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Balancing Grinding Wheels
Owners of tool and cutter grinders know that at least the larger wheels usually are not very well balanced and produce bothering vibrations. I therefore provide for those wheels in the mounting flange 12 evenly distributed holes, threaded M5 as seen in Figure 1. The holes are identified by numbers from zero to eleven and the masses for balancing are setscrews.
Figure 1: Grinding wheel with threaded holes in the flange for balancing with setscrews
But what is an unbalance exactly? A circular disk or wheel, mounted perpendicular on a shaft is balanced if the axis of rotation meets the centre of mass (CM). If the axis however 1
has the distance e from the CM and the disk with the mass M is turned with the rotational speed n a centrifugal force F = (2 ⋅ π ⋅ n) 2 ⋅ M ⋅ e is generated. the four light weighted disks are supported by ball bearings and balancing here is performed by two equal masses in a circular slot.com/> 2 .baitella. The product u = M ⋅ e is called the static unbalance or better is named force unbalance. A more modern design is shown in Figure 31. seen in the photo. which usually is negligible if unbalanced grinding wheels are regarded. Figure 2: Balancing apparatus for grinding wheels 1 Courtesy Baitella AG. There exists a second kind of unbalance. The masses for compensation are shifted until the grinding wheel has no longer the tendency to turn into a certain position and becomes indifferently stable. The classical method to identify and compensate force unbalances is shown in Figure 2. the shaft is rested on two rails with knife edges and as long as the wheel is not balanced the CM points down and the system acts as a pendulum. the torque unbalance. Zürich. <http://www.
Touching the machine with the finger or thumb nail very sensitively indicates the existence of vibrations however judging its magnitudes is very uncertain. It is absolutely not necessary to have the more sophisticated equipment found in industry and trade which only helps to 3 . Albeit finding the right mass and its angular position for compensation with the finger only is possible in principle but the procedure would be very longwinded and cumbersome. STENT and other tool and cutter grinders are mounted on stub arbours and these would ask for a more complicated equipment. The rotating unbalance forces excite vibrations which disappear for the balanced wheel. A suitable sensor for measuring the vibrations’ magnitude supports essentially the balancing process and then this becomes simple and straight forward as we’ll see. but the grinding wheels of the QUORN. But there is another way to balance grinding wheels.Figure 3: A modern balancing stage Building such a stage would be not very difficult.
The shockproof VTI sensor is seen in a plastic case in Figure 4.81 m / s 2 . based on semiconductor technologies are accurate.balance a rotor much faster but not more accurate than by the much more simpler approach regarded here.com/ <http://www. Normally the most intensive vibrations are found in the vicinity of the spindle bearings.8 V if the sensor points down or 1. The sensors are small chips. in the vertical position the earth’s acceleration of gravity is measured. to the authors experience they are very suitable for balancing grinding wheels.kelag. These values can be used for calibration regarding the earth’s acceleration g = ±9. Vibration Sensors If a grinding machine is excited to vibrations by an unbalance the oscillations observed have different magnitudes and phase angles at different locations but the frequency is always the same.analog.ch/> 4 . even with putty or tapes. a finger tip can detect vibrations as low as 0. 2 3 4 5 Root Mean Square <http://www. Sensors are available for the vibrations speed. The supply voltage for the SCA610 is 5 Volt DC. and easy to handle. The most important feature is fact that no reference basis is necessary and the sensors simply can be attached to the grinding machine. In the horizontal position the sensor is not biased by the gravitation and best applied for measuring the vibrations from unbalances.1 mm/s. The now available Micro ElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS). typical representatives are the ADXL103 from Analog Devices3 or the SCA610 from VTI Technologies4.fi/> <http://www. identical with the rotational speed n. balancing in principle is possible with any of these devices. The steady state output voltage is 2. cheap. Tool grinders should be balanced to a speed not much higher than v = 1 mm/s.vti.2 V in the opposite direction. but also for the displacement x and acceleration a. Measuring the acceleration however has some advantages. In balancing technology the specifications are based on the RMS values2 of the oscillations’ velocities.5 V DC. the output voltage is either 3. the author used the special type SCA610-C13H1G which is also available ready for application with the chip encapsulated in a little box from aluminium as KAS 804 03A from KELAG5.
Figure 4: The sensor SCA610 in a plastic case Figure 5: Signals for acceleration and speed recorded with a test stand 5 . its separation from the DC offset with a capacitor is very simple.Superimposed are the AC-signals from the vibrations and these only are interesting.
