E =
F k
q q
r
r =
1 2
2
E
F
q
=
( )
F
( ) q
A
sin BA =
E
African Virtual University 17
Magnetic Dipole Moment ( )
For a current carrying loop the magnetic dipole moment is the product of the
current, the area and the number of turns of the loop It is measured in ampere
meter
2
. i.e.
The direction of ( ) lies along the axis of the loop, as determined by the right
hand rule.
Kirchohoffs laws
Kirchhoffs laws are two general laws for calculating the currents and resistances
in networks at junctions. These law are obtained from the laws of conservation
of Energy and the law of conservation of charge.
a. Kirchhoffs first law: It applies to circuit nodes (or junction) and states that in
any network, the algebraic sum of the currents at any junction in a circuit is zero.
b. Kirchhoffs second law: it applies to close circuits (meshes) and states that in
any closed circuit, algebraic sum of the products of the current and resistances of
each part of the circuit is equal to the total emfs in the circuit.
Amperes Circuital Law
The generalized law, as corrected by Maxwell, takes the following integral form:
where in linear media
is the displacement current density (in amperes per square meter).
This AmpreMaxwell law can also be stated in differential form:
where the second term arises from the displacement current.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ampere%27s_law
NiA =
E
( )
E
F
q
=
E
African Virtual University 23
Electric field lines
The electric field lines describe the (vector) electric field in any region of space
according to the following rules:
The direction of electric lines drawn in space is the same as the direction of
the field at each point.
The density of lines in a given region is proportional to the magnitude of
the field in that region. The density lines means the number of lines per unit
area cutting a surface perpendicular to the direction of the lines at any given
point.
It is a direct consequence of the Coulomb inversesquare law that all possi
ble static field configurations can be described by lines in the fashion above,
where all lines originate on positive electric charge and end on negative
charges. Lines are thus continuous except at their sources and sinks on
positive and negative charge respectively
The number of lines originating or ending on charges is proportional to the
magnitude of each charge.
An electric dipole
Is a pair of equal and opposite charges, and , separated by a distance
2a
Torque on dipole in external field
If the external field, is uniform and the dipole makes an ange _ with the field,
the net torque about the centre of the dipole is:
is electric dipole moment
Key Words
Charge
Force
Electric field
Dipole
Dipole moments
Electric dipole
Flux
Inverse square law
q q
2 sin sin aqE pE = =
p
E
African Virtual University 24
Introduction to the Activity
The knowledge of the existence of electrostatic charge goes back at least as far as
the time of ancient Greeks, around 600 B.C. We can repeat the observation of
the Greeks by rubbing a rod of amber or hard rubber with a piece of fur. After
this it will be found that small bits of paper or other light materials are attracted
to the rod. No particular advance was made in the understanding of this
phenomenon until about 1600, when William Gilbert, did a detailed study of the
kinds of materials that would behave like amber. Other studies did reveal that
matter is made up of exactly equal mixtures of both negative and positive char
ges. The implication of this is that there is usually no net electric force of
consequence between separate bodies. The electric force is responsible for hol
ding individual atoms together, and holding the groups of atoms together to form
solid matter. We are usually unaware of the presence of charge because most
bodies are electrically neutral, that is, they contain equal amounts of positive
and negative charge.
For example, a hydrogen atom consists of a single proton with a single electron
moving around it. The hydrogen atom is stable because the proton and electron
attract one another. In contrast, two electrons repel one another, and tend to fly
apart, and similarly the force between two protons is repulsive. The magnitude
and direction of the force between two stationary particles each carrying electric
charge, is given by Coulombs law.
Using Coulombs law the electric field can be defined, and thereafter we are able
to solve problems on electric dipole moments, potential energy, and torque of an
electric dipole.
African Virtual University 25
Detailed Description of The Activity
(Main Theoretical Elements)
Tasks 1 : Electric Charge
Task 1.1 : Conductors and insulators
Materials are divided into three categories:
conductors  metals, for example
semiconductors  silicon is a good example
insulators  rubber, wood, plastic for example
The notion that Charge is quantized means that charge comes in multiples of an
indivisible unit of charge, represented by the letter e. In other words, charge
comes in multiples of the charge on the electron or the proton. Both proton and
electron have the same size charge, but the sign is different. A proton has a charge
of +e, while an electron has a charge of e.
To express the statement "charge is quantized" in terms of an equation, we write:
is the symbol used to represent charge, while n is a positive or negative integer,
and e is the electronic charge, of magnitude . The unit of
charge is coulomb, and its symbol is C
Task 1.2 : Coulombs law
This gives a relation between two charges Q
1
and Q
2
which are at a separation r
apart. Experiments show that the forces between two bodies obey an inverse
square law and that the force is proportional to the product of the charges. Simply,
Coulombs law states
The force between two charges at a distance, r apart is directly proportional to
the product of the two charges and inversely proportional to the square of the
distance between them
Mathematically this is wriiten as
(1)
The following are useful relations for Charge distributions. Study them and use
them for calculations. These relations are found in most standard text books.
q ne =
q
19
1.6 10 Coulombs (C)
1 2 1 2
2 2
4
q q q q
F K
r r
= =
9 2 2
1
where, 9.0 10 Nm C = a constant and is permitivity of free space.
4
K
=
African Virtual University 26
For charge per unit volume, the volume density is:
For charge per unit area, the area density is:
For charge per unit length, the linear density is:
In the special cases where density is uniform over a region
Task 1. 3: Electric Field
(a) We are able to write expression for electric field by using what we have
learnt about Coulombs law. From definition of electric field, E we have
(b) Using the principle of superposition, the value of due to n discrete charges
at rest is
(2)
(c) For a body of continuous charge, the electric field at a distance r away is
(3)
Unit
The unit of charge is the Coulomb. It is denoted by a letter C
Unit analysis
Quantity Symbol SI unit
Force F N(Newtons)
Charge Q C (Coulombs)
Displacement/distance r m (metres)
Constan K Nm2C2
3
C/m
dq
dV
=
2
C/m
dq
dA
=
C/m
dq
dl
=
3
C/m
Q
V
2
2
Electricforce 1 1
Electricfield ( )
Testcharge 4
, is the test charge.
4
Qq
E
r q
Q
q
r
= =
=
o
E
r
1 2
2
Kq q
F
r
=
q q q q q
i n 1 2 3 , , , ,
E
q q
r
r
i
i
=
1
4
1 2
2
E
dq
r
r =
1
4
2
=
+
0
2
E
=
E ds
q
Closed Surface
i
i
cos
=
African Virtual University 28
Students Activity
Task 1.1.1 Conductors and insulators
Refer to the books listed in the reference section and other references as well as
the Links provided to make notes about conductors and Insulators and do the
followings :
Collect insulating materials such as glass, silk, fur and ebonite.
Rub glass (Bic pen) and silk or glass on your air.
Bring the glass near a piece of paper. You will notice that: The paper will
be attracted to the glass
Alternatively
Switch on a TV
Bring a piece of paper near the screen You will also notice that: the piece
of paper will be attacted to the screen
These two observations serve to demonstrate the presence of electric charge.
