What is a Supervisor | Supervisor | Employment

Part One What Is a Supervisor?

1. Modern Supervision: Concepts and Skills

Successful Supervisors Plan, Organize, Staff, Lead, and Control

Chapter One Modern Supervision: Concepts and Skills
Chapter Outline
Supervision: A Historical Perspective Supervisors Should Focus on Efficiency Supervisors Should Focus on Functions to Be Performed Supervisors Should Focus on People Types of Supervisory Skills Classic Understanding of Management Skills Modern View of Management Skills Supervising a Diverse Workforce Opportunities and Challenges Subtle Discrimination General Functions of the Supervisor Planning Organizing Staffing Leading Controlling Relationships among the Functions Responsibilities of the Supervisor Types of Responsibilities Responsibilities and Accountability Becoming a Supervisor Preparing for the Job Obtaining and Using Power and Authority Characteristics of a Successful Supervisor About This Book

Learning Objectives
After you have studied this chapter, you should be able to: 1.1 Define what a supervisor is. 1.2 Summarize research findings that have led to basic ideas of what managers should do. 1.3 Describe the basic types of supervisory skills. 1.4 Describe how the growing diversity of the workforce affects the supervisor’s role. 1.5 Identify the general functions of a supervisor. 1.6 Explain how supervisors are responsible to higher management, employees, and co-workers. 1.7 Describe the typical background of someone who is promoted to supervisor. 1.8 Identify characteristics of a successful supervisor.

Skill-Building Exercises
The following exercises are designed to help build your skills by applying the chapter concepts. Your instructor may assign one or more exercises, but feel free to access independently those not assigned. A Supervisor’s Problem: Gaining Acceptance as a New Supervisor (p. ••) You Solve the Problem (p. ••) Problem-Solving Case: Refereeing the Referees of the Atlantic Coast Conference (p. ••) Assessing Yourself: Is Supervising Right for You? (p. ••)
2

Class Exercise: Recognizing Management Skills (p. ••) Building Supervision Skills: Defining Your Role as Supervisor (p. ••); Leading a Team (p. ••)

1. promote. Supervisors like Dugan inspire employees to do their best. yet there are distinctions. in the interest of the employer. or responsibility to direct them. Qdoba Mexican Grill Web site. talent. A supervisor is a manager at the first level of management. Dugan also worked hard to establish positive communications with his employees. or to adjust their grievances.” His encouragement evidently succeeded. www. the supervisor enables an organization to benefit from their commitment. Although the company describes its work environment as “casual” and “fun. April 2006. Dugan believes that at first he was “too passive” with his employees. you may have to convince them—as well as your own manager—that you’re ready and able to tackle the challenges of your new job. supervisor A manager at the first level of management Tyrone Dugan’s experience of learning to be a good supervisor is significant because supervisors are critically important to their organizations. if in connection with the foregoing the exercise of such authority is not of a merely routine or clerical nature. Qdoba is a nationwide chain of almost 200 fast-food casual Mexican restaurants.com. to hire.galegroup. but requires the use of independent judgment. reward or discipline other employees.qdoba. Figure 1. accessed June 29. recall. The basic job of a manager is to see that an organization meets its goals. Missouri. Supervisors working closely with their employees must figure out how to meet goals while maintaining a positive environment. That’s what happened to Tyrone Dugan when he was hired to be assistant manager at the Qdoba Mexican Grill in Florissant. With experience. transfer. where food is prepared as customers watch. He explains. What type of people skills can help him in his new position? Source: Based on Sonja D. The Taft-Hartley Act embellishes this definition by indicating that a supervisor is “any individual having authority. or effectively to recommend such action. suspend. Dugan learned that employees were observing his performance and commenting to his manager if they thought he fell short in some way. Several of Dugan’s employees eventually took on supervisory positions at other Qdoba locations.” Recognizing that envy can fuel resentment of a supervisor. One employee in particular seemed to question Dugan’s leadership. and enthusiasm. though none of the employees expressed their opinion to him directly. “Congratulations. lay off. For the top executives of an organization. assign. What sort of job-related skills can help Dugan demonstrate he has the knowledge to handle the job? 2. 2006. Charged with leading a staff of 10 employees. discharge. he discovered that he got better results by setting clear standards and following up with employees to be sure they were meeting those standards. http://galenet. no one can guarantee that the employees in your group will be as thrilled as you are.” the casual dress and hands-on interaction between supervisors and employees do not necessarily translate into a simple job. as Tyrone Dugan did. Reflecting on the challenges of this transition. In fact. downloaded from Business & Company Resource Center. You’re a Manager! Now What?” Black Enterprise. Managing at the supervisory level means ensuring that the employees in a particular department are performing their jobs 3 . New supervisors sometimes face the problem of proving to their employees that they are capable and ready to assume new responsibilities. which means the employees reporting to the supervisor are not managers. such as not starting a process on time.com. managing is about making sure that the organization’s vision and business strategy will allow it to meet its goals through the years ahead. Brown. “I just started talking to them. Listening and watching carefully.1 reprints actual want ads for a variety of supervisory jobs.A Supervisor’s Problem: Gaining Acceptance as a New Supervisor When you become a supervisor. Dugan quickly realized that some of them were waiting to see if he could prove himself as their supervisor. he assured the employees that “they could have the same opportunity [for promotion] that I had if they were willing to work hard. By motivating employees to perform at their peak.”1 Many different kinds of organizations need supervisors.

Send resume to: Director of Human Resources Quality Care Health Services Minuscule. Competitive salary and benefit package. The successful candidate will have 3-5 years sales management experience in planning. confidential consideration send resume and salary history to: Human Resources P. Box 1234 Industrious. Must have excellent administrative and supervisory skills. Service bureau background a plus. an excellent benefits package and salary commensurate with experience. CO 80300 AUTOMATIC SCREW MACHINE SECOND SHIFT SUPERVISOR Established growing suburban manufacturer looking for qualified individual to supervise second shift of manufacturing operations. Responsibilities include orienting. and motivating a team of sales professionals. . experience in managing production and personnel required. College degree and 4-5 years of Housekeeping Management experience required. problem-solving Production Manager to supervise catalogue/retail page construction in Mac platform. Interested candidates should send resume in confidence to: Luxurious Suites 1000 Upscale Blvd. and evaluating a secretarial staff of approximately 200. supervisors focus on day-to-day problems and goals to be achieved in one year or less. hiring. is integrated and discussed throughout. Familiarity with printing. To be considered for this exceptional career opportunity.O. Must have knowledge and experience on multiple/single spindle machines. By applying scientific knowledge to the study of production.O. please send your resume with salary requirements to: Dept. The ideal candidate should understand sound management principles and possess strong assessment and clinical skills. NJ 07000 Health Care CHIEF PHYSICAL THERAPIST Rural health care consortium has an immediate opening for a licensed physical therapist to develop a progressive. Box 987 City Center. fastpaced environment. IN 46000 SALES MANAGEMENT Our growing organization is seeking an experienced Sales Management candidate to lead our expanding Color Copier Department. and vertical market success are required. coordinating.1 A Sampling of Supervisory Positions to Be Filled Advertising PRODUCTION MANAGER Electronic desktop production agency seeks self-starting. Enjoy excellent working conditions in a new plant. For immediate. A-7 P. Candidate must also be willing to assume department leadership. as well as more recent research. some early management research findings related to supervision are just as important today as when the actual research was conducted. Taylor (1856–1915) is often referred to as the “father of scientific management. Management research findings are important since supervision is management at the lowest level of the organization. This chapter introduces what supervisors do and what skills and characteristics they need to be effective. Minimum 5-7 yrs. organizing. Previous law firm experience (supervisory or secretarial) preferred. graphic arts. SUPERVISION: A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE In studying supervision. Previous sales experience. Cleary. Supervisors Should Focus on Efficiency Frederick W. Villa Grande. Usually. Very good salary and full benefit package. Box 200 Ski Springs. A few of these early research findings are introduced next. 001 Suburbanite. NM 87000 SECRETARIAL SUPERVISOR Large law firm seeks Secretarial Supervisor to join our secretarial management team. TN 38000 ASSISTANT DIRECTOR OF HOUSEKEEPING Large luxury hotel is accepting resumes for an Assistant Director of Housekeeping. We offer state-of-the-art technology. Send resume and salary requirements to: Dept.4 Part One What Is a Supervisor? FIGURE 1. sophisticated therapy delivery system. office equipment or other related industry experience helpful. Preferred applicants will have experience as a Director of Housekeeping for a small to medium size hotel or Assistant Director at a large hotel. it is important to consider the best way in which a job could be completed. it was feasible to maximize efficiency. More detail on this research.” Taylor believed that in order to improve efficiency. keep in mind that present-day theories about how to be a supervisor are based upon management and supervision research findings that have continuously evolved over many years. Submit resume to: P. account development techniques.O. Ideal candidate will be able to work well with a variety of personalities in a demanding. CA 90000 so that the department will contribute its share to accomplishing the organization’s goals.

