the pressure of blood in ventricles rises immediately and with this pressure the flaps of AV apertures. This tight closure of AV valves at the start of ventricular contraction produces the heart sould "lub". When the blood- is blocked on all sides the pressure in ventricles exceed that in great arteries, semilunarvalves are pressed, aperture they guard open and blood from right ventricle goes into pulmonary aorta and left ventricle pushes blood into systemic aorta. It takes about 0.3 sec. Ventricular Diastole: After the systole ventricles start relaxing and pressure falls in ventricle. Thus flow of blood from ventricles stops and semilunar valyes close to check the back flow of blood from great arteries to the ventricles. The Closure Of semilunar Valves at the start of ventricular diastole produces the second heart sound "dup". The period between ventricular diastole and Ventricular systole lasts for about 0.3 sec.

Phase-Ill Joint Diastole

'

This phase lasts for about 0.4 sec during which both auricles and yentricles relaxes. As there is no contraction anywhere, this phase is also called general pause. Blood floWs not by contraction of any part of heart but it flows because pressure in heart is less than that in the great veins and the'AV valves are Open. Heart Beat: The spontaneous and, rhythmic contraction and relaxation of heart to pump out and receive blood, to and from, the body is called heart beat. Types of Heart BeatHeart Beat is of two types Neurogenic Beat: It is shown by the hearts of arthropods and some annelids. The heart of these animals is regulated through the central nervous system in response to external sensory stimuli. It is initiated by nerve impulse starts from a ganglion present' on the heart. Such type of heart when removes from body it stops beating. , Myogenic Heart Beat: It is present in Mollusks and all vertebrates. Its initiation does not require any external Stimulus. It is initiated by a patch of heart mus cles and heart

BLOOD CIRCULATION
continus to beat when removed from ,bpdy. Myogenic heart generates its own electrochemical impulse through the activity of certain muscles called myogenic muscles. The tracts of these muscles are collectively called Nodal Tissue. My ogenic heart generates it own-electrochemical impulse through the activity of certain muscles called myogenic muscles. The tracts on these muscles are collectively called Noda Tissue. Morphology Nodal Tissue Myogenic heart has a pace maker syistem. There is a pacemaker of specialised cardiac muscles , situated in the wall of right auricles. It is located in the wall of right auricle slightly below the opening of superior vena cava. SA node is the site of generation of rhythmic impulse slightly below the opening of superior vena cava.
SINUAURICULAR NODE RIGHT ATRIUM LEFT ATRIUM ANNULAR PAO ATRIOVENTRICULA1 VALVE BUNDLE OF HIS ATRIOVENTRICULAR NODE

PURKINJE NETWORK RIGHT VENTRICLE

INTERVENTRICULAR SEPTUM LEFT Vf NTRICLE

2. AV-node: It lies in the walll between the right auricle and right ventricle. It is a compact half oval mass of myogenic fibres. It receives impulse from SA node and transmit it to ventricles. Direct transmission of impulse from SA node to ventricles is not possible due to absence of continuity of muscles present between atria and ventricles and the presence of fibrous connective tissue of atrioventricular septum. Transmission from SA node stimulates AV node to generate frsh impulse for ventricles. Therefore AV node is also called pacesietter. 1. AV-Bundle: It is a bundle of conducting muscles which develops from AV node and traverses through the atrioventricular septum into interventricular septum. It is also called bundl of His. It divides into right and left bundle branches. Each branch produces a number of small branches which continues as mayocardial fibres. 4. Purkinje fibres: They are special muscle fibres which arise from AV bundle and bundles of His and distributed to t entire musculature of the ventricles. Working of Purkinje system or Nodal Tissue SA node acts as pacemaker of the heart because of unique property of self excitation. It initiates a wave of contraction which spreads over both the auricles. The musculature of auricles and ventricles are separated bya septum of fibrous connectiv tissue called annular pad, thus contraction of auricles cannot be passed over the ventricles but. it