When you bring similar charges together you will observe that Similar charges
attract, while dissimilar charges repel..
TRY THIS OUT!
Use relevant literatures and note down the explanation of how a body become
charged. The theory is that a body is charged when it has excess protons or
excess electrons.
It may not be easy in our local setting to have access to an equipment which can
enable you to demonstrate Coulombs law. However, you can do this:
Charge a gold leaf electrocope positively by induction
Similarly, charge another conducting sphere which is fixed on an insulating
stand.
Bring the charged spere near the cap of a gold leaf electroscope. The leaf
will diverge
Again if you bring another body which is negatively charge, the leaf will
collapse.
Explain what you observe. These two observations serves to show that like
charges repel and unlike charges attrack each other
What is the SI unit of charge? Use methods of dimension to determine this.
African Virtual University 29
Task 1.2.1 Coulombs law
Refer to Arthur F. Kip (1969). Pp. 321 or any relevant book on electricity and
magnetism
Make short notes on Coulombs law
From the mathematical form of Coulombs law:
derive the unit of in SI
Follow the example given below for the use of Coulombs law
Numerical Example
Four charges q1, q2, q3 and q4 of maginitudes 2.0 x 10
6
C, +2.0 x 10
6
C, 2.0 x 10
6
C, and +2.0 x 10
6
C are arranged at the corners of a square ABCD respectively.
The sides of the square are of length 4.0 cm. What is the net force exerted on
charge at B by the other three charges?
Solution
The solution to this problem needs a clear diagram to be drawn as shown in Fig.
1.2. The forces on charge q2 at B are as shown.
Figure 1.2
To solve for the net force on charge q2 at B, we have to determine first the forces
F
BA
, F
BC
and F
BD
between charges q1 and q2; q3 and q2; q4 and q2 respectively.
1 2
2
1
4
F QQ
r
=
o
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Remember that force is a vector, and any time you have a minus sign associated
with a vector all it does is tell you about the direction of the vector. If you have
the arrows giving you the direction on your diagram, you can just drop any signs
that come out of the equation for Coulomb's law.
Using Coulombs law equation,
, r = 4.0 x 10
2
m
F
BA
= [8.99 x 109 x (2.0 x 10
6
) x (2.0 x 10
6
)]/(4.0 x 10
2
)
2
= 22.475 N =
+22.475 in the direction shown on the diagram Similarly,
F
BC
= [8.99 x 109 x (2.0 x 10
6
) x (2.0 x 10
6
)]/(4.0 x 10
2
)
2
= 22.475 N =
+22.475 in the direction shown on the diagram
F
BD
= [8.99 x 109 x (+2.0 x 10
6
) x (2.0 x 10
6
)]/(5.66 x 10
2
)
2
= +11.2375 N
= +11.2375 N in the direction shown on the diagram
The net force on q2 is obtained by adding F
BA
, F
BC
and F
BD
vectorally. By Pythogras
theorem, the combined effect, F
1
, of F
BA
and F
BC
is given by
(F
1
)
2
= (F
BA
)
2
+ ( F
BC
)
2
= 22.4752 + 22.4752
F
1
= 31.78 N Directed along the diagonal from B towards D
Note that F
1
and F
BD
act along the same line, but in opposite directions. The net
force Fnet, on q2 is therefore given by
F
net
= F
1
 F
BD
= 31.78  11.2375 = 20.55 N,
Directed along the diagonal from B towards D
Use the example above and do the following
Two charges of 2.0 x 10
6
C and 4.0 x 10
6
C are placed 3.0 cm apart in a vacuum.
Find the force acting between them. ( Ans. 8.0 N)
2
2 1
r
q kq
F
BA
=
2 2 9
10 99 . 8
= C Nm x k
African Virtual University 31
Task 1.3.1 Electric field
Read about electric field and then make short notes.
Check that the dimensions in the equation in the equation below is correct
Use this expression and find the field due to a charge 4.0 x 10
6
C at a distance of
3.0 cm away. Take is permitivity of a free space.
Nm
2
C
2
An example, of electric field due to a positive and negative charge is shown in
Fig. 1.3
Figure 1. 3 Field lines due to a positive and negative charge
The field lines for one positive point charge and one negative point charge. The
field lines flow out of the positive charge and into the negative charge
Sketch the following electric field lines due to
i. a point charge
ii. electric dipole
iii. two similar charges,
iv. charged plate (disc)
1 2
2
1
4
F QQ
r
=
9
0
10 0 . 9
4
1
=
k
o
d
a
0
4
1
Since and we have
x
a
a
r
dx a d = = = tan cos , sec
2
and r
a
=
cos
dE
'
dE
'
dE
a
d
'
cos =
1
4
E
'
E
a
d
a
'
/
cos = =
2
4
2
4
0
2
African Virtual University 33
Task 1.4.1 Dipole moment
Carry out the following exercises after reading about a dipole
Write an expression for a dipole moment.
Calculate the dipole moment for two charges of 3.0 x 10
6
C and 3.0 x 10
6
C if
the separation between them is 2.0 cm. (Ans. 6.0 x 10
8
Cm)
Explain why the net force on a dipole in a uniform field E is zero.
(d) Recall the definition of torque and show that
The magnitude of the torque in an electric field with respect to the centre of the
dipole is the sum of the two forces times their lever arms.
(e) Using this finding, explain why the torque is given by
= p * E Newton metre.
(SHOW THE STEPS FOLLOWED IN DERIVING THIS
Example : The following example gives you calculation on electric dipoles.
Follow each step carefully.
Figure 1.5
Let point P be in the equatorial plane of the dipole, at a distance r, from the centre
of the dipole. Dipole electric field at points in the equatorial plane is given by
=
(a) Show that the distance from either +q or q to P is (a
2
+ r
2
)
2
?
( )
3/ 2
2 2
0
2 1
2
q
a r
=
+
    sin   sin = = 2q E a p E
=
+
2
4
1
2 2
q
a r
cos
African Virtual University 34
Dipole field at points in equatorial plane, a distance r, from the centre
Newton/coulomb
Remember that p = 2q
Task 1.5.1 Flux and electric field
Read widely on Gausss law and do the following tasks. (Use the following
references: Grant I S; W. R, Philips ,1990.; Serway, (1986) ; Dick, G et al , 2000)
or any other relevant texk and links provided.
The mathematical form of Gauss law is
o
In words, Gauss law states that the electric flux across any closed surface is
proportional to the net electric charge enclosed by the surface. The law implies
that isolated electric charges exist and that like charges repel one another while
unlike charges repel. While Gauss law for magnetism states that the magnetic
flux across any closed surface is zero. This law is consistent with the observation
that isolated magnetic poles (monopoles) do not exist.
