Professor of Theology in Magee College, Londonderry

" I give unto them eternal life, and they shall never perish, neither shall any man pluck them out of My hand." St. John x. 28. " The gifts and calling of God are without repentance." Romans xi. 29.

I WISH to speak to you this morning of a question which touches the very roots of our Christian life and which, I find, exercises many minds and costs them no little concern — the question whether it is possible for a believer, after he has once put his trust in the Lord Jesus Christ, to fall from grace and finally perish. If you know the history of theological thought, you will remember that there are two answers which have been given to the question and which stand in direct opposition. First, there is the Calvinistic answer : Once we truly believe, our final salvation is assured ; we are as certain of reaching Heaven as though we were already there, had already passed " through the gate into the City " and were already walking


the golden street. Then there is the Arminian answer : We may fall from grace ; we may be saved to-day and lost to-morrow ; we can never be sure of Heaven until we are there. You see how one's attitude towards this question is determined by one's starting-point, one's initial position. The Calvinist starts from Divine Sovereignty, and he believes in Perseverance ; the Arminian starts from human freedom, and he believes in the possibiHty of falling from grace. In the one case salvation is God's purpose from first to last, and God's purpose is immutable and invincible; in the other it depends on man's will, and man's will is fickle and weak. And here is an example of the two attitudes. Anglican theology is Arminian, and you remember this verse in the Anglican Keble's poem ** The Disobedient Prophet " : "The grey-hair'd saint may fail at last, The surest guide a wanderer prove ; Death only binds us fast To the bright shore of love." Contrast that with this stanza of the Calvinistic John Kent's hymn beginning, ** Sovereign grace o'er sin abounding " :

THE PERSEVERA CE OF BELIEVERS 71 "What from Christ that soul shall sever Bound by everlasting bands ? Once in Him, in Him for ever — Thus the eternal covenant stands — one shall pluck thee

From the Strength of Israel's hands." I believe in Perseverance because I believe in the Sovereignty of God, and I believe in the Sovereignty of God because I see it in history and experience* And thus I am persuaded that it is impossible for a true believer, since he is in the grip of God*s purpose of grace, ever to fall away and at last be lost. It is Sovereign Grace that first moves us to repent and believe, and it will carry us invincibly through all weakness and disloyalty to the final consummation. This faith is a splendid encouragement, yet it is open to serious criticism, and I wish now to consider the main objections which have been urged against it and to show you that, as it seems to me, they spring from misunderstanding of the doctrine. I, The doctrine, it is alleged, is contradicted by experience. Have we not all known men who lost their early faith and relapsed into irreligion? Yes, and it would be a poor evasion to suggest

72 THE PERSEVERA CE OF BELIEVERS that there never was any reality in their faith, and that they did not fall from grace inasmuch as they had never been in it. My answer is that we must distinguish between falling from grace and backsliding. A believer, by reason of indwelling sin, is liable to the latter — witness David and Peter and all the saints in every generation ; but, by reason of the faithfulness of God, he is ensured against the former.

You have seen a log floating down the river in the Spring-time when the stream was full. Presently the stream abated and shrank to a mere trickle, and the log lay blistering in the sun, high and dry. But it did not rem!ain there for ever. By and by a spate came roaring down from the mountains and replenished the river and flooded the dry bed, and the log floated and resumed its progress towards the distant sea. Ere long, perhaps, it got stranded again when the flood was spent and the stream ran low ; but there was always a fresh flood, and, because the log was in the river-bed and not on the bankp it always floated again and was borne on its way. It was in the river-bed, and therefore it was as sure of reaching the sea as though it were already there.

THE PERSEVERA CE OF BELIEVERS 73 And this is a parable of grace. The stream runs low and we get stranded, but the flood comes down from the Hills of God, and lifts us and bears us onward — if only we be in, the riverbed. Commit yourself to the grace of God, and rest with a quiet heart upon His faithfulness in every time of weakness. When Cromwell was dying, he was troubled. ** Tell me," he said to a minister who stood by his bed, ** is it possible to fall from grace? " ** o,'* was the reply, '* it is not possible." ** Then," said the dying man, *' I am safe, for I know that I was once in grace." Yes, ** once in Him, in Him for ever— thus the eternal covenant stands." This is theology, but it is poetry too, as all true theology is, since,

as Boccaccio says, ** theology is nothing else than the poetry of God." You remember Browning's lines : "What began best, can't end worst, or what God blessed once, prove accurst." But, it may be said, have we not known cases where men wandered away and were never brought back? Is not this something worse than backsliding? Is it not falling from grace?