This focus recognizes that the quality of an organization is often affected by the quality of interactions among its members. 20. Fayol asserted that all managers have primary management functions to perform in organizations. family. the total number of shovelers was reduced from 600 to 140. Safety needs include security of job. health. a lack of racial biases. how much time is required to swing a shovel backward in order to throw the given horizontal distance at a given height? Taylor also considered the size of each worker. and the average number of tons shoveled per worker per day rose from 15 to 59. 10.Chapter 1 Modern Supervision: Concepts and Skills 5 While working at the Bethlehem Steel Company. Clearly. More detailed information about these functions follows later. Taylor considered several factors. The final part of the hierarchy includes self-actualization. was it most productive for workers to shovel 5. recognized that people have different sets of needs that are met in a hierarchical pattern. supervisors emphasize a people orientation. Once those needs are met. • Organizing—assigning tasks to specific members of the organization. which includes an attitude of acceptance. the application of science to the study of production can result in maximal employee efficiency. As he observed the workers while they were performing their job. then safety needs must be considered. and intimate relationships. and the distance that the materials were to be thrown. Mr. or 40 pounds at a time? Third. These functions include: • Planning—setting goals for an organization. and developing an overall strategy for achieving the goals. the weight of the materials. 30. Based upon Maslow’s findings. supervisors must help workers to satisfy their personal needs while being productive in organizations. Also. The fourth level of the hierarchy includes esteem needs. Taylor studied the best way to maximize efficiency for employees whose sole responsibility involved shoveling materials. including self-esteem and confidence. Abraham Maslow (1908–1970). He then developed a detailed plan that described the conditions under which employees could be most efficient. a pioneering psychologist who is perhaps the best-known contributor of the people focus. a French industrialist. their employees should be treated in a humane fashion. The most basic needs of any human being are physiological needs. as well as handling conflicts as they arise. Supervisors Should Focus on People Because they deal directly with employees and have knowledge about an organization’s customers. 15. wages increased and the cost of handling a ton of material dropped significantly. Three years after his plan was implemented. is often regarded as the pioneer of administrative theory. family. Consistent with this approach is the idea that supervisors must recognize that above all. • Leading—motivating the employees of the organization to achieve the tasks that were given to them. Supervisors Should Focus on Functions to Be Performed Henri Fayol (1841–1925). how quickly can a shovel be pushed into a pile of materials and then pulled out properly loaded? Fourth. and property. The ideas that he generated relative to general management principles are still considered to be important among contemporary thinkers. Next on the hierarchy are needs related to love and belonging. . including friendship. • Controlling—overseeing the various tasks that are being completed and ensuring that they are done in the expected manner. what kinds of shovels worked best with what materials? Second. and creativity. such as food and shelter. First.

conceptual skills include recognizing how the department’s work helps the entire organization achieve its goals and how the work of various employees affects the performance of the department as a whole. experts have considered managers’ success dependent on three basic categories of skills: technical. the skills they need to be successful fall into the same basic categories. and succeed in many other ways. motivate. Technical skills are the specialized knowledge and expertise used to carry out particular techniques or procedures. human relations.6 Part One What Is a Supervisor? TYPES OF SUPERVISORY SKILLS Although a supervisor in a Pizza Hut restaurant and a supervisor in a Ford Motor Company factory work in very different environments. defuse conflicts. Skills developed during a beginning supervisory job will prove useful in every job held throughout a management career. However. selling.2 Human relations skills are the skills required to work effectively with other people. These skills include the ability to communicate with. and understand people.2. A United Way fundraiser’s ability to persuade executives to write big checks is a technical skill. Classic Understanding of Management Skills For many years. Supervisors use their human relations skills to impress their superiors. As shown in Figure 1. These categories of skills are used by all levels of managers in all kinds of organizations. A mechanic’s ability to bring an automobile engine back to life relies on technical skills. In addition. Conceptual skills involve the ability to see the relationship of the parts to the whole and to one another. Decision-making skills involve the ability to analyze information and reach good decisions. Someone with strong decision-making skills can think objectively and creatively. supervisors rely more on technical skills than do higher-level managers because employees who have a problem doing their jobs Human Relations Skills DecisionMaking Skills technical skills The specialized knowledge and expertise used to carry out particular techniques or procedures human relations skills The ability to work effectively with other people conceptual skills The ability to see the relation of the parts to the whole and to one another decision-making skills The ability to analyze information and reach good decisions FIGURE 1. To be “technical. inspire employees. the application of those skills requires a fourth skill: decision making. The relative importance of each type of skill depends on the level of management. and many other types of work. get along with co-workers.” skills do not have to be mechanical or scientific. Chapter 9 provides a more detailed look at how to make decisions effectively. For a supervisor.2 Relative Importance of Types of Skills for Different Levels of Managers Technical Skills Conceptual Skills Top Managers Middle Managers Supervisors . they can involve any work-related technique or procedure. and conceptual. human relations skills are important at every level of management. Other technical skills may involve bookkeeping.

describing a proposed change with enthusiasm and conviction Taking personal risks and making sacrifices to encourage and promote desirable change in the organization Challenging people to question their assumptions about the work and consider better ways of doing it Analyzing information about events. encouraging participation in decision making.3 This way of thinking starts with a list of activities and then identifies the skills required to carry out those activities successfully. People-related activities: Efforts to manage people. Change-related activities: Efforts to modify components of the organization. significant achievements. helping people learn how to improve their skills Allowing substantial responsibility and discretion in work activities. top managers tend to rely more on decision-making skills simply because they tend to make more complex decisions. Modern View of Management Skills Expanding on the classic view of management skills. evaluating individual and unit performance Determining how to use personnel and other resources to accomplish a task efficiently. special contributions. TABLE 1.1. explaining job responsibilities. and performance improvements Providing coaching and advice. showing sympathy and support when someone is upset or anxious. Also. task objectives. and empowering employees to solve problems. The typical manager’s activities fall into three groups: 1. 3. trends. developing employees’ skills. and performance expectations Checking on the progress and quality of the work. providing opportunities for skill development. using the ideas and suggestions of others Being considerate. providing encouragement and support when a task is difficult or stressful Providing praise and recognition for effective performance.1 Skills of Successful Managers Clarifying roles Monitoring operations Short-term planning Assigning tasks. including those listed in Table 1. current thinkers have taken a fresh look at the activities a manager typically performs. and taking risks to promote needed changes. so individual supervisors may need skills beyond those listed here.Chapter 1 Modern Supervision: Concepts and Skills 7 go to the supervisor and expect help. To carry out these activities. encouraging others to think creatively. trusting people to solve problems and make decisions without getting approval first Presenting an appealing description of desirable outcomes that the unit can achieve. recognizing contributions. supervisors and other managers rely on a diverse set of skills. Situations vary. and changes in the external environment to identify threats and opportunities for the work unit Consulting Supporting Recognizing Developing Empowering Envisioning change Taking risks for change Encouraging innovative thinking External monitoring . setting objectives for employees. such as planning. proposing new tactics and strategies. and monitoring performance. such as by providing support and encouragement. Task-related activities: Efforts to carry out critical management-related duties. 2. such as monitoring the environment to detect a need for change. determining how to schedule and coordinate activities efficiently Checking with people before making decisions that affect them.