How does the field E come in the above expression? (To answer this make a
brief note on how this expression is derived)
An example : Use of Gauss law for a single point charge
Gauss law applies to any charge contribution but let us apply it now to the simplest
case of a single point charge
We start by constructing a spherical Gaussian surface of radius r around a charge
+q. This is followed by take a small area dA on the Gaussian surface. The vector
area dA points radially outward, as does the electric field E at this point.
The electric flux through this small area is
From the spherical symmetry, all such small area elements contribute equally to
the total.
= = = E(4r
2
)
( )
3/ 2
2 2
0
1
4
p
a r
=
+
E
d
= dA E EdA
E ds
q
Closed Surface
i
i
cos
=
d E dA E dA E dA = = = i
cos 0
African Virtual University 35
Explain how the term (4r
2
) comes in. According to Gauss law
Solving for the electric field gives
E = . This expression is just coulombs law
Example: Use of Gauss law applied to an infinite plane of charge.
Figure 1.7 Electric Field due to infinite plane.of charge
Here we want to show that for an infinite sheet which carries a uniform charge
density s, the field
Procedure
By symmetry the resultant Efield must have a direction normal to the plane and
must have the same size at all points of the same distance from the plane.
Take as a Gaussian surface a cylinder of crosssectional area A and height 2h.
Flux is only nonzero through the ends of cylinder.
Read and make notes about this topic and explain why the flux is only non zero
at the ends of the cylinder (Use the following references: Grant I S; W. R, Philips,
1990; Serway, (1986) ; Dick, G et al ,2000) and any other relevant text and links.
Read the following statements.
If field at cylinder ends is E then total flux = 2EA.
Charge enclosed is area x charge density = A
Hence from Gauss's law
Explain how the expression of the last three lines are obtained.
2
0
4
1
r
q
= = = = E r
q q
q q ( ) , 4
2 encl
encl
because
E =
2
2
EA
A
E = =
African Virtual University 36
Two examples have now been given to you. Use Gauss law and use similar
arguements to derive and show that the field due to spherical but nonpoint
charge is given by Explain all the steps
Experimental work
You can work in a group with colleagues.
Problem : How can a body acquire charge?
Hypothesis: Two insulators attracts/repel one another when not rubbed together
Equipment Fur Pieces of paper
Glass rod Ebonite Polythene
Procedure
(a) Charging by friction
Requirements: glass rod, silk cloth, and a piece of paper
Step I
Rub the glass rod with silk cloth. While keeping them together, bring both of
them close to a piece of paper. What do you observe?
Step II
Separate the glass rod and silk. Bring only one of them, say glass rod, close to a
piece of paper. What do you observe?
Why is it that In step I nothing happens to the piece of paper BUT In step II, the
paper is attracted to the glass?
RESPONSE
In step I, when the glass rod and silk are together, they are essentially a
neutral body. In step II, the paper is attracted to the glass rod because the
rod has a net positive charge which induces a negative charge on the paper.
The consequence of this, leads to an attractive force which causes the paper
to move to the glass.
Charging by induction
Requirements :
Use a negatively charged object and an initiallyuncharged conductor (for example,
a metal ball on a plastic handle).
Bring the negativelycharged object close to, but not touching, the conductor.
Explain what happens at this stage
Connect the conductor to ground. What is the importance of connecting the
conductor to the earth ?
Remove the ground connection. This leaves the conductor with a deficit of
electrons.
E r
Q
( ) 4
2
0
African Virtual University 41
O
y
q
2
x
2
q
1
y
1
x
Detailed Description of The Activity
(Main Theoretical Elements)
Task 2.1 Electric Potential
(a) From your earlier work you know that:
 work must be done on or to the charge in order to bring them close to
each other
since work has to be done on or by a charge, it has potential energy.
(b) From mechanics we know that, gravitational force between two masses,
m1, m2 at a separation R apart is:
, G is gravitational constant (2.2)
and, gravitational potential energy PE is given by:
PE = mgh; (2.3)
where m is mass, g is acceleration due to gravity, and h is the height
(c) Similarly electrical potential V is given by
(2.4)
where q1 and q2 are the charges at a separation r
(d) Potential and electric are related as follows:
Ex = dv/dx,, (2.5)
Potential is measured in Joules (J)
Task 2.2 Electric potential due to point charge
The potentential due to a charge Q at a distance r away is given by
(2.6)
Task 2.3 : Potential due to several point charges
Figure 2.1
2
2
R
m m
G F =
r
q q
V
2 1
0
4
1
=
r
Q
V
0
4
=
African Virtual University 42
P
d
_
r r
+
r

+q q
The contribution of potential, V0 at the origin, O of each charge q1 and q2 is
(2.7)
Thus the general expression for the potential at a given point in space due to a
distribution of point charges is
(2.8)
Potential is a scalar quantity, and its unit is volts(V)
If the distribution is continuous, the expression for potential in terms of volume
density of charge which may vary from point to point is
(2.9)
Task 2.4 : Electric Dipole Potential
Potential due to a dipole at point P shown in Fig.2.2 is given by equation (2.10)
similarly the electric field at P is given by equation (2.11).
Figure 2.2
and (2.10)
Electric field is given by
(2.11)
Task 2.5 Van der Graaff Generator
Is a highvoltage electrostatic generator that can produce potential of millions of
volts
+ =
2
2
1
1
0
0
4
1
x
q
y
q
V
=
i
i
i
r
q
V
0
4
1
=
vol
r
dv
V
0
4
1
2
0
cos
4
1
r
p
V
=
( )
2 / 1
2
3
0
1 cos 3
4
1
+ =
r
p
E
=
0 0
4 r
Q
V
=
dV
African Virtual University 44
Task 2.4.1 Example
Using Fig 2.2, The potential of an electric dipole can be found by
superposing the point charge potentials of the two charges as follows
By definition
Potential
Thus potential at P due to the dipole is given by
For cases where r>> d, this can be approximated by
Where p = qd is the dipole moment. The approximation made in the last expres
sion is that
When r >> d then
And
Electric field, E is given by
Identify and write down the assumptions made in writing equations 2.10
Show how equation 2.11 is derived.
Task 2.5.1 Van der Graaff Generator
You could work in a group for this activity
Purpose
To have a clear identification and understanding of the different parts of a van
der Graaff generator
Apparatus
A complete van der graaff genarator
(a) Dismantle a van der Graaf generator and see whether you can identify
the different parts
(b) When you are satisfied with the identification then reassemble the
generator.
r
q
V
0
4
1
=
2 1 0
1 1
4
1
r r
q V
2
0
cos
4
1
r
p
V
=
2
0
cos
4
1
r
p
V
=
( )
2 / 1
2
3
0
1 cos 3
4
1
+ =
r
p
E
African Virtual University 45
(c) Use now the diagram of a Van der Graaff generator shown in Fig. 2.3
and
(i) label the different parts marked with numbers
(ii) describe the functions of each part and hence
(iii) explain how the generator works.
(d) describe practical applications of Van der Graaff generator
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Van_de_graaf_generator.svg
Figure 2. 3
You are provided with a numerical example to show you how the expressions for
potential can be used for calculations.