74 THE PERSEVERA CE OF BELIEVERS Yes, it is true, it is true ; and I recognise the sorrow and the mystery of it. But I still hope and still cling to the assurance that the grace of God proves ever ultimately victorious beyond our short ken. You remember Shakespeare's story of the death of that old reprobate, Sir John P'alstaff, in an ale-house with only a loose woman in attendance. ** *A made a finer end," said Dame Quickly, ** and went away, an it had been any christom child ; *a parted even just between twelve and one, e'en at the turning o' the tide : for after I saw him fumble with the sheets, and play with flowers, and smile upon his finger ends, I knew there was but one way ; for his nose was as sharp as a pen, and 'a babbled of green fields." *- *A babbled of green fields " : what have we here? That hoary sinner had once been an innocent child and had been nurtured in the grace of the Lord Jesus Christ. And ah, the sorrow of it when he turned out so ill 1 evertheless the grace which had blessed his early days pursued him through the years of his shame; and when he was lying on his death-bed, the hallowed lore which he had

learned at his mother's knee came into his remembrance, ** 'A babbled of green fields "—

THE PERSEVERA CE OF BELIEVERS 75 ** He maketh me to lie down in green pastures ; He leadeth me beside the still waters " : this is what Dame Quickly heard. As the shadows of evening gathered about him, the mind of the old sinner wandered back to the sweet morningtime ; his heart became as the heart of a little child, and he was carried home in the arms of the Good Shepherd. His mother had gone down to her grave sorrowing for her lost son, never thinking that her prayers would be answered at the long last. And I cannot, I will not believe that lany soul that has been pursued with importunate prayers and carried in faith's loving arms to the feet of Jesus, will at the last be an outcast from the Father's House. ** Go thy way," said the man of God to Monica as she wept for her erring Augustine ; "it cannot be that the son of those tears should perish." 2. It is objected that it is a perilous doctrine, fostering a spirit of security^ Wiiat need to watch and strive if our salvation be assured? This is a perversion of the doctrine, and it is nothing new. When St. Paul preached Justification by Faith apart from Works, there were some who said : '* Let us continue in sin that


grace may abound ; let us do evil that good may come." ** What does it matter," says the monk in Pascal's '* Provincial Letters," " by what way we enter Paradise? As our famous Father Binet remarks : ' Be it by hook or by crook, what need we care if we reach at last the Celestial City? ' " And there is a sort of logic in this argument, but it does not stand the test of experience. For one thing, if this be our conscious and deliberate attitude, it proves that we have never truly believed. Behind faith there always lies a deep exercise of the soul — the discovery of one's lost condition and one's need of Christ. Once we have stood by the Cross and seen Him hanging there, ** wounded for our transgressions, bruised for our iniquities," we abhor the sin that pierced Him and strive resolutely to have done with it. And so, if we be careless about sin and think it matters nothing what we do since we are certain of Heaven, it is a sure evidence that we have never had saving dealings with Christ at all. A careless soul is not on the road to the Celestial City. And further, even if it were possible, it were a poor thing to get to Heaven after a careless

THE PEKSEVEKA CE OF BELIEVERS 77 life. For life is a preparation for Eternity, and Heaven will be for every man what he is making it now by the aids of grace. Wihat would it avail simply, if I may use the expression, to scrape into the Celestial City, ignorant of its language, unpractised in its manners, unfit for

the enjoyment of its felicity? What would be the advantage of being in Heaven with no heart for its employments, of getting there only to find oneself as a stranger in a strange land? It is a solemn thought, which should stimulate us to constant zeal in the Christian hfe, that by continuance in sin, even if we are not excluding ourselves from Heaven, we are impoverishing our future heritage and diminishing ever more and more the exceeding and eternal weight of glory which should be ours. In the home of my childhood I used to watch the ships passing up the beautiful Firth, laden with the merchandise of far-off lands; and it was a brave sight as they came proudly into port with their white wings spread and their flags flying in the breeze. But once I witnessed a spectacle which touched my imagination and is still vivid in my remembrance. It had blown a heavy gale, and a hapless barque had been

78 THE PERSEVERA CE OF BELIEVERS caught by the tempest outside the Firth. She was loaded with timber, and when the hold was full, they had piled more on the deck, making het top-heavy. The gale smote her, and she capsized. She did not sink, for the timber kept her afloat ; she simply ** turned turtle," and swam keel uppermost. A flotilla of tugs went to the rescue and towed her in this poor plight up the Firth. When she got into shoal water, her masts touched the bottom, and the divers went down and cut them adrift. Then she was fighted, and lay a dismasted, waterlogged hulk. She got into harbour, but it was a pitiable home-coming. Would the crew have

been content had they foreseen it. Would they have said : ** Be it by hook or by crook, what need we care if we reach at last the harbour? ** And who would be content to reach Heaven after this fashion — just saved and no more? For my part, I would rather perish outright. I want ** an abundant entrance." I want to sail into the harbour with my sails spread and my flag flying. And I am sure that it thus that Christ would have it.



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