stimulates AV no^e which generates a fresh wave of contraction that passes over both ventricles along bundle of His and purkinje fibres. Extrinsic regulation of cardiac cycle Cardiac cycle is controlled by nervous system as well as by Hormones secreted by Endocrine system Nervous regulation-Cardiac impulse is regulated by a centre in medulla oblongota through autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic nervous system stimulates the SA node and accelerates heart beat whereas parasympathetic system inhibits the SA-node and decreases heart beat. Similarly impulses received from stretch receptors present in wall of arortic arch and carotid sinuses decreases the heart rate while impulses from vena, cava increases the heart rate. Hormoal regulation: Hormone epinephrine or adrenaline stimulate the nodal activity during emergency while hormone norepinephrine or nor adrenaline is essential for its normal working. Herat Sound 1. Lub-It is a first heart sound(sl) or Systolic sound. It is produced by tight closure of tricuspid and bicuspid valve at the start of vntricular contraction. This sound is loud and low pitched having a frequency of 25-45 cycles/ sec. It lasts for 0.15 sec. 2. .Dup-It is a second heart sound (s2) or diastolic sound. It is producd by closure of Semilumar valves at the start of ventricular relaxation. It is sharper and has high pitch of frequency 50 cycles/sec. It lasts for 0.1 sec. Defective sound (Murmur): Any defect in valves due to some diseases like syphilis, rheumatic fever produces an abnormal sound called murmur. Diastolic murmur is usually. due to defect in semilunar valves whereas systolic

FOUNDATION OUKSE-XI
murmur is caused by defect in bicuspid or tricuspid^valve. Single and Double circulation: Heart of fish is called venous heart because it receives only deoxygenated blood. Heart has only two chambers one auricle arid one ventricle. The heart pumps deoxygenated blood to gills for oxygenation. " Oxygenated blood from gills, then passes into rest of body. Thus fishes have single circulation of blood because blood passes thtough heart only once while completing the full circle in the body. Double circulation: Other vertebrates have arteriovenous heart because both oxygenated and deoxygenated blood passes through it. There is double circulation of blood as blood passes twice through the heart while completing one circle in the body. Amphibians and reptiles have, incompletley four chambeted heart. So some mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood occurs in the heart. So there is incomplete double circulation. In Birds and mammals there is complete separation of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood becauSe heart is completely four chambered. So there is complete double circulation. Double circulation has advantage over single circula-tion because in double circulation blood has fast flow and high pressure. It provides higher metabolic rate. M double circulation deoxygenated blood goes to lungs for oxygenation and oxygenated blood comes back to heart for pumping into rest of the body. Thes two types of circulation are called pulmonary and systemic circulation respectively. 1. Pulmonary circulation: The circulation of blood between heart and lungs is called pulmonary circulation. The main function of pulmonary circulation is to Carry deoxygenated blood to lungs for oxygenation and return the oxygenated blod to heart. Deoxygenated blood from all parts of body except lungs comes into right auricle via superior and inferior vena cava and coronary sinus. Right ventricle receives blood from right auricle and then blood fromrightventricle passes into pulmonary aorta. Pulmoanry aorta divides into two pulmoanry arteriesfloatcarries blood to lungs. Lungs oxygenated the blood and then oxygenated blood is carried by four pulmonary veins into lft auricle. Pulmoanry veins are the only veins in the body which carry oxygenated blood while all other veins carry deoxygenated blood. Route of blood in Pulmonary Circulation
Deoxygenated blood from Body > Right > Right - > Pulmonary Auricle Ventricle Aorta Left < Atrium . > Pulmonary - .Arteries

2. Systemic Circulation: The circulation of blood between heart and all body parts except lungs is called systemic circualtion. It provides oxygen to all parts of body, brings carbon dioxide from them. It also supplies nutrients to every part of body and picks up wastes for taking them to kindeys for elimination. Pulmonary vins carry oxygenated blood from lungs into left auricle which then goes into left ventricle. During ventricular systole it is pumped into systemic aorta which supplies oxygenated blobd to all parts of body. Blood loses it oxygen in tissues and becomes deoxygenated which fe collected by veins and then veins pour deoxygenated blood into right auricle.
Deoxygenated Oxygenated
Blood