Task 2.1 Calculation of Electric potential for a system of Charges
Three point charges, Q1, Q2, and Q3, are at the vertices of a rightangled trian
gle, as shown above. What is the absolute electric potential of the third charge if
Q1= 4.0 x 10
6
C, Q2 = 3.0 x 10
6
C, Q3 = 2 0 x 10
6
C. If Q3, which is initially at
rest, is repelled to infinity by the combined electric field of Q1 and Q2, which are
held fixed. Find the final kinetic energy of Q3.
African Virtual University 46
Solution : The absolute electric potential of Q3 due to the presence of Q1 is
Similarly, the absolute electric potential of Q3 due to the presence of Q2 is
The net absolute potential of Q3 is simply the algebraic sum of the potentials due
to the Q1 and Q2 taken in isolation. Thus,
V3 = V1 + V2 = 1.8 x 10
3
V
The change in electric potential energy of Q3 as it moves from its initial position
to infinity is the product of Q3 and the difference in electric potential V3 between
infinity and the initial position. Therefore
= Q3V3 = 2.0 x 10
6
x 1.8 x 10
3
= 3.6 x 10
3
J
This decrease in the potential energy Q
3
equals to increase in its kinetic energy,
since the initial kinetic energy of Q
3
is zero.
Thus, kinetic energy = 3.6 x 10
3
J
Formative Evaluation 2
A dipole of charge and separation (dipole moment p = ) is placed along
the xaxis as shown below
(i) Using the expression for the potential V at a point charge, calculate the
work necessary to bring a charge +Q from far away to a point S on the
xaxis, a distance a from the the centre of the dipole.
(ii) What is the potential Vs of point S (in the absence of the charge Q)?
(iii) Write a simple approximate expression for Vs , good for .
(iv) Use the expression for Vs to find the magnitude and directionof the
electric field at the point S. Find the orientation of the equipotentiaal
surface at the point S. (You may use Kip F, 1986) for more informa
tion)
V
V
q
1
1 9
6
9 10
4 10
5
7 2 10 =
1
)
=
=
KE
5
.
33
V
V
q
2
2 9
6
3
9 10
3 10
3
9 10 =
1
)
KE
3
V ( )
q
q
a
African Virtual University 47
Title: Capacitance
You will require 15 hours to complete this activity. Only basic guidelines are
provided for you in order to help you do the rest of the curriculum in the activity.
Personal reading and work is strongly adviced here.
Specific Teaching and Learning Objectives
Derive the expression for calculating capacitance
Explain how a capacitor stores energy in an electrical field
Explain the effect of a dielectric on capacitance
Derive expression fo capacitance for combinations of capacitors, and use
expressions for calculation
Derive different forms of expression for electrostatic energy stored in
capacitors
Apply ideas about dielectrics to problems of simple parrallel plate capacitor,
filled between plates with dielectric materials; and to relate susceptability to
the dielectric constant
Summary of the Learning Activity
Derivations for expressions for combinations of capacitors; relation between
capacitance, voltage and charge; and electrostatic energy stored in capacitors
will be made. These expressions will be used for solving numerical problems.
Key Concepts
Capacitors  are short term chargestores, a bit like an electrical spring. They
are used widely in electronic circuits. It consists of two metal plates separated by
a layer of insulating material called a dielectric.
Two types of capacitors : electrolytic and nonelectrolytic: Electrolytic capacitors
hold much more charge;
Electrolytic capacitors  have to be connected with the correct polarity, otherwise
they can explode.
Capacitance  is the charge required to cause unit potential difference in a
conductor.
1 Farad  is the capacitance of a conductor, which has potential difference of 1
volt when it carries a charge of 1 coulomb.
Time constant  is the product RC
Activity 3
( ) capacitance Resistance
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Polarization  is the relative displacement of positive and negative charge when
an external field is applied. It is given by P = np, p is induced atomic dipole
moment, n is the number of dipoles per unit volume
Dielectric constant  is a factor which multiplies the capacitance of a capacitor
by a factor K. It is independent of the shape and size of the capacitor, but its
value varies widely for different materials. It is generally a measure of the extent
to which a given material is polarized by external field.
Electric susceptability  is a parameter which directly relates the polarization
of a material to the applied field.
Key Terms
Capacitance Permitivity Induced dipole moment
Electrolytic capacitor dielectric constant Electric displacement
Dielectric polarization
Farad Electric susceptability
Section Expectation
You will carry out derivation of expression of capacitance for a system of two
concentric metal spheres forming a capacitor. In addition you will explain how
capacitors store energy and the effect of dielectric on capacitance. Further,
derivation for expression for capacitance for combinations of capacitors and using
these expresions for calculation will be done
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Introduction to the Activity
This activity is concerned mostly with systems consisting of conductors on which
charges can be placed. The activity will further establish that the potential of
each conductor is linearly related to the excess charge on it and each of the other
conductors.
Detailed Description of the Activity (Main Theoretical Elements)
For each task, you have to read and extract more information from the references
and links provided
3.1 Calculating the capacitance
(a) Consider a parallel plate capacitor, each of area A, and separation d. Let
The charge density be = Q/A, where Q is charge on either plate.
Figure 3.1
With the lower plate connected to ground, the charge density on its lower side is
close to zero.
Working directly from Gauss theorem, we find the field (which is uniform
between the plates) to be
volts/m (3.1)
Where _ = charge density
Then the potential difference is
E. dx = volts (3.2)
farads
This shows that capacitance increases linearly with the area of the electrodes
(plate) and inversely proportional to the plate separation.
A Q
 
+ +
      
+ + + + + + +
 
+
+
0
1
= E
=
d
V
0 A
Qd
0
d
A
V
Q
C
0
= =
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The charge, (Q) on a condductor is linearly proportional to its potentiial (V). The
proportionality constant is known as the capacitance and is defined as
C (farads) =
The quantities enclosed in the brackets are the respective units. The farad is a
very large unit, so we often use mircrofarads, where 1 F = 10
6
F
(b) Capacitance between concentric spherical conductors
The capacitance of a spherical capacitor consising of a spherical conducting shell
of radius b and charge Q that is concentric with a smaller conducting sphere of
radius a and charge +Q is given by.
C = (3.3)
(c) Capacitance between two coaxial cylinders of radii a and b, and length L
is given by
C = (3.4)
where a and b are radii of inner and outer cylinders respectively
Task 3.2 Derivation of capacitance of capacitors in series and Parallel
The equivalent capacitance, C of capacitances, C of capacitances C1, C2, C3 of
capacitors connected in parallel is given by
C = (3.5)
While the equivalent capacitance, C of capacitances, C of capacitances C1, C2,
C3 of capacitors connected in series is given by
(3.5)
Task 3.3 Electrostatic stored energy
The work done in the charging process goes into stored energy U in the system.
Thus the potential energy of the charged system is
U = joules
Where C is capacitance and V is the voltage
) (
) (
volts V
Coulombs Q
( ) a b k
ab
V
Q
=
( ) a b
L
/ ln
2
0
i
i
C
=
i i
C C
1 1
2
2
1
CV
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Task 3.4 Capacitors with dielectric
When the space between the plates of a capcitor is completely filled with insulating
matter, called dielectrics, the capacitance is multiplied by a factor K greater than 1.