nonwhite. Source: Based on Nestlé Professional.com.7 Opportunities and Challenges Together. Hispanic workers may talk with one another while working more than workers from some other cultures do. the segment aged 65 years and over is expected to represent more than 16 percent of the U.ethnoconnect. The majority of them trace their roots to Mexico. and Asian workers is expected to rise. and they now make up more than 46 percent of the adult labor pool.8 Part One What Is a Supervisor? SUPERVISION AND DIVERSITY THE LARGEST ETHNIC MINORITY GROUP Hispanics—immigrants and descendants of immigrants from Latin America—have become the largest ethnic minority group in the United States. www.) Women are entering the workforce at almost the same rate as men. almost one-tenth have a Puerto Rican heritage. these changes mean that supervisors can expect to have more employees who are female. this group’s share of the workforce is expected to fall to 43 percent by 2014. Supervising a Diverse Workforce Good human relations skills are especially important in today’s environment because of the increasing diversity of the U. and their share of the workforce is expected to grow. no more and no less. Of course. the largest ethnic group.” EthnoConnect News. One is a tendency to stress personal relationships. www. “Ten Myths about Latina Workers. the supervisor may have to ask specifically for such behavior. and Cubans are the third largest group.4 In 1980. Supervisors who continually develop their skills in each area are the ones most likely to be promoted to higher levels of management. Hispanic. A supervisor might find that many Hispanic employees do exactly as directed. Hispanic workers may rely heavily on personal contacts to locate a new job and may respond well to goals and rewards set for the whole group. This difference expresses another value that is often stressed in Hispanic communities: respect for authority. That means many supervisors will have Hispanic employees in the coming years. supervisors may benefit from recognizing some cultural norms that are common among Hispanic workers. workforce.com. A wide variety of Americans wear the label Hispanic. just over half (51 percent) of the workforce consisted of white men. workers are Hispanic.nestleprofessional.S.S. who supervises workers sorting scrap . “The Hispanic Workforce.5 While the share of white men in the workforce declines. More than 1 in 10 U. They generally appreciate face-to-face instruction and hands-on training to learn new skills. 2008.6 In addition. describing expectations clearly is a helpful skill for supervisors to use with employees of any cultural background. While the broad ethnic group “Hispanic” actually includes great diversity. accessed November 7. To develop the variety of skills needed to be a good supervisor. Get to know good supervisors and managers and observe how they handle situations.” Mix. Consider Al Aurilio. the supervisor may discover that Hispanic workers do not talk much to the supervisor. 2008. If the supervisor is hoping employees will offer suggestions and try new ways of working. out of respect for the supervisor’s authority in directing them. Their origins are diverse. the share of black. you should learn and practice the concepts discussed in this book. (See the accompanying “Supervision and Diversity” to learn more about Hispanics. and they include both well-paid professionals and entry-level workers at the low end of the wage scale. holding a majority of the jobs in 140 occupations. and EthnoConnect. and experienced—perhaps senior citizens holding a job after retirement.S. population by 2020. accessed November 7. However.

Even in an organization whose management is not committed to these goals. including demonstrating respect for others. immigrants from Germany settled in the region from Pennsylvania west to Minnesota. point out the damage it does. the even greater diversity expected in the U. was once populated mostly by people of Czech. At first. a Mexican immigrant. Supervisors and other managers can use several tactics to improve attitudes: • Have employees work with someone who is different. management of the Japanesebased company expected him to learn Honda’s ways of operating. Today. subtle forms of discrimination persist in every workplace. and everybody holds some stereotypes that consciously or unconsciously influence their behavior.10 Subtle Discrimination Today hardly anyone would say that it is all right to discriminate or that a manager should be allowed to give preference to employees of the manager’s race or sex. That trait helps Burch manage the diverse group of employees now reporting to him. More than 20 years later. and ask the employee to avoid such remarks in the future. With more than 60 years of experience at the company. Illinois. Burch. supervisors can provide advice and coaching to female and nonwhite employees. They opened schools and businesses for their communities and published German-language newspapers. this growing diversity enables supervisors to draw on a greater variety of talent and gain insights into more perspectives than ever before. who had barely traveled outside his home state.11 The subtle discrimination that results may include ignoring the input from the only woman at a meeting or mistaking an African-American professional for someone with a less prestigious job. helping them get along in the organization. for example. workforce of the future—coupled with laws and policies intended to ensure fair treatment of various groups—requires supervisors to work successfully with a much wider variety of people. Unfortunately. taken jobs in factories. but Burch came to respect his Japanese bosses. The working-class town of Cicero. Washington.Chapter 1 Modern Supervision: Concepts and Skills 9 materials that arrive at the warehouse of Pacific Iron and Metal Company. partly owing to today’s global economy. flew to Japan to experience firsthand Honda’s emphasis on cleanliness and safety.S. During the 1800s. and he willingly shares his knowledge with employees. Some of the people from other backgrounds may be the supervisor’s own managers.8 As described in subsequent chapters. many supervisors still work for organizations that fail to see the advantages of hiring and developing a diverse workforce. When Mike Burch took a job as maintenance supervisor in a then-new Honda Power Equipment Manufacturing plant in North Carolina. and Slovakian heritage. Burch says working for people from another culture has made him more open-minded about people in general. the experience felt strange. • Question negative stereotypes. and elected Ramiro Gonzalez. However. town president (equivalent to mayor). Diversity is not a new issue. Polish. who have opened shops. • Use the kind of behavior they expect employees to exhibit. When an employee makes an offensive comment. which gives the employees a chance to educate themselves about the customs and values others hold. located in Seattle. Aurilio has become an expert in the metal composition of the items to be sorted.9 Although diversity is not a new issue. Supervisors also can make a point of learning about the . Cicero is dominated by a growing share of Mexican immigrants.

Organizational goals are the result of planning by top managers. Although settings and degrees of responsibility may differ. Her responsibilities include ensuring that the employees in her department are doing a good job. Planning planning Setting goals and determining how to meet them Common sense tells us that we do our best work when we know what we are trying to accomplish. The supervisor’s job includes determining the department’s goals and the ways to meet them. To describe these common activities. for a retailer or sales department. and how many employees will be FIGURE 1. then. whether to customers of the organization or to colleagues in another department. which shows that all of the activities should be directed toward enabling employees to deliver high-quality goods and services. The purpose of planning by supervisors. The management functions are illustrated in Figure 1.10 Part One What Is a Supervisor? individual employees in the department.3 Functions of Supervisors and Other Managers Co g llin ro t n Pla nn in g Quality gan S t a ffi n g Or izin g L e a din g . is to determine how the department can contribute to achieving the organization’s goals. Sometimes a supervisor has a substantial say in determining the goals themselves. supervisors and other managers carry out the same types of functions. Throughout this book. organizing. such as what motivates them and what their career goals are. GENERAL FUNCTIONS OF THE SUPERVISOR Jennifer Plotnick is a supervisor of her city’s board of education. you will find more specific ideas for meeting the diversity challenge as it relates to the chapter topics. and controlling. making sure not to spend more than the budgeted amounts. leading. explaining to employees what they are expected to do. and justifying to her manager why she needs to add people to her department in the following year. staffing. supervisors in other settings may spend most of their time enabling employees to do their jobs and handle fewer responsibilities than Plotnick. preparing a budget for her department. how much money to bring in—what level of output to achieve. This is the function of planning. whereas another supervisor must focus on how to achieve goals set by higher-level managers.3. This includes planning how much money to spend—and. management experts categorize them as planning. In contrast. As mentioned previously. the supervisor’s job is to help the organization meet its goals.