Right Ventricle
A

8tood

> Lungs

> Left Auricle

Pulmonary Pulmonary Aorta * Veins J U L M O N ARV 5 H J L ATCON_

"SYSTEMIC CIRiLFoN

~~

Route of blood in systemic Circulation


Oxygenated blood from Lungs > Left Auricle

Pulmonary <- Lungs veins -Systemic Arteries

^ Left : Systemic Ventricle Aorta

Right < Auricle

Inferior arid < Superior Vena Gava

' ' Systemic Vein

Diagram . f Blood vessels: Blood vessels are muscular elastic tubes which carry blood in animals. Blood vessels are of three types: arteries, veins and capillaries. The study of blood vessels is called angiology. ^ . 1. Arteries; Arteries are the blood vessels which carry blood from heart to the various parts of the body. All arteries except pulmonary artery carries oxygenated blood. Arteries transport blood under high pressure thufe they have strong mascular wfells. The movement of blood is jerky with alternate high and low pressure which corresponds to systolic and diastolic movements of heart. Arteries are generally deep seated and become empty after death. Internal valves are not present. Wall of artery is thick and Hunen is narrow. Wall is differentiated into 3 layers. Tunica Externa: It is also called Tunica adventitia. It is made up of fibrous connnective tissue having fibroblasts, macrophages, mast cells and longitudinaUyarranged white and yellow fibres. This coat provide strength and prevents undue expansion of blod vessels.Tunica Media: It is middle thick coat. It is made up of smooth muscel fibres which are arranged in circular manner and are mixed with elastic fibres and collagen fibres. Tunica Interna: It is also called Tunica Intima. Is is the innermost layer made up of Endothelium of long thin cells which rests on basement membrane, subendothelial layer and elastic lamina made up of yellow elastic tissue. Q. Veins-Veins are the blood vessels which carries deoxygenated blood from an organ towards heart. All veins except pulgionary veins carries Deoxygenated blood. Veins are genearlly superfical and retain blood even after death. Flow of blood is slow but smooth. Blood flows under

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low pressure. Veins have internal valves which maintains unidirectional flow of blood. Veins usually have thin walls and wide lumen. The wall is made of up of Same three coats as present in wall of arteries he., Tunica Externa Tunica Media Tunica Interna
ENDOTHELIUM

TUNICA EXTERNA V (CONNECTIVE A J TISSUE)

basement memberane. At some places large cells cover the capillaries called pericytes. Pericytes provide mechanical support. Capillaries are specialised for exchange of materials between blood and tissue fluid. However all the capil' laries of an organ are not functional all the time. Precapillary sphincters occurs to regulate flow of blood in them. In some areas capillaries are absent and arterioles are directly connected with venules e.g in finger tip, lips, eye lid, tongue, Ear pinna, nose etc. These function as short arterovenous ansatomosis. They function as Short circuit routes between arterioles and venules to directly supply blood in amount required by an organ Diagram-T.s of blood capillary.
Basement Memberane.

. TUNICA MEDIA N&S? (CIRCULAR MUSCLE FIBRES AND ELASTIC TISSUE) T S. ARTERY T S . VEIN

Vesicle
Intercelluar Cleft Endothelial Cell

3. Capillaries: Capillaries are very narrow with a diameter of 5-8 um. Arteries and veins are joined together by capillaries in the tissues. The wall of the capillary is very thin made up of single layer endothelial cells which rests on

1. The cardiac impulse is initiated and conducted further upto ventricle. The correct sequence of conduction of ' impulse is (A) SA Node- AV Node- Purkinje fibre- AV Bundle (B) SA Node- Purkinje fibre- AV Node- AV Bundle (C) SA Node- AV Node- AV Bundle- Purkinje fibre (D) SA Node- Puriqnje fibre- AV Bundle-AV Node 2. The second heart sound dup is associated with th closure of (A) Tricuspid Valve . (B) Bicuspid Valve (C) Semilunar Valve (D) Both Bicuspid and Tricuspid Valve 3. What would be the cardiac output of a person having 72 heart beats per minute and a stroke volume Of 50ml? (A) 360ml (B) 3600ml (C) 7200ml (D) 5000ml 4. All veins have deoxygenated hjood except (A) Portal vein . (B) Hepatic vein " (C) Pituitary vein (D) Pulmonary vein 5. Vasoconstriction causes (A) Increase in heart beat / (B) Decrease in heart bat (C) Increase in blood pressure (D) Decrease blood pressure