This factor is called the dielectric constant. The polarization charge qp, the element
of surface area dS, and surface density of charge are related by the following
expression
= (3.6)
Capacitance of a capacitor with a dielectric is given by
C = (3.7)
Where is susceptability, d is
in the case of isotropic dielectric, where polarization P is always parallel to the
field E, the electric diplacement, D, is given by
D = E + P (3.8)
Task 3.1.1 Calculation of capacitance
(a) Read the following references: Arthur F Kip (1969); Serway (1986) and
Grant (1990) and make notes on potential. As you make notes, provide
responses to the following tasks
(b) Use equation (3.1) and show that electric field E =
(c) Show the steps used in deriving equation (3.2)
(d) Example: Calculation of capacitance of two concentric spherical
conductors
If we consider a spherical capacitor consisting of a spherical conducting shell of
radius b and charge Q that is concentric with a smaller conducting sphere of
radius a and charge +Q. Find its capacitance.if the outer sphere is earthed
You have to note tha:
The field outside a spherical symmetric charge distribution is radial and given by
kQ/r
2
.
In this example, this corresponds to the field between the spheres (a < r < b).
Since the field is zero elsewhere).
From Gausss law we see that only the inner sphere contributes to the field. Thus
the potential difference between the spheres is given by
p
dS
dq
p
p
( )
d
A + 1
0
A
Q
V V E dr kQ
dr
r
kQ
r
kQ
b a r
a
b
a
b
a
b
= = =
l
l
l
l
=
2
1 1
bb a
1
)
1
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The magnitude of the potential difference is given by
V = Va  Vb = kQ
Substituting this in C = , we get
C =
FOLLOW THE STEPS GIVEN AND SEE THAT THEY ARE CLEAR TO YOU
(e) Calculation of capacitance due two coaxial cylinders
Equation (3.4) gives the capacitance of two coaxial cylinders as
C =
Follow the example given and other literatures in the links and references provided
and derive this relation.
Use equations (3.3) and (3.4) for solving different numerical problems
Task 3.2.1 To derive expression for energy stored
(a) Make your note and show that equation (3.3) can be written as
U = =
Task 3.3.1 Electrostatic stored energy
(a) Use the relation Q = CV and the definition of work to show that energy
U stored in capacitor is given by
U = joules
Task 3.4.1 Dielectrics
(a) Read and make notes on dielectric materials, dielectric constant,
polarization susceptability, and electric displacement
When a charge Q is placed on the upper isolated plate, all the charge
moves to the bottom surface of the plate, and that an equal and opposite
charge appears on the lower plate. The equal and opposite charges on
the lower plate appear because of the zerofield requirement inside a
conductor.
(b) Use the references and the links and derive equations (3.7) and equation
(3.8)
( )
ab
a b
V
Q
( ) a b k
ab
V
Q
=
( ) a b
L
/ ln
2
0
2
2
1
CV
C
Q
QV
2
2
1
2
1
=
C
Q
QV CV
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
= =
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(c) Use equations (3.2) and (3.7) to write an expression for the relation
between dielectric constant K and susceptability,
Task 3.5 Experiment on Graphical Representation and Quantitative Treatment of
Capacitor Discharge
You could work in a group to do this experiment
Apparatus
One milliammeter
One Capacitor 470F
Assorrted resistors
Stop watch
Connecting wires
reed switch
Figure 3.2
Part I
Procedure
(a) Connect switch to point 1 and leaf the capacitor to charge
(b) Disconnect the switch from point 1 and connect it to 2
(c) Note the reading on voltmeter and milliammeter
(d) Repeat this at a definite interval of time.(say 5s)
(e) Enter your results in a table, including values of charge (Q), and time in
seconds.
(f) Plot a graph of Q against time
The graph that you get should be similar to that shown in Fig. 3.3
Repeat the experiment with different values of V. What do you observe about
(i) Shape of the graph in relation to the voltage?
(ii) The half life of the decay in relation to the voltage?
The expected graph should be asymptotic. In theory what the graph tells us is
that the capacitor does not completely discharge, although in practice, it does.
2
mA
V
R
1
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The graph is described by the relationship:
Q = Q0 e
t/RC
Q charge (C); Q0 charge at the start; e exponential number (2.718);
t time (s); C capacitance (F); R resistance ( ).
Part II
Investigate the effects of
I. increasing the resistance on the time taken to discharge the capacitor
II. increasing the capacitance on the time needed to discharge a capacitor
Formative Evaluation
Try to discuss some of these evaluation questions with a friend. This practice is
very helpful
1. A 5000F capacitor is charged to 12.0 V and discharged through a
2000 resistor.
(a) What is the time constant? (Ans.= 10 s)
(b) What is the voltage after 13 s? (Ans. V = 3.3 volts )
(c) What is the halflife of the decay? (Ans. 6.93 s.)
(d) How long would it take the capacitor to discharge to 2.0 (Ans. 17.9 s)
i
i
R
=
i i
R R
1 1
=
out in
I I
= 0 V
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Kirchoffs loop rule is used to determine the correct orientation of batteries in
circuits which has more than one battery  that is, which one(s) are charging and
which one(s) are discharging.
This rule is equivalent to a statement about conservation of energy; remember,
volt = joule / coulomb
4.3 Maximising power transfer versus power efficiency
To achieve maximum efficiency, the resistance of the source could be made close
to zero.
Figure 4.2
The efficiency _ for the circuit in Fig. 4.2 is defined as
(4.7)
R
s
is the source resistance, while R
L
is the load resiastance.

+
RL
Rs
Vs

+
I
VL
L
s
s L
L
R
R
R R
R
+
=
+
=
1
1
1
=
I1
I2
I3
I
E1
E2
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Task 4.3.1 Maximum power efficiency
(a) Define efficiency
(b) Using the definition of efficiency, derive expression in equation (4.7)
(i) If RL = Rs then
(ii) If RL = then
(iii) If RL = 0 then
These three examples show you that:
The efficiency is only 50% when maximum power transfer is achieved, but
approaches 100% as the load resistance approaches infinity (though the total
power level tends towards zero). When the load resistance is zero, all the power
is consumed inside the source (the power dissipated in a short circuit is zero) so
the efficiency is zero.
Task 4.4 Mesh analysis
Objectives :
1. To construct a planar circuit having two voltage sources and five resistors.
2. To study node voltages and mesh currents.
3. To compare calculated and measured results using both nodal and mesh
analysis.
Equipment and Parts List :
DC Power Supply.
Digital Multimeter (DMM)
Resistors one each: 1.5 kW, 2.2 kW, 4.7 kW, 5.6 kW, and 6.8 kW.