Computer technology has made new planning tools possible as well. Other chapters discuss the ways in which supervisors influence employees to act. and developing the necessary number and quality of employees are known as the function of staffing. staffing is crucial to the supervisor’s success. The supervisor needs to be aware of and use behaviors that employees respond to as he or she desires. modern supervisors are increasingly responsible for setting up and leading teams of workers to handle special projects or day-today operations. At the supervisory level. and developing the necessary number and quality of employees Leading Even if the supervisor has the clearest and most inspired vision of how the department and its employees should work. Today. Monitoring performance and making needed corrections is the management function of controlling. staffing Identifying. this vision will not become a reality unless employees know and want to do their part. The various activities of the staffing function are addressed in Chapters 15–17. When something goes wrong. the next step is to determine how to set up the group. and assign work to achieve those goals efficiently. motivating (Chapter 11). the supervisor must find a way to fix the problem or enable employees to do so. fueled by the widespread use of the Internet and other technologies. organizing usually involves activities such as scheduling projects and assigning duties to employees (or. leading Influencing people to act (or not act) in a certain way Controlling The supervisor needs to know what is happening in the department. In addition. Chapter 6 discusses planning in greater detail. as will be discussed subsequently. allocate resources.Chapter 1 Modern Supervision: Concepts and Skills 11 needed. and assigning work to achieve goals Once the supervisor figures out what needs to get done. and Chapter 3 addresses leading a team. but leading requires good human relations skills. Good leadership is even more important for supervisors in this time of rapid change. allocating resources. enabling employees to carry out these organizing tasks). Chapter 7 discusses organizing in greater detail. for example. and disciplining (Chapter 12). technology may help supervisors carry out this responsibility more accurately and therefore more fairly. Organizing organizing Setting up the group. The activities involved in identifying. such as by communicating (Chapter 10). Influencing employees to act (or not act) in a certain way is the function of leading. Of course. computers monitoring phone calls may use a technique called controlling Monitoring performance and making needed corrections . a supervisor’s performance depends on the quality of results that the supervisor achieves through his or her employees. Organizing draws heavily on the supervisor’s conceptual skills. This is the function of organizing. The supervisor is responsible for letting employees know what is expected of them and inspiring and motivating employees to do good work. creating departments and levels of management. Whereas an operative (nonmanagement) employee’s performance is usually judged on the basis of the results that the employee has achieved as an individual. Somebody has to decide how to set up the overall organization. Therefore. In call centers. few supervisors have much of a say in those kinds of decisions. Staffing The supervisor needs qualified employees to carry out the tasks that he or she has planned and organized. hiring. hiring. Chapter 8 includes a more detailed discussion of leading. Virtual teams rely on electronic communication to function effectively when team members and supervisors are widely separated.

When employees believe that help and feedback are related to their true skills and performance. points out that the accident occurred because the supervisor was not supervising. In Metzgar’s words. the supervisor is not supposed to control by dictating solutions. “A supervisor . In these organizations. Of course. The results are then evaluated by the supervisor to ensure that the work is getting done properly. supervisors spend most of their time leading and controlling. at which point the whole process begins again. At that point. Under and near an electric power line. the supervisor is still responsible for controlling. For example.12 In an increasing number of organizations. a safety expert who analyzed this incident. the supervisor can direct their work and inspire their efforts. Then the supervisor needs to get the people in place and doing their jobs. then leading. staffing. higher-level managers are responsible for setting the overall direction for the organization. then staffing. with the truck operator watching the supervisor. the supervisor is expected to provide employees with the resources and motivation to identify and correct problems themselves. Figure 1. Once the supervisor has planned what the department will do. who handled the lift line. they are more motivated to improve. and organizing take up less of a supervisor’s time. they spend more time on planning and organizing. they often carry out all the management functions during the course of a day. followed by organizing. real-life supervisors do not spend one week planning. and the powerful current killed the supervisor. During the controlling function. Carl Metzgar. and so on. because they work directly with the employees who are producing or selling a product or providing support services. Planning. not how the supervisor structures his or her work. Instead. Supervisors can deliver computerized training targeting specific weaknesses to agents right at their desks.3 shows the management functions as a process in which planning comes first. then one week organizing. and then help resolve a dispute between a nurse and a physical therapist (leading). thus. A supervisor who had focused on observing. coaching. Relationships among the Functions Notice that Figure 1. but he or she works with others to carry out this function. Tragically. This order occurs because each function depends on the preceding function or functions. and finally controlling. Typically. so they can improve without having someone stand over them and criticize. and following up on work would have observed the arrangement of the equipment and the power line and directed the employee to perform the task in a safe manner. Instead. then attend a meeting to discuss the needs of the patients (planning). the boom swung into the power line. Thus. the supervisor may wish to revise some goals. Chapter 6 discusses these and more traditional principles of controlling in more detail.12 Part One What Is a Supervisor? “speech analytics” to flag calls in which the characteristics of the voices indicate that the employee is having difficulty with a customer and may need assistance or coaching. a patient care coordinator in a hospital might start the day by checking the nurses’ performance (controlling). he or she can figure out the best way to organize work and people to accomplish those objectives. In contrast. RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE SUPERVISOR A supervisor with a poor understanding of his responsibilities once accompanied a boom truck operator into a storage yard to pick up a piece of equipment called a crusher liner. they worked together.3 is a very general model of managing that shows how the functions depend on one another.

Share your vision of where the organization wants to go. Be fair. They also need to treat their employees fairly and speak up for their interests to top management. or national origin. to employees. Know how to fire an employee without violating his or her rights. Keep a sense of humor. pregnancy. In summary. their responsibilities include building employee morale and carrying employee concerns to the relevant managers. Nevertheless. After all. Treat employees with dignity and respect. They should respond promptly when a co-worker in another department requests information. age.” Supervision. race.2. between employees and management. the way they treat employees is crucial. com/wwn/article. the whole organization benefits. Be able to perform the duties of those you supervise. because supervisors link management to the employees. should be in charge of the big picture. Know the law as it applies to your company and your job. Conduct necessary meetings efficiently and ensure they accomplish their intended tasks. Praise your staff for their accomplishments. February 2000. Supervisors are responsible for giving their employees clear instructions and making sure they understand their jobs. Finally. and to co-workers.workingwoman. and the supervisors have the satisfaction of working together as members of a team. Supervisors are expected to serve as a kind of linchpin. And supervisors should listen with an open mind when co-workers in other departments make suggestions about improving the way things are done. Conduct periodic evaluations of your group’s progress. Follow proper hiring practices.com. supervisors are responsible for cooperating with their co-workers in other departments.jsp? contentId=513&ChannelID= 210.”13 An employee who becomes a supervisor assumes all the responsibilities listed in Table 1. They must look for problems and correct them before employees’ performance deteriorates further. Keep in touch with your industry. Keep accurate employee records. Rona Leach. they also have many responsibilities—to higher management. or bridge. Keep your staff informed and up to date. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Recognize the talents of each subordinate. Some supervisors may question the notion that they have a responsibility to their employees. the employees are responsible for doing what the supervisors say. sexual orientation. They should share ideas that will help the organization’s departments work together to accomplish common goals. 8. “Supervision: From Me to We. Adhere to workplace safety rules and regulations. p. Provide an opportunity for employees to evaluate you.2 Responsibilities of Supervisors Sources: Nolo. When supervisors learn from one another’s ideas. Be accessible to those under your supervision. “When You’re the Boss. . though supervisors have more power than nonmanagers.” reprinted at www. Avoid sexual harassment and discrimination based on gender. Types of Responsibilities Supervisors are responsible for carrying out the duties assigned to them by higher-level managers. This includes giving managers timely and accurate information for planning. Thus. They also must keep their managers informed about the department’s performance.Chapter 1 Modern Supervision: Concepts and Skills 13 TABLE 1.