FOUNDATION OUKSE-XI
6. Valves which allow one way passage of blood from ventricles apd arteries are (A) Aortic valve and Mitral valve (B) Semilunar valve and Tricuspid valve (C) AV valve and Semilunar valve (D) Bicuspid and Tricuspid valve 7. SA Node helps in (A) Initiation of heart beat ' (B) Conduction of blood (C) Opening of Bicuspid Valve (D) Opening of Tricuspid valve 8. Human Heart is covered by double walled sac named as (A) Peritoneum (B) Pericardium (C) Plural sac (D) Glisson's capsule 9. Blood vessels containing least C0 2 is (A) Pulmonary artery (B) 'Pulmonary vein (C) Vena cava (D) Hepatic vein 10. Bundle of His passes stimulus of contraction to / (A) AV Node (B) SA Node (C) Atria " (D) Purkinje fibre 11. Normal pulse pressure is (A) 80mm Hg (B) 120mm hg (C) 40mg Hg " (D) 320mm Hg 12. Which one of the following cell lack nucleus? (A) RBC (B) Monocyte (C) Neutrophils (D) Eosinophils 13. The thickest layer of arterial wall in the large arteries is (A) Tunica adventitia . (B) Tunica media (B) Tunica intima (D) Non of these 14. The abnormal increase in heart bgat is called (A) Heart block (B) Bradycardia (C) Tachycardia (D) Angina pectoris 15. The blood of cockroach contains no respiratory pigment. It means that () Cockroach does not respire (B) Respiration is aerobic (C) -0 2 goes directly into tissues by diffusion (D) 0 2 goes into tissus by intracellular capillary. 16. Which of the following is true about tissue fluid? (A) It acts as/a middle man between blood and cell (B) It regulates the exchange of materials (C) It is referred as lymph, when enters in lymph vessels (D) All of these 17. Haemocoel is found in (A) Hydra and urelia (B) Taenia and Ascaris (C) Periplanets and Piia (D) BalanogloSsus and Herdmania 18. Systematic Heart refers to (A) The heart that contracts under stimulation from nervous system (B) Left auricle and left ventricle in higher vertebrates (C) Entire heart in higher vertebrates , (D) The two ventricles together in humans 19. Heart of Heart is (A) SA Node (B) AV Node (C) Bundle of His (D) All of these. 20. The heart beat increases at the time of interview due to (A) Secretion of adrenaline (B) ADH secretion (C) Hyper secretion of renin (D) Corticotrophic hormone 21. Which of the following will result in Haemolysis in foetus? (A) AB Incompatibility (B) Rh Incompatibility (C) BO Compatibility (D) AO Compatibility 22. Chordae Tendinae are found in (A) Ventricles of brain (B) Ventricles of heart (C) Joints of legs (D) Atria of heart 23. Vagus nerve slows down heart beat due to secretion of (A) Dopamine (B) Adrenaline (C) Acetylcholine (D) Norepinephrine 24. Eustachius valve is vestige of (A) Sinus venosus (B) SA Valve (C) Semilunar Valve (D) Spiral Valve 25. A yellow substance oozing from a wound is (A) Lymph + RBC + Dead pathogens (B) Lymph + WBC + Dead pathogens (C), Lymph + RBC + WBC (D) Lymph + Dead leucocytes 26. Heart pumps blood more forcefully in older persons than younger ones due to (A) Increase in elasticity of akeries (B) Decrease in elasticity of arteries (C) Decrease in oxygen content of blood (D) Fall in nutrient content of blood 27. Tooth extraction in a haemophilic person may cause death due to excessive bleeding because of (A) Absence of plasma factor required to convert prothrombin into thrombin (B) Absence of plasma factor required (C) Presence of plasma factor that causes haemorrhage (D) Presence of plasma factor that prevents blood clotting 28. Number of RBC in man increases on living at high altitude, because (A) More heat is needed to warm the body (B) There is less oxygen (C) There is more oxygen (D) There is no germs in the air . 29. If all the blood cells from blood are eliminated, the liquid left is (A) Only RBC and Haemoglobin (B) Only water (C) Serum. (D) Plasma 30. A chemical that prevents the blood clotting is most useful in the treatment of . (A) Haemophilia (B) Leukimia (C) Coronary thrombosis (D) Anaemia 31. Which of these layers in the wall of blood vessels contain smooth muscle? (A) Tunica adventitia V(B) Tunica intima (C) Tunica media (D) Both B & C