Breadboard
Procedure :
1. Connect the circuit shown in Fig. 4.3. VS1 and VS2 are DC power supply.
Figure 4.3
5 . 0 =
1 =
0 =
R R R R R 1 2 2 2 4 7 3 6 8 4 5 6 5 1 5 = = = = = . , . , . , . , . k k k k k ,
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2. Set VS1 = 12 V and VS2 = 12 V. Note that Node 1 is positive and Node 4
is negative.
3. Measure and Record the readings corresponding to V1, V2, V3, and V4.
Similarly record also the current I1, I2, and I3. (not branch current Ia and Ib
4. Use a multimeter and measure the values of all resistors.
Comparisons And Questions :
1. From your measured mesh currents, calculate the value of the branch
currents Ia and Ib shown in Figure 4.3.
2. By observation, what are the values of V1 and V4? With the given values of
VS1 and VS2.
3. Node Equations:
(a). Set up the nodal equations for the circuit, and solve for V2 and
V3, using nominal values of resistances and nominal voltage sources.
(b). Compare all measured node voltages with the calculated values.
(c). Repeat a & b using the measured values of resistances and
measured values of the source voltages
4. Mesh Equations:
(a). Set up the mesh equations for the circuit, and solve for the three
mesh currents, using nominal values of resistances and the nomi
nal voltage sources..
(b). Compare all measured mesh currents with the calculated values.
(c). Repeat a & b using the measured values of resistance and measured
values of the source voltages.
5. Calculate the power absorbed by resistors R2 and R4. For each resistor
calculate power by using three different methods: P=VI, P=I
2
R, P=V
2
/R.
Use measured resistances, measured node voltages, and the branch currents
calculated from the measured mesh currents. Explain any differences in
the power obtained by the three methods
Conclusions :
Based on your experimental observations, what laws and principles have been
verified by this experiment?
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5
3_F
3V
+
4V
8V
5
3
Formative Evaluation
Figure 4.4
1. The multiloop circuit shown in Fig.4.4 contains three resistors, three batte
ries, and one capacitor under steadystate conditions, find the unknown
currents
(a) Show that the charge on the capacitor is 66.0 C
(b) Why is the left side of the capacitor positively charged
(c) Show that the voltage across the capacitor by transversing any
other loop, such as the outside loop (Answer = 11..0V)
2. Write up Kirchoffs junction rules for Fig. 4.5
Figure 4.5
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Title: Magnetism
You will require 30 hours to complete this activity. Only basic guidelines are
provided for you in order to help you do the rest of the curriculum in the activity.
Personal reading and work is strongly adviced here.
Specific Objectives
Define the terms: magnetic field, magnetic flux and flux density
Explain and draw magnetic field lines associated with current carrying
conductors, and explain the principles of instruments based in it;
Explain the principles of an oscilloscope;
State, explain and use Faradays law of electromagnetic induction;
Derive expression for force on a currentcarrying wire in a magnetic field
Relate the force (F) to velocity (v), charge (q) and magnetic field (B)
Demonstrate magnetic field and interaction using magnets, and current
carrying wire, show the influence of the magnetic field by a moving charge
using a oscilloscope, and demonstrate the electromagnetic induction/
Faradays law using simple materials
Derive expression for torque on current loop and apply the expression to
calculate related problems
Define magnetic dipole
Write and apply the expression for dipole moment for calculation
Section Expectation
Derivation and explanation of Faradays laws of electromagnetic induction
derive expression for force on currentcarrying wire in magnetic field.
Relating the force to velocity, charge and magnetic field.
Derivation of expression for torque, magnetic fields in solenoid and toroids.
Defining magnetic filed, magnetci flux; magnetic dipole
Stating and using Amperes law
Summary of the Learning Activity
Definitions of a number of terms including: magnetic field, magnetic flux and
flux density. In addition explanation of a number of concepts like Motion of a
charged particle in a magnetic field and Magnetic moment, , of a coil. It includes
also stating of laws and principles and their applications
Activity 5
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Keys concepts
Magnetic flux through an are element dA is given by B.dA = BdA cos. dA is
perpendicular to the surface
Magnetic moment of a current loop carrying current, I is
= IA
Where A is perpendicular to the plane of the loop.
Motion of a charged particle in a magnetic field  The magnetic force acting
on a charged particle moving in a magnetic field is always perpendicular to the
velocity of the particle. Thus, the work done by the magnetic force is zero since
the displacement of the charge is always perpendicular to the magnetic force.
Therefore, a static magnetic field changes the direction of the velocity but does
not affect the speed of kinetic energy of the charged particle.
Magnetic moment, m, of a coil Is the combination NIA, N is number of turns,
I is current and A is area of coil
Magnetic dipole moment , of a small coil of area S carrying a current I is
defined as
= I S
where S is the vector perpendicular to the plane of the coil in the direction related
to the current by the righthand rule
Key Terms
Magnetic dipole
Magnetic field
Magnetic force
Magnetic flux
Magnetic moment
Solenoids
Torque
List of Relevant Useful Links
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/magnetism, 06/09/2006
http://www4.ncsu.edu/~mowat/H&M_WebSite/FaradaysLaw/FaradaysLaw.html
30i08/2006
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Introduction to the Activity
Historically, the study of magnetism began with the observations of interactions
between ferromagnetic materials; substances such as iron under appropriate con
ditions exhibit strong forces of attraction and repulsion, which resemble, but are
quite distinct from, electrostatic forces. In 1819, Oersted first showed a connection
between electricity and magnetism by demonstrating the torque on a compass
needle caused by a nearby electric current. Thus in this activity we will first
discuss magnetism interms of the forces between the moving charges of current
elements.
In the early 1830s Michael Faraday made the observation that a changing current
in one electric circuit can cause current to appear (induce a current) in a second
circuit. Electromagnetic induction is the principle governing the operation of
electric motors, generators, transformers, and some types of particle accelerators.
Faradays Law is one of the four cornerstones of electromagnetic theory. Without
it, we couldnt have light.
http://www4.ncsu.edu/~mowat/H&M_WebSite/FaradaysLaw/FaradaysLaw.hml
30/08/2006
Detailed Description of the Activity
(Main Theoretical Elements)
5.1 Magnetic field, magnetic flux and flux density
(a) Read the following references: Arthur F Kip (1969); Serway (1986),
and Grant (1990) and make notes on electric current. Make notes for
Magnetism according topics presented below. You are advised to work
through each task at a time.
(b) Magnnetic flux, field B and cross sectional area through which the flux
passes are related by
(5.1)
The SI unit of flux is the Weber (Wb), while the unit of magnetic field is
the Tesla (T)
1 Wb m
2
= 1 T
5.2 Magnetic force on a currentcarrying wire
(a) The total magnetic field B due to a thin, straight wire carrying a
constant current I at a point P a distance a from the wire is
B = (5.2)
L
A N
BA
i
0
= =
a
I
2
0
African Virtual University 69
(b) If two parallel conductors carry a steady current I1 and I2 respectively
and if the separation between them is a, then force, F1 on the first
conductor per unit length is,
(5.3)
5.3 Moving Charge in a magnetic field
The relation between force (F), velocity (v) and charge, (q) moving in a conductor
placed in a field B is given by:
(5.4)
is called the permeability of free space. The constant that
is used in electric field calculations is called the permittivity of free space.