Good work habits and leadership skills are also reasons for selecting an employee to be a supervisor. Once on the job. Also. He or she can think about ways to carry out the role of supervisor. More important than understanding the layout of the workplace is learning about . The new supervisor suddenly must use more human relations and conceptual skills and devote more time to planning ahead and keeping an eye on the department’s activities. A supervisor can also strive to learn as much as possible about the organization. the supervisor becomes a part of management—even the target of blame or anger when employees resent company policies. the company might reward her with a raise. Accountability refers to the practice of imposing penalties for failing to carry out responsibilities adequately. perhaps because the person has demonstrated leadership potential or a specialized skill that will help in the position. Because technical skills are relatively important for first-level managers. and it usually includes giving rewards for meeting responsibilities. It is natural to wonder whether you are qualified or how you will handle the problems that surely will arise. when Carol Hymowitz took on her first supervisory role as The Wall Street Journal’s Pittsburgh bureau chief. an inexperienced reporter asked for feedback on her writing.”15 Becoming a supervisor marks a big change in a person’s work life. More important than friendliness are traits such as fairness and a focus on achieving goals. Sometimes a company will hire a recent college graduate to be a supervisor. for instance. a higher-level manager who gets frustrated with a supervisor who fails to provide information about what is happening in the department might eventually fire the supervisor for not carrying out this responsibility. a change occurs in the supervisor’s relationships with the employees in the department. In contrast. She recalls that in her first week on the job. the department. if customer service supervisor Lydia Papadopoulos effectively teaches the telephone representatives on her staff to listen carefully to customers. and the job. BECOMING A SUPERVISOR Most supervisors start out working in the department they now supervise.14 Part One What Is a Supervisor? Responsibilities and Accountability accountability The practice of imposing penalties for failing to adequately carry out responsibilities and providing rewards for meeting responsibilities Whatever the responsibilities of a particular supervisor. To see what awaits a new supervisor. the organization holds the supervisor accountable for carrying them out. refer to Figure 1. Hymowitz immediately began pointing out all the areas for improvement. The reporter’s expression of dismay showed Hymowitz “that if I wanted creative and hard-working employees. Unfortunately. none of these bases for promotion or hiring guarantee that a person knows how to supervise. Likewise. a supervisor needs to continue the learning process. The person also might have more seniority than many other department employees. Instead of being one of the crowd. I needed to keep my style in check and make sure that I applauded my staff’s strengths as much as I targeted their weaknesses. Preparing for the Job One way to combat the anxiety is to prepare for the job. All these changes are bound to lead to some anxiety. she had to develop her human relations skills.4. A hotel employee promoted to a supervisory position.14 Thus. the person selected to be supervisor is often an employee with a superior grasp of the technical skills needed to perform well in the department. A new supervisor can learn about management and supervision through books and observation. might be at a loss for ways to motivate those who now report to her.

An important aspect of this approach is that the supervisor is helping employees meet or exceed their own goals. for example. a supervisor needs not only knowledge but also power (the ability to do certain things) and authority (the right to do certain things). and who are the unofficial leaders? To get to know employees. Who are the quiet but productive workers. and discuss his or her long-term goals. a supervisor should take time to discuss goals with employees and observe their work habits. B. a sales supervisor can help a potentially jealous salesperson increase sales. a supervisor can ask his or her boss to announce the promotion at a meeting of the employees. Smit r o is v Super Focus on Human Relations Skills Changed Work Relationships Focus on the Group Power and Authority the employees in the department or work group.Chapter 1 Modern Supervision: Concepts and Skills 15 FIGURE 1. Most employees will regard someone who helps them make more money as a better manager. One constructive approach that a supervisor might take to this problem is to acknowledge the other person’s feelings. but the most reliable sources of information are the employees themselves. There the supervisor can take the opportunity to state . a supervisor can talk to his or her own manager and read performance appraisals. ask for the employee’s support.4 What Awaits the New Supervisor? Congratula tions! Accountability h. Obtaining and Using Power and Authority To carry out his or her job. To acquire power upon assuming the job of supervisor. A supervisor may learn that one or more employees had been candidates for the supervisor’s job and therefore may be jealous. Particularly in the early days on the job. When accepting the job. For example. it may help to have the new supervisor’s boss make an official announcement of the promotion.

Many of us also have worked for a supervisor who taught us new skills.” Los Angeles Business Journal. • Don’t be a “rescuer. or made us look forward to going to work each day. you need to see when employees are on track toward meeting their goals and when you need to step in. May 2005. For more ideas on becoming a supervisor. . Make a point of talking to each member of your work group so that you can understand each person’s goals and everyone knows what your expectations are. Chapter 7 discusses the delegation of authority. Sometimes employees “test” a new supervisor to see if rules and standards will be enforced. “From Peer to Supervisor. choosing friends—will interfere with your role as supervisor. • Communicate with everyone.16 Part One What Is a Supervisor? TIPS FROM THE FIRING LINE BECOMING A SUPERVISOR Often. How do you maintain positive working relationships with people when you are now responsible for ensuring they get their work done correctly and efficiently? Here are some suggestions for making the transition smoothly: • Set limits on your behavior.galegroup. What is behind the success of this second category of supervisors? Figure 1. and interest in hearing about work-related problems.5 illustrates some characteristics of successful supervisors. October 10. they are not true friends. • Figure out how to measure success. • Learn from others. many chapters in this book will provide ideas that will help with this transition. teach the employees in your group to do the tasks you once handled. see “Tips from the Firing Line. That means the supervisor’s relationships with others in the department will change. grumbling about work. Ed Lisoski. For example. • Be firm. http://galenet. Complete the Assessing Yourself exercise on page ••• to see whether supervising is a good fit with your current traits and interests.” Instead of jumping in to get the work done whenever a problem arises. and timeliness? As a supervisor. along with more information about managing change. cost. Training can be harder than doing the job yourself. inspired us to do better than we thought possible. Show employees how each person’s efforts benefit the whole group. 2005. and Chapter 14 covers the sources and types of power. both downloaded from Business & Company Resource Center. his or her expectations. How can you tell if each person is succeeding in terms of quality. Get to know other supervisors and managers who will share the wisdom gained from their experience.com. desire to work as a team. If some employees expect favors based on friendship. but it builds a stronger work group. a new supervisor takes on his or her position as the result of a promotion. many of us have worked for someone who seemed to stifle our best efforts or angered us with unfair decisions.” Also. Employees are counting on you to be fair and objective. Some kinds of behavior that co-workers commonly engage in—gossiping. you will need to make it clear that you are serious about the whole group’s success. The supervisor can build support for change by introducing it gradually after inviting suggestions when appropriate. Making changes quickly and without seeking their input can alienate employees and put them on the defensive. If that happens. Sources: Based on Brandi Britton. A new supervisor should not rush to make changes in the department but instead should first understand how the department works and what employees expect. “Making the Move from Peer to Supervisor. CHARACTERISTICS OF A SUCCESSFUL SUPERVISOR Unfortunately.” Supervision.