BLOOD CIRCULATION
32. Which of these vessel is least affected by Vasoconstriction and Vasodilation? (A) Arterioles (B) Elastic arteries (C) Muscular artris (D) Small arteries 33. Veins greater than 2mm in diameter have (A) No tunica adventitia (B) Thicker walls than arteries (C) Valves (D) No smooth muscles in their walls ^ 34. Which of these vessels does not carry blood that goes into the hepatic portal vein? (A) Inferior mesenteric vein (B) Splenic vein (C) Superior mesenteric vein (D) Hepatic vein 35. Which of these veins is a deep vein? (A) Basilic vein (B) Branchial vein (C) Cephalic vein (D) Great saphenous vein 36. During ventricular diastole, pressure in the ventricles falls to mmHg, while the pressure within the large arteries about mmHg (A) 120, 80 (B) 80, 120 (C) 80, 0 (D) 0, 80 37. As blood flows through a capillary causes fluid to leave the capillary, whereas causes fluid to enter the capillary. (A) Blood pressure, osmoisis ' (B) Osmoisis, blood pressure (C) Blood pressure, lymphatic pressure ' (D) Vasoconstriction, vasodilation 38. Which of these causes precapillary sphincters to relax? (A) Increase in carbon dioxide in tissues (B) Decrease in pH in tissue (C) Decrease in oxygen and glucose m tissues (D) All of these . 39 . mechanisms are most important for regulating . mean arterial pressure on a short term basis mechanisms are most important for regulating mean arterial pressure on a long term basis (A) Baro receptor, Chemereceptor (B) Chemorecptor, Baroceptor , (C) Hormonal, Barorefceptor (D) Baroreceptor, hormonal ' 4Q. The tissue layer common to all blood vessel is the (A) Circular smooth muscle (B) Endothelium (C) Longitudinal straited muscle (D) Connective tissues 41. The heart beat begins with depolarisation of the (A) AV Node (B) Bundle of His (C) SA Node (D) Purkinje fibre 42. Water that diffuses out the blood plasma is returned to cardiovascular system by the (A) Hepatic vein (B) Aorta (C) Lymphatic system (D) Megakaryocytes 43. In which type' of heart is there mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood? (A) Fish. CB) Frog (C) Crocodile (D) U of these 44. The liquid part of blood after fibrinogen is removed is (A) Plasma (B) Lymph (C) Serum (D) Pus 45. In which of the following statements about circulatory system is true? (A) Hormones are transported in blood ' (B) All invertebrates have an open circulatory system (C) Capillaries have thicker walls than veins (D) The systematic circulation carries blood to form the lungs 46. The lymphatic system (A) is an open circulatory system (B) contains one way valves (C) returns fluid to blood stream (D) All of these. 47. Which of the following is a type of leukocytes? (A) Macrophage (B) Eosinophil (C) Monocyte (D) All of these. 48., Which of the following is a type of blood celli in healthy human? (A) Erythrocytes (B) Monocytes (C) Lymphocytes (D) Eosinophils 49. During heavy exercise which of following should happen? (A). Decreased stroke volume (B) Decrease heart rate (C) Vasodilation of blood vessels in skin (D) All of these. 50. Fluid is driven through the lymphatic system by (A) contraction of the walls of lymphatic vessels (B) pressure created by pumping of the heart (C) contraction of lymph nodes (D) squeezing of lymphatic vessels by body's muscles 51. Plasma is made Up of water and (A) Metabolites and wastes (B) Salts and ions (C) Proteins (D) All of these. 52. Which one of the following represents the correct path of blood circulation? (A) Left atrium, left ventricle, lungs, right atrium, right ventricle, body ' (B) Right atrium, right ventricle, lungs, left atrium, left ventricle, body (C) Left atrium, left ventricle, right atrium, right ventricle, lungs, body (D) Right atrium, lungs, right ventricle, left atrium, body, left ventricle 53. The central regulation of cardiac output primarily involves the activities of the (A) Somatic nervous system (B) Autonomic nervous system (C) Central nervous system (D) All of these. . 54. The most important determinant of peripheral resistance is