5.4 Faradays law of electromagnetic induction
(a) Consider a circuit in which there are two circuits: primary circuit, and
secondary circuit with Ns turns. When a varying current is fed in the
primary circuit an emf E is induced in the secondary coil. The induced
emf is given by:
E = (5.5)
(b) Effective area of the secondary coil
By Ohms law if the secondary has resistance RS, then the induced
current is Is = emf/Rs (5.6)
In practice, it is not accurate to assume that each turn has the same area
A. Therefore we will represent the dot product as
Ns B.A = NsB.Aeff cos (5.7)
_ is the angle between B and area vector A. the effective area is
Aeff = ( (5.8)
where r1 and r2 are the inner and outer radii, respectively, of the secondary coil.
5.4 Torque on a current loop
(a) The torque on a coil with N turns of area A carrying a current I is given
by:
Torque on coil is (5.9)
( ) A B N
dt
d
s
.
( )
2 1
2
2
2
1
3
r r r r + +
sin NIBA =
F
I I
a
1
1 2
2
=
B
I qv r
r
=
4
2
4 10
7
Ns
C
2
2
B N
I
r
p
p
=
1
)
2
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Task 5.5. Amperes circuital law
Apply Amperes circuital law and derive expressions for magnetic fields in
solenoids and toroids. (use the references and the Links)
Task 5.6. Experiment: Measuring Induced emf
Purpose
To verify Faradays law of electromagnetic induction
Apparatus
The Field Coil made from 200 turns of copper SW.G 28 wire (diameter
0.2684 cm),
Search Coil is made from 4000 turns of copper S.W.G 36 wire (diameter
0.134 cm).
A twochannel oscilloscope
Cables and plugs
An iron bar long enough to stick through both coils simultaneously.
(Optional)
Cables and plugs
A signalgenerator
Figure 5.1
Field coil
R
p
Channel 1
Search coil R
s
Channel 2
Ground
Search
coil
Ground
Signal
Oscilloscope
Generator
African Virtual University 72
Procedure
Follow the steps given below to do the experiment
(a) Place the field coil on a piece of paper and trace around the inside. Find
the centre of this tracing and mark it with a cross. This marks the spot to
which you will align the search coil
(b) Measure the inner(r1) and the outer(r2) radii of the search coil and
determine its effective area. Measure the inner and outer radii of the
field coil and determine its average radius,r
(c) Connect the two coils, the signal and the oscilloscope as shown in Fig.
5.1
(d) Place the field coil on the paper so that its inner diameter coincides with
the tracing
(e) Place the search coil such that its centre also coincides with mark at the
centre of the field coil.
(f) Turn on the signal generator and oscilloscope
(g) Set the oscilloscope to display both channels 1 and 2
(h) Set the signal generator to produce a triangle wave form of amplitude 8
volts and frequency 400Hz. Use the knobs on the sgnal to adjust the
voltage and frequency. Read their values from the oscilloscop screen,
but not from the setting of the signal generator knobs. Set the oscillos
cope time scale so you can display three periods of the triangle wave.
Set the gains and positions of the two traces so that the triangle wave
form fills the top half of the screen and the induced emf wave form fills
the lower half of the screen
(i) Sketch the patterns on the screen indicating the actual settings of the
vertical (V/div) and horizontal sweep rate (ms/div)
(j) Read from the oscilloscope the value of dV/dt (read from channel 1)and
the measured induced emf, E2 (read from channel 2). Note that
Induced emf E1 = 
Ip = V/Rp and [why is this so?]
B = Np = r is the mean value of r1 and r2
Use these equations to write the expression for induced e.m.f. E1
(k) From your measurements evaluate the value of E1 and compare it with E2
(l) Repeat procedure (h) (j) for different values of input voltage and
frequency
(m) Comment of your results
( ) A B N
dt
d
s
.
r
I
p
2
0
A r r r
eff
=
( )
3
1
2
2
2
12
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Formative Evaluation
1. A rectangulr coil of dimensions 5.40 cm x 8.50 cm consists of 25 turns of
wire. The coil carries a current of 15 mA. Calculate the magnitude of the
magnetic moment of the coil. (Ans. 1.72 x 10
3
A.m
2
)
Suppose a magnetic field of magnitude of 0.350T is applied parallel to the
plane of the loop. What isi the magnitude of the torque acting on the loop?
(Ans. 6.02 x 10
4
Nm)
2. A proton moves with a speed of 8.0 x 10
6
ms
1
along the xaxis. It enters a
region where there is a field of magnitude 2.5 T, directed at an angle of 60
0
to the xaxis and lying in the xy plane. Calculate the initial magnetic force
and acceleration of the proton. (Ans. 2.77 x 10
12
N; 1.66 x 10
13
ms
2
)
3. A proton is moving in a circular orbit of radius 14 cm in a uniform magnetic
field of magnitude 0.35 T directed perpendicular to the velocity of the pro
ton. Find the orbital speed of the proton. (Ans. 4.69 ms
1
)
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XIV. Synthesis Of The Module
Electricity and magnetism I
Activity 1
In activity one, the key concepts are about interactions between charged bodies
which ultimtely led to Coulombs law, hence Gauss theorem. The derivations
and applications of related expressions are important to master. The starting point
to remember is that electric charge is an attribute of matter that produces a
force,just as mass causes the gravitational force, but unlike mass, electric charge
can be either positive or negative. That, the density of electric lines in a given
region is proportional to the magnitude of the field in that region and that the
number of electric lines originating or ending on charges is proportional to the
magnitude of each charge.
In addition to the physics learnt a number of expressions that have been derived
and used need to be learned and put in practice. These include expressions for net
torque on a dipole in and external field, that is,
By Coulombs law force between two charges Q1 and Q2 which are at a separation
r apart. is
From definition of electric field, the value of due to n discrete charges
at rest by the principle of superposition is
Likewise, for a body of continuous charge, the electric field at a distance r away
is
For a dipole, the dipole field at points in equatorial plane, a distance r, from the
centre is given by:
2 sin sin aqE pE = =
1 2 1 2
2 2
4
q q q q
F K
r r
= =
2 2 3 2
1
Newton/Coulomb
4 ( )
p
E
a r
=
+
E
q q q q q
i n 1 2 3 , , , ,
E
dq
r
r =
1
4
2
E
q q
r
r
i
i
=
1
4
1 2
2
r
q q
V
2 1
0
4
1
=
i
i
i
r
q
V
0
4
1
=
vol
r
dv
V
0
4
1
2
0
cos
4
1
r
p
V
=
( )
2 / 1
2
3
0
1 cos 3
4
1
+ =
r
p
E
E ds
q
Closed Surface
i
i
cos
=
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This should also include expressions for potential and electric field at P along the
axis of a uniformly charged ring should
Activity 3
The use of Gauss theorem is an important tool for deriving expression of electric
field across parallel plates capacitor, that is,
volts/m
Where _ = charge density
This subsequently leads to expression for potential difference as
E. dx = volts
farads
For good practice, one needs to be able to show how capacitance between
concentric spherical conductors consising of a spherical conducting shell of ra
dius b and charge Q, that is concentric with a smaller conducting sphere of
radius a and charge +Q being given by.