Since supervisors tend to have excellent technical skills.” Successful supervisors are fair. Another aspect of being fair is to follow the rules yourself. for instance. when supervisors make assignments and decisions on the basis of whom they like best. Chapter 10 takes an in-depth look at the communications skills that supervisors need to develop. As a part of the management team. When the supervisor’s attitude toward work and the organization is positive. Supervisors also need to be good communicators. This responsibility may include making decisions that are unpopular with employees. they must take actions that are best for the organization. Supervisors who play favorites or behave inconsistently will lose the support and respect of their employees and not be able to lead effectively. Successful supervisors are loyal. Employees tend to reflect the attitudes of the people in charge. by being on time and refraining from doing personal tasks on the job or taking supplies home. supervisors must recognize that taking on a supervisory job means they cannot always be “one of the gang. Good communication also includes making contact with employees each day and listening to what they have to say. They may resist giving an assignment to an employee who may not carry it out as easily or as well as they.Chapter 1 Modern Supervision: Concepts and Skills 17 FIGURE 1. In such situations. that is. employees are more likely to be satisfied with and interested in their work. To be successful. Also.16 Employees and bosses alike depend on the supervisor to keep them informed of what is happening. So. they will not necessarily make the assignments and decisions best suited to the organization. Nevertheless. managers and co-workers alike prefer working with someone who has a positive attitude. supervisors cannot do the work of the whole department. In addition. give their employees authority and responsibility to carry out activities. delegating may be a challenge. supervisors must be able to delegate. Employees who receive clear guidance about what is expected of them will not only perform better but also be more satisfied with their jobs. could do. Equally to y ilit t e A b lega De D e s i r e fo r the Jo b Po A t s iti v tit e ud e . The supervisor can set a good example. the supervisors. they must assign work to employees.5 Characteristics of a Successful Supervisor Fai rne ss municat Com Skills ion lty ya Lo A successful supervisor has a positive attitude.

Although Little was young (in his early twenties) and fit from two years of active duty in the Navy. In that way. Some people are happier carrying out the technical skills of their field. “You have to be willing to work with others. In contrast. People who prefer this type of work to the functions of managing will probably be happier if they turn down an opportunity to become a supervisor. One of the major requirements was physical endurance. respiratory therapy. Finally. Chapter 1 serves as an introduction to the general activities and responsibilities of supervisors. For an example of such a supervisor. The ever higher expectations of customers. a supervisor should give employees credit for their accomplishments. and you have to have honesty and integrity. called team leaders. or financial management. He began to think of Honda’s employees as “kind of a family”—the part of the job he liked best. downloaded from Business & Company Resource Center. Little was eager to learn. important. But his co-workers encouraged him. saying that the main skill needed in a Honda team leader is to be a “people person. business owners. he found the experience of assembling vehicles exhausting. he became familiar with procedures in various parts of the Marysville plant. and Little applied for the job. the employees’ successes show that the supervisor is able to select and motivate employees as well as delegate effectively.” Source: Based on James Cummings. whether it is carpentry.” He explains. Part Two describes the challenges modern supervisors face in meeting their responsibilities. Little earned points in Honda’s system of rewarding workers for their work experience. By taking these assignments. He began substituting occasionally for the plant’s supervisors.” Dayton (Ohio) Daily News. galegroup.com. May 23.” Senior staff engineer Brad Alty agrees with the priority Little places on human relations.18 Part One What Is a Supervisor? SUPERVISION ACROSS INDUSTRIES AUTO INDUSTRY SUPERVISOR DEPENDS ON PEOPLE SKILLS Arthur Little started his career with Honda Motor Company as an assembler at the company’s plant in Marysville. makes the supervisor look good. and he became used to the demands of the job. He continues to see Honda’s workers as one of the company’s assets. see the “Supervision Across Industries” box. Chapter 7 discusses delegation in greater detail. and the general public have made high quality at low cost a necessary concern of . he has to focus on his role of ensuring that workers are safe and productive. “Ohio Plant Supervisor Builds on Experience to Rise through Ranks at Honda. Eventually. Now that Little is a supervisor. The points he had earned helped him win the slot. people who enjoy the challenge of making plans and inspiring others to achieve goals are more likely to be effective supervisors. ABOUT THIS BOOK This book introduces the many kinds of activities supervisors must carry out to accomplish their overall objective of seeing that employees contribute toward achieving the organization’s goals. a successful supervisor must want the job. Part One is devoted to a broad view of the supervisor’s role. 2005. http://galenet. in turn. This. a supervisor’s position became vacant. Ohio. you have to be motivated and believe in teamwork. saying their attitude makes his work almost easy: “You don’t have a bunch of guys waiting around for something to happen. so he next took a position at the Honda plant in which he learned several jobs and rotated among them.

These exercises allow you to use the concepts from the text and develop leadership abilities. These skills are important at all levels of management and in all types of organizations. innovation. labor relations. Supervisors (and others in the organization) also must consider the ethical implications of their decisions. role-playing exercises. Chapter 3 covers groups and teamwork. provides source and additional reading material for various topics covered within the chapters. reflecting the increasingly common role of the supervisor as a team leader. An end-of-book notes section. divided by chapter. Chapter 15 covers the supervisor’s role in selecting new employees. The Skills Modules at the end of each chapter contain self-assessments.” which discuss actual examples of modern supervisory challenges—creativity. skillbuilding exercises. A special appendix follows this part and emphasizes how supervisors can negotiate and handle organizational politics. The last part of this book addresses activities related to managing the organization’s human resources: its employees. It focuses on health and safety issues. The glossary at the end of this text provides a quick reference to all key terms. Chapter 7 covers the function of organizing. including supervisors’ use of delegation to share authority and responsibility. Chapter 2 addresses how supervisors can understand and carry out their role in maintaining and constantly improving quality and productivity. an end-of-book appendix introduces some of the many government laws and regulations that guide supervisors’ roles and decisions with regard to human resources. Part Three takes a deeper look at the supervisory functions introduced in this chapter. the chapters include special features designed to help you apply the principles of supervision to the practice of supervising real people in a real organization. Individual chapters cover the ways supervisors can communicate. and miniature case studies. “Supervision and Diversity” boxes demonstrate how the diverse workforce of the future is already affecting the lives of supervisors. and fair employment practices. “Supervision and Ethics” boxes illustrate how supervisors are able to meet the demands of their job in an ethical manner. Chapter 17 describes how supervisors appraise employees’ performance. manage time and stress. Chapter 16 discusses the process of training new and current employees. the topic of Chapter 4. Part Four describes the skills needed by supervisors in all kinds of organizations. Therefore. motivate their employees. Throughout the book. supervise “problem” employees. information applications. “Supervision across Industries” boxes demonstrate the applicability of supervision practices in a wide variety of business areas. These features include “Tips from the Firing Line” and “Supervisory Skills. and teamwork—as well as provide practical tips for effective supervision. .Chapter 1 Modern Supervision: Concepts and Skills 19 employees at all levels. Chapter-opening cases and end-of-chapter cases show how real supervisors and organizations have approached the issues covered in the chapter and solved common problems in the workplace. including the supervisory level. For review. and handle conflict and change. Chapter 9 explains how supervisors can be effective at creatively solving problems and making decisions. The value of diversity is the topic of Chapter 5. Chapter 8 examines the supervisor’s role in carrying out the management function of leading. Chapter 6 discusses how supervisors use planning and controlling to enable their work groups to reach goals and objectives. Finally. each definition is followed by the number of the page where the boldfaced key term is defined.