FOUNDATION OUKSE-XI
(A) Friction between the blood and vessel walls ' (B) A combination of nural and hormonal mechanism (C) Difference in length of blood vessels Pi- Diameter of arterioles 55. The two major factors affecting blood flow rates are (A) Neural and hormonal mechanism (B) Diameter and length of blood vessels (C) Pressure and resistance (D) All of these. 56. Of the following.blood vessels the greatest resistance to blood flow occurs in (A) Veins (B) Capillaries (C) Arterioles (D) Venules 57. Stimulation of Vasomotor centre in medulla causes and inhibition of (A) Increasing diameter of arterioles, decreasing diameter of arterioles (B) Vasodilation, vasoconstriction (C) Hyperemia and ischemia (D) Vasoconstriction, vasodilation 58. The only area of the body where the blood supply is unaffected while exercising at maximum level is the (A) pulmonary circulation (B) Brain , . (C) Perepheral circulation (D) Hepatic portal circulation 5^. When Small amount of blood is lost, blood pressure is restored by (A) Increased RBC production (B) Intestinal reabsorption of fluids (C) Vasoconstriction (D) All the these. " ' . 0. At birth, the folamen ovule closes due to (A) Increased pressure in left auricle ((B) Increased pressure in right auricle (C) Expansion of lungs (D) None of these.

ANSWERS
l.(C) 11(C) 21.(B) 31.(C) 41.(C) 51.(D) 2.(C); 12.(A) 22.(B) 3Z(B) 4l(C) 5Z(B) . , 3.(B) 13.(B) 23.(C) 33.(C) 43.(B) 53.(B) 4(D) 14(C) 24(B) 34(D) 44(C) 54(A) 5.(C) 15.(C) 25,(A) 35.(B) 45.(A) 55.(B) 6.(C) 16.(D) 26.(B) 36.(D) 46.(D) 56.(C) 7.(A) 17.(C) , 27.(A) 37.(A) 474D) 57.(D) 8.(B) 1&(B) 28.(13) 38.(D) 484A) 58.(B) 9.(B) 19.(A) 29.(D) 39.(D) 49(C) 59.(C) ia(D) 20.(A) 30.(C) 40.(B> 50.(D) ea(C)

EXPLANTORY NOTES
Q.I.,SA Node acts as a pacemaker of heart which initiates a wave of contraction. It stimulates the AV Node which initiates a wave of contraction which passes through AV Bundle and Purkinje fibres to all the musculature of ventricles. Q.2. During the start of ventricular relaxation semilunar valves close which produces a second heart sound dup. Q.3. Heart beats 72 times per minute and if stroke volume is 50ml. It means it pumps out 50ml of blood during each beat. Thus 72 * 50= 3600. Q.4..Pulmonary vein Carries oxygenated blood from lungs to left auricle. Q.5.' Vasoconstriction decreases the volume of blood vessels and thus blood pressure increases. Q.6. Heart has Auriculo Ventricular Valve ( AV Valve) between auricles and ventricles. They are of two types ' Tricuspid valve between right auricle and ventricle and Bicuspid valves between left auricle and ventricle .Semilunar valves are present at the base of great arteries which prevents backward flow of blood. Q.7. SA Node is called pacemaker of heart which initiates a wave of contraction. 0 , 8 . ' Heart is enclosed in . double sac called pericardium. Q.9. Pulmonary vein, carries oxygenated blood from lungs. Q.ll. The difference between systolic pressure and diastolic pressure is called pulse pressure. As systolic pressure in normal adults is 120mmHg and diastolic pressure is 80mmHg, so pulse pressure is 120-80= 40mmHg. Q.12. Mature RBC loses nucleus and all organelles so that theyjcan carry more oxygen to tissues. Q.13. Tunica media is composed mainly of Collagenous fibres, connective tissues, Smooth muscle cells and elastic fibres. Q.14. Angina pectoris means pain in chest heart block is due to formation of clot in coronary artery. Brady cardia is th abnormal condition of heart in which heart beat decreases and heart beat increases in Tachycardia. Q.15. As respiratory pigment is not prsent, oxygen diffuses directly from outside air into tissues. Q.16. The fluid pjesent in spaces between cells in tissues is called .tissue or interstitial fluid, it act.as middle man as it hands over food material and oxygen from blood