However converting the acceleration a into a speed signal v has some advantages.The acceleration signal directly could be recorded by an oscilloscope or a true RMS-ACmeter. The supply voltage is 12 V and converted by a voltage regulator to 6 . practically this signal processing is performed by a simple low pass filter. For harmonic signals the speed v is the acceleration divided by the circular frequency: ν = a /(2 ⋅ π ⋅ n) and this special relation is valid for amplitudes or RMS-values. In Figure 5 a record is shown. the noise becomes lower and the measuring results can be compared with the recommendations of the standards for unbalances. Figure 6: Electrical scheme for measuring the vibration’s velocity In Figure 6 the electrical scheme for measuring the vibration’s speed with the KAS 804 or SCA 610 is seen. this is used for triggering the oscilloscope but also could be applied for phase measurements. The green rectangular signal is from a half black and half white reference track on the shaft and picked up by a reflective light sensor. The blue acceleration signal is converted into the yellow speed signal. the frequency is 100 Hz equivalent to 6000 RPM. Per definition the acceleration is the derivative of the speed and then inversely the speed v is received from the acceleration signal a by integration.
Then the filtering effect of the RMS meter disappears more and more until the unbalance and noise signal have the same order of magnitude. e. The device is calibrated. 1 V output voltage at C3 is equivalent to 10 mm/s RMS. This was realized in the Vibroscope Figure 7 which contains the complete circuit of Figure 6 and additionally the electronic circuit for a reflective light sensor. Figure 7: The Vibroscope A RMS meter efficiently suppresses the noise as long as this is weaker than the vibration signal. Now balancing is finished. The sensor’s output is connected to the low pass filter.g. the combination of resistor R1 and capacitor C3. Capacitor C4 already was mentioned and separates the ACsignal from the DC offset. If the result is not satisfying it would be necessary first to reduce the mechanical noise which is generated by other moving components. the motor or belt.precisely 5 V. ready available.linear. a suitable multimeter. it makes no sense to try to proceed to finer limits. 6 For example LTC 1966 from Linear Technology <http://www. The voltage meter shall indicate the RMS value.com/> 7 . the unbalance together with the related vibrations are reduced. may be used or a RMS-DC converter chip6 together with a DC meter. In course of the balancing procedure.
Figure 8: Diagram of the vibration signal for different test runs This trial and error procedure sound very complicated but isn’t in reality. very seldom more than ten test runs were 8 . set to different depths must be applied. the vibration my become increased or reduced. Thirdly it may happen that the minimum unbalance of the shortest screw is too high for compensation. One reason is that the initial unbalance is not exactly in line with the direction of one of the twelve holes and then two masses at two adjacent positions are necessary for compensation. The author and others have balanced grinding wheels by this method. In the first case however the mass then should be set in the opposite hole to receive in any case a reduced signal. Within a very short period a good feeling is acquired how to proceed step by step. For safety reasons the set screws must not protrude from the rim. Secondly the maximum mass of one hole may be insufficient to compensate the unbalance and then adjacent additional holes are used. then two masses in opposite holes.Balancing a Grinding Wheel Balancing always starts with an initial run to record the vibration signal vI. Normally it is necessary to set masses into two or more holes. If then a test unbalance is set arbitrarily in one hole. Now the mass and its position is varied until the minimum vibration signal is received.
Then a diagram can be plotted as seen in Figure 8. Building the Vibroscope is a simple and interesting project.vmin)/2. locomotive wheels etc. It should be taken in mind. Included are all electrical schemes. layouts and lists of parts. The device was built for our Society to demonstrate at exhibition stands how simple it is to balance grinding wheels. But to get some more insight how balancing works it shall now be assumed that 12 test runs are performed with the same test unbalance successively set into the holes 0 to 11.or over-compensated. The method presented here of course is not restricted to grinding wheels and could also be applied for balancing other components as motors.necessary to be successful.8 and this means that for compensation the total mass must be split.vmin) and in the second uC = uT·vI /(vI + vmin). 80% for hole No. the minimum unbalance in this case is at position 2.. With the test unbalance uT the total unbalance for compensation is in the first case uC = uT·vI /(vI . This is described completely in a little booklet. Also some more details are explained on the theoretical background and the more systematic procedures of 9 . nor necessary. Additionally outputs are provided for demonstrating the vibration signal by an oscilloscope. In the first case the initial unbalance is vI = (vmax . The Vibroscope The Vibroscope in Figure 7 was designed to support the balancing of grinding wheels my measuring the RMS values of the speed as already explained. In the second case it is vI = (vmax + vmin)/2. There is no intention to discuss in this short article the systematic methods for balancing with a minimum of test runs by an analytical determination of the unbalance’s magnitude and position. The situation is clarified with the signal vI from the initial test run. available from the SMEE membership secretary Mike Kapp. it would be very interesting to hear from others experiences. absolute perfection is neither possible..2. In the first case the compensating mass must be increased and in the second reduced. the maximum vmax and minimum vmin have the same distance from vI. the minimum vmin is less distant from vI than the maximum vmax. The minimum unbalance however can be under.3 and 20% for hole No.
printing as well as the CD was sponsored and the total revenue will support the renovation fund for Marshall House. 10 .00 plus p.. The booklet together with the CD are sold for £ 10.balancing. These are supported by Excel worksheets which are provided together with detailed instructions on a CD.p.