which identified four management functions: planning. but it also requires them to draw on more sophisticated human relations skills than in the past. Frederick Taylor showed that supervisors and other managers can improve efficiency by directing how employees carry out their work.6 Explain how supervisors are responsible to higher management. Organizing is determining how to set up the group. taking risks. employees.20 Part One What Is a Supervisor? SKILLS MODULE PART ONE: CONCEPTS Summary 1. Supervisors are responsible for treating employees fairly. A supervisor is a manager at the first level of management. 1. supervisors in the future will typically manage a more diverse group of employees. The general functions of a supervisor are planning. allocate resources.2 Summarize research findings that have led to basic ideas of what managers should do. These skills include clarifying roles. Abraham Maslow is among the best known of the human behavior experts who emphasized meeting employees’ basic human needs. the basic supervisory skills are technical. people-related.1 Define what a supervisor is. and decision-making skills. and planning for the short-term. and co-workers. As a result. the employees reporting to the supervisor are not themselves managers. Human relations skills enable the supervisor to work effectively with other people. and envisioning change. Henri Fayol pioneered administrative theory. Leading is the function of getting employees to do what is expected of them. consulting. hiring. Technical skills are the specialized knowledge and experience used to carry out particular techniques or procedures. leading. Supervisors are responsible for doing the work assigned to them by higher management and for keeping management informed of the department’s progress. human relations. recognizing. 1. Planning involves setting goals and determining how to meet them. Decision-making skills are needed to analyze information and reach good decisions. making instructions clear. nonwhite. and assign work to achieve goals. This reality means that supervisors can benefit from a greater variety of talents and viewpoints. leading.S. and developing the necessary number and quality of employees. supporting. and bringing . Controlling consists of monitoring performance and making needed corrections. an increasingly large share of employees will be female. staffing. and controlling. Staffing consists of identifying. developing. and change-related activities. and older. 1. and empowering employees. A more recent model identifies skills needed to succeed in task-related. workforce. monitoring operations.4 Describe how the growing diversity of the workforce affects the supervisor’s role. organizing. 1. organizing. 1.5 Identify the general functions of a supervisor. and monitoring externally. conceptual. That is.3 Describe the basic types of supervisory skills. Conceptual skills enable the supervisor to see the relation of the parts to the whole and to one another. encouraging innovative thinking. According to the classic model. They link higher management to employees. Compared with the current makeup of the U. and controlling.

p. They usually have superior technical skills and may have seniority or demonstrate leadership potential.8 Identify characteristics of a successful supervisor. Key Terms supervisor. is loyal. •• Review and Discussion Questions 1. Imagine that you have just been promoted to supervise the cashiers in a supermarket. p. Identify whether each of the following skills relates most to task-related. p. or change-related activities. •• skills. and decisionmaking skills you think you might need to succeed at this job. 1. The ability to evaluate whether sales clerks are delivering polite and timely service. 4. can delegate. What are some advantages of greater diversity? What challenges does it pose to the supervisor? 5. d. •• technical skills. The ability to communicate well with one’s manager. •• organizing. •• skills. a.Chapter 1 Modern Supervision: Concepts and Skills 21 employee concerns to higher management. •• staffing. Some of the people she will supervise are her former peers. Emma has just been promoted to an office manager position in a small real estate office. How might you develop them continually to achieve the job of store manager? 3. p. Population trends suggest that the workforce will become increasingly diverse. p. p. p. 7. she is . people-related. Higher management. p. The ability to see how new technology can help the department meet its goals. p. Organizations hold supervisors accountable for meeting these various responsibilities. p. •• human relations planning. communicates well. c. Co-workers in other departments. The ability to teach an employee how to machine a part without unnecessary changes in the setup of equipment. A successful supervisor is usually someone who has a positive attitude. •• conceptual skills. is fair. The ability to involve employees in making good scheduling decisions to accommodate their vacation preferences. human relations. e. The employees they supervise. and wants the job. Most supervisors begin as employees in the department they now supervise. 1. What are the basic functions of a supervisor? On which functions do supervisors spend most of their time? 6. b.7 Describe the typical background of someone who is promoted to supervisor. b. conceptual. p. Supervisors also are responsible for cooperating with co-workers in other departments. •• controlling. What responsibilities do supervisors have to each of these groups? a. •• decision-making leading. c. List the specific technical. The ability to plan a safety training program for the housekeeping staff. What are some ways that a supervisor’s job is similar to those of managers at other levels? How does a supervisor’s job differ from those of other managers? 2. •• accountability. f.

Occasionally. Clougherty attends dozens of games every season and watches the rest on DVDs at home. he might review the recording immediately with the officials. When they make a mistake. he began requiring that each game be recorded on DVD and that a disc be delivered to the officials minutes after the end of the game. During a recent game between Florida State and Duke. In addition to the characteristics mentioned in the chapter. consider the challenges faced by Tyrone Dugan. What are some ways a new supervisor can use power and authority effectively? 9. Clougherty lets them know right after the game. For his hiring expertise. Clougherty responded with a suspension. During those 30 years of officiating. List the skills that you consider most important for establishing authority and a positive work environment. Which supervisory skills seem to be most important to Clougherty’s job? Why? 2. In fact. Some avid fans also watch the referees. most eyes are on the players and the scoreboard. and the other 10 members of the Atlantic Coast Conference (ACC) play. prepare a report offering your recommendations. they also provide a record in support of disciplinary actions. quick feedback is one of this supervisor’s priorities. he draws on his extensive experience: “After 30 years [as a college referee]. Draw on your own experiences as an employee and/or supervisor. If there is a disagreement about a call and Clougherty is at the game. Which of these skills did Dugan use? What additional advice can you give Dugan for establishing himself as a successful new supervisor? With your group. He has brought several new officials to ACC games. How can Emma prepare for her new position? What might be the best way to approach the co-worker who did not get the manager’s job? 8.22 Part One What Is a Supervisor? aware that one of them also applied for the office manager’s job. List the characteristics of a good supervisor. Few would notice one important observer: John Clougherty. To carry out his job. What types of responsibilities does he undertake? 3. At the ready is a legal pad. Georgia Tech. The information also helps him communicate effectively with team coaches. add any others you believe are important. Right after he became supervisor.” In fact. Clougherty is also responsible for hiring. on which he takes notes about the number of fouls called on each team and data about particular calls he needs to discuss later with individual officials. In addition to training and discipline. Problem-Solving Case: Refereeing the Referees of the Atlantic Coast Conference When basketball teams from Duke. Dougherty worked at a dozen Final Four games and four national title games. supervisor of the ACC’s officials. he has plenty of firsthand experience. sometimes challenging their calls. Clougherty uses his DVD recordings as an important resource for teaching the referees. How important do you think Clougherty’s experience as a referee was in preparing him to . a crew of officials improperly called a technical foul on a Florida State basketball player and then failed to review the play on the courtside monitor. PART TWO: SKILL-BUILDING YOU SOLVE THE PROBLEM Reflecting back on page •••. 1. I think I have a pretty good idea for talent.

2006. Do you desire an opportunity to demonstrate your leadership ability? 10. Is making more money very important to you? 5. www. Would you enjoy learning about psychology and human behavior? 7. accessed June 29. Source: From Supervisor’s Survival Kit: Your First Step.theacc. Your manager has asked you to have your staff complete a special project without incurring any overtime. by Elwood N. a Relatively Thankless Job. Copyright © 1993 Pearson Education Inc. what experiences and qualities do you think would be important for someone to succeed in Clougherty’s job? Do those experiences and qualities apply to most supervisory jobs? Sources: Ed Miller. Atlantic Coast Conference. Chapman. If your score was 5 or less.com.com.” ACC Web site. or similar problems? 9.” (Norfolk. Do you sincerely like people and have patience with them? 3. One of your employees is chronically late for work.) Virginian-Pilot. 1. Could you assume the responsibility of decision making? 4. 2. Reprinted by permission of Pearson Education Inc. NJ. you should think hard about your preferences and strengths before jumping into a supervisory job. 4. Would you rather work with problems involving human relationships than with mechanical. If your score is 6 or more. computational. It is time to prepare your department’s budget for the coming year. “This Is the ACC. 5. Would recognition from others be more important to you than taking pride in doing a detailed job well? 6. “ACC Official Supervisor. Do you consider yourself a highly ambitious person? 2. Class Skills Exercise Recognizing Management Skills Which of the five management functions would you rely on in each of the following situations? Discuss your choices in class.galegroup. Va. you might be happy as a supervisor. Assessing Yourself Is Supervising Right for You? Answer each of the following questions Yes or No.Chapter 1 Modern Supervision: Concepts and Skills 23 be a supervisor? Other than that work experience. Your team’s productivity is not meeting the standards the team set. Upper Saddle River. creative. 3. March 6. Would you be happier with more responsibility? 8. . Your department has switched to a new word-processing program and some people are having difficulty making the change. Do you desire the freedom to do your own planning rather than being told what to do? Total Yes ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ No ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ Give yourself 1 point for each Yes answer. 2006.. 1. http://galenet. downloaded from Business & Company Resource Center. clerical.

allocate resources. You then say. You tell your friend at dinner after your first day on the job: “Looks like I got a babysitting job instead of a supervisory job.” Your boss asks your opinion about promoting Andy to a supervisory position. You proceed by explaining the reasoning management gave you for this change. ______________ (one function) 3. Andy is one of your most competent and efficient workers. ______________ . hiring. Instead you tell your boss you will work with Andy to help him develop his leadership skills so that the next time an opportunity for promotion occurs. You begin a meeting of your work group by letting the members know that a major procedure the group has been using for the past two years is being significantly revamped. The “Answers” column lists the number of functions your answer should include. 2. ______________ (three functions) 4. ______________ (three functions) 2. Many of the scenarios require more than one function. Knowing that Andy lacks leadership skills in many key areas. you believe that your subordinates are involved in excessive socializing and other time-consuming behaviors. Imagine you are the supervisor in each scenario described below. You believe that this will help keep the group members focused on the project and that the quality of the finished project will then reflect the true capabilities of your group. You decide to meet with the group to have the members help you break down the project into smaller subprojects with mini deadlines. Andy will be prepared to consider it. “Take the next 5 to 10 minutes to voice your reactions to this Answers (four functions) 1. and developing the necessary number and quality of employees Getting employees to do what is expected of them Monitoring performance and making needed corrections 3. and assign work to achieve goals Identifying. Scenarios Your group’s work is centered on a project that is due in two months. Your first impression of the new group you will be supervising is not too great. Your department will have to phase in the change during the next six weeks. and you must decide which supervisory function(s) you would use in each. As a class. you decide not to recommend him at this time.24 Part One What Is a Supervisor? Building Supervision Skills Defining Your Role as Supervisor Instructions 1. compare and discuss your answers and the reasoning you used in determining them. Mark your answers using the following codes: Code P O S L C Supervisory Function Planning Organizing Staffing Leading Controlling Brief Description Setting goals and determining how to meet them Determining how to set up the group. Although everyone is working on the project.

You decide to present a strong case to support your department’s request for money for some high-tech equipment that will help your employees do their jobs better. recognize that all change creates problems. too. so you know a great deal about the job.” The majority of comments are critical of the change. Instructions Imagine that you are the supervisor in each of the following situations. until you finally had to discharge the new hire. conceptual. you will apply your knowledge of the classic skill categories to several team-building situations. or we can work together to come up with viable solutions to solve the problems that implementing this change will most likely create. As the supervisor of a group of production workers in a plant that manufactures parts for telephones. However. You supervise 20 telephone operators on the night shift at a mail-order catalog company. Decide which of the following skills will best help you build a team: technical. Your objective will be to investigate ways to improve the time required to fill large orders from major customers. ______________ Source: This team-building exercise was prepared by Corinne Livesay. ______________ (two functions) 6. (one function) 5. you learned two ways to categorize the different skills that supervisors use to decide which skills apply in any given situation. Building Supervision Skills Leading a Team In Chapter 1 (“Modern Supervision: Concepts and Skills”). 1. You regretted your quick decision during the three months of problems that followed. the consensus of the group is that they should spend the remainder of the meeting focusing on how to deal with the potential problems that may arise from implementing the new procedure. Since that time. you have never let anybody pressure you into making a quick hiring decision. Here. You are preparing the annual budget allocation meetings to be held in the plant manager’s office next week. decision making. You say. The other nurses pressured you to fill the position quickly because they were overworked even before the nurse left. “I appreciate each of you sharing your reactions. Which two skills do you think will be most important to you on this team? 2. you made a decision based on insufficient information. Each situation requires more than one skill. human relations. Belhaven College. You used to be an operator yourself. Early in your career you learned an important lesson about employee selection. After a hasty recruitment effort. Management has been pressing you and other supervisors to reduce the amount of time operators spend on the telephone for each order. either we can spend the remaining 45 minutes of our meeting focusing on why we don’t want the change and why we don’t think it’s necessary. Jackson. You will stand firm against any suggestions of budget cuts in your area. you have been asked by upper management to join a team of supervisors from different departments.” After five more minutes of an exchange of comments. I. Mississippi. You . One of the nurses on your floor unexpectedly quit.Chapter 1 Modern Supervision: Concepts and Skills 25 change.

Which three skills do you think would be most important in your contribution to the team? . You are a supervisor in the engineering department and a member of a team that includes people from production.26 Part One What Is a Supervisor? believe that a potentially negative situation for your employees can be solved with a friendly competition between two teams of operators. your team must determine whether to recommend that your company expand its operations overseas. and engineering. There are no punishments for the team that comes in second. marketing. Team members are encouraged to find new ways to reduce telephone time without reducing customer satisfaction. but there is a reward for the team that wins. finance. Which two skills do you think would be most important as you get your teams up and running? 3. After conducting marketing research.

Lately they have had unprecedented arguments and frequent misunderstandings. (e) the ability to delegate tasks. “Listening Skills: Yeah. an employee and friend for more than four years. (b) loyalty. and the trouble spots at this stage of the game are minor. In addition to reviewing the account reports. Although things went relatively smoothly for the first six weeks. This is really a positive review. This video. Angela has biweekly meetings with Ralph in his office. Pilar Grimault (senior account manager) has a lot of confidence in Miguel. Which responsibilities of a supervisor does Ralph exhibit? Which others could he have integrated that would have contributed to a positive outcome throughout the whole situation? 3. QUESTIONS 1.” shows a supervisor handling an employee who does not listen effectively. but because Miguel has had less experience than most. For example. If you had been Ralph. who was delighted to work from home since her commute to the office was particularly time-consuming. answer the three questions that pertain to the specific challenges in this supervisor-employee situation. what would you have handled differently in setting up the work situation? Could you have avoided the problem issues with Angela? How? MANAGER’S HOT SEAT VIDEO 2: “LISTENING SKILLS: YEAH. How does Ralph specifically show (or not show) each of these qualities in the meetings he has with Angela? 2. she has casually checked in with some team members and clients about Miguel’s performance—most of the news is great with a few things that could and should have been handled better. Refer to Table 1. (c) fairness. WHATEVER” In the previous video case. Read the following scenario describing the video selection. and HotSpot. employees now have the freedom to work from home or another location than the office if approved by their employer. Among them was Angela Zononi. The trouble spots she is most concerned with involve the Jezebel (continued) 27 .2 on page ••. she watches over him more closely. and (f) enjoyment of the job. Ralph felt that listening to Angela was one of his most important priorities. But they still need to be addressed.” then watch the video selection. then watch the sections “The Meeting” and “Afterthoughts. Read the following scenario describing the video selection “Virtual Workplace: Out of the Office Reply. account managers oversee four to six accounts at any given time. (d) good communication. since then.Part One Video Cases MANAGER’S HOT SEAT VIDEO 1: “VIRTUAL WORKPLACE: OUT OF THE OFFICE REPLY” Changing technologies in the workplace present new possibilities and challenges for both the supervisor and employee. Some of Miguel Valentino’s (the young creative director) current accounts are Jezebel. SCENARIO At Midnight Visions. Next. SCENARIO Three months ago. The characteristics of a successful supervisor are (a) a positive attitude. This is the first time Miguel has had three high-profile accounts at the same time—a result of shifting schedules and production slow downs. answer the three questions that pertain to the specific challenges in this supervisor-employee situation. Antonioni. Whatever. communication and performance have taken a steady downturn. we could see that as a supervisor. Ralph Ramos assigned a number of employees to work as telecommuters to alleviate the lack of space in their office building.” Next.

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