C =
In addition, one needs to be able also to derive expression for capacitance between
two coaxial cylinders of radii a and b, and length L as
C =
where a and b are radii of inner and outer cylinders respectively
When capacitors of capacitances C1, C2, C3 are connected in parallel, their
equivalent capacitance, C is given by
C =
While, if they are series, the equivalent capacitance, C,of capacitances is given
by
0
1
= E
=
d
V
0
A
Qd
0
d
A
V
Q
C
0
= =
( ) a b k
ab
V
Q
=
( ) a b
L
/ ln
2
0
i
i
C
=
i i
C C
1 1
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There are other important relations derived in this section that one needs to be
familiar with. These include expression for capacitance of a capacitor with a
dielectric being given as
C =
Where is susceptability, d is separation between the plates.
Activity 4
activity four a number of relations have been derived. These include
(i) A microscopic form of Ohms law in terms of the current density, j,
field E in the region, whereby
j = E
is the conductivity measured in (ohmmetre)
1
.
(ii) The equivalent resistanc, R, of resistors, R1, R2, R3 in series and parallel
are given respectivley as:
R = , For series connection
For parallel connection
Other important relations are Kirchoffs junction laws. These are
That is, the sum of current, Iin towards a junction equals to the sum of current, Iout
leaving the junction and,
For a closed loop
It is also important to learn how to derive expression for maximum efficiency for
system of resistors connected to a power source.
Activity 5
In activity five there a number of expressions that you need to be acquainted
with. The importanat expressions includes
(a) Magnnetic flux, field B and cross sectional area through which the flux
passes are related by
( )
d
A + 1
0
i
i
R
=
i i
R R
1 1
= 0 V
=
out in
I I
L
A N
BA
i
0
= =
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(b) The total magnetic field B due to a thin, straight wire carrying a cons
tant current I at a point P a distance a from the wire is
B =
(c) If two parallel conductors carry a steady current I1 and I2 respectively
and if the separation between them is a, then force, F1 on the first
conductor per unit length is,
(d) The relation between force (F), velocity (v) and charge, (q) moving in a
conductor placed in a field B is given by:
is called the permeability of free space. The
constant
0
that is used in electric field
calculations is called the permittivity of free space.
(e) Faradays law of electromagnetic induction, in which we consider two
circuit: primary circuit, and secondary circuit with Ns turns. When a
varying current is fed in the primary circuit an emf E is induced in the
secondary coil. The induced emf is given by:
E =
Expected Solutions To Some Problems Set
Solution to 1.5.1
(a) The outward flux of E over any closed surface is equal to the algebraic
sum of the charges enclosed by the surface divided by
0
.
a
I
2
0
( ) A B N
dt
d
s
.
F
I I
a
1
1 2
2
=
B
I qv r
r
=
4
2
4 10
7
Ns
C
2
2
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2.2 .1
Since average static field inside a metal is zero, the charge resides on the sur
face. A spherical charge conductor behaves as though all charges are concentrated
at its centre. This allows us to use expression for field of a point charge
Thus, Vr =  E. dr =
The assumption is that V = 0 at infinity. The similarity with a point charge is
due to identical field distributions
2.3.1
Electric potential, V, and electric potential energy, U = qV, are different quantities,
with different dimensions and different SI units. Energy of any kind (electrical
qV, gravitational mgh, etc) represents the same physical quantity. Electrical
potential, V, is the equivalent of heigh/level/altitude, h in the case of
gravitational field. Therefore, electric potential, V, and electric potential energy,
qV, are as different as @height@, h, is different from potential gravitational
energy, U =mgh.
2.3.2
Application of the concepts Example : Potential due to a uniformly charged ring
Let us take point P at a distance x from the centre of the ring. The charge element
dq is at a distance from point P
We can write
V = k =
k =
In this case each element dq is the same distance from P
0
r
0 0
2
0
4 4
1
0
r
Q
dr
r
Q
r
=
dq
P
x
a
a x +
2
a
2 2
a x +
+
=
2 2
a x
dq
k
r
dq
2 2 2 2
a x
kQ
dq
a x
k
+
=
+
0
4
1
=
( )
2 / 1
2
3
0
1 cos 3
4
1
+ =
r
p
E
( )
3/ 2
2 2
0
1
4
p
a r
=
+
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C
E
R
2
K
1
K
2
R
1
3.
The square of side a above contains a positive charge Q fixed at the lower left
corner and positive point charges +Q fixed at the other three corners of the square.
Point S is located at the centre of the square.
(a) On the diagram, indicate with an arrow the direction of the the net electric
field at point S.
(b) Derive expressions for each of the following in terms of the given
quantities and fundamental constants
(i) The magnitude of the electric field at point S
(ii) The electric potential at point S.
4.
The circuit above contains a capacitor of capacitance C, power supply of emf E,
two resistors of resistances R1 and R2, and two switches K1 and K2. Initially, the
capacitor is uncharged and both switches are open. Switch K1 is closed at time t = 0.
(a) write a differential equation that can be solved to obtain the charge on
the capacitor as a function of time t.
(b) Solve the differential equation in part (a) to determine the charge on the
capacitor as a function of time t, if E = 6V, C = 0.030 F, R1 = R2 = 5000 _
(c) Determine the time when the capacitor has a voltage of 2.0 V across it.
(d) If after a long time, switch K2 is closed at a new time t = 0, sketch
graphs of the current I1 in R1 versus time, and the current I2 in R2
versus time, starting when K2 is closed at a new time t = 0.
Q
+Q
+Q
+Q
S
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5. Show that
(a) the magnnetic flux, , field, B and cross sectional area through which
the flux passes are related by
(b) the total magnetic field B due to a thin, straight wire carrying a constant
current I at a point P a distance a from the wire is
B =
(c) If two parallel conductors carry a steady current I
1
and I
2
respectively
and if the separation between them is a, show that the force, F1 on the
first conductor per unit length is,
6.
A rectangular loop of dimensions 3l and 4l lies in the plane of the page as shown
above. A long straight wire also in the plane of the page carries a current I.
(a) Calculate the magnetic flux through the rectagular loop in terms of I, l,
and any relevant constants.
(b) Beginning with time t = 0, the current in the long straight wire is given
as a function of time t by
I(t) = I0e
kt
, I0 and k are constants
If the loop has a resistance R, calculate in terms of R, I0 , l, k, and the
fundamental constants
(i) the current in the loop as a function of time t
(ii) the total energy dissipated in the loop from t = 0 to t =
L
A N
i
0
=
a
I
2
0
l
3l
I
4l
F
I I
a
1
1 2
2
=
=
R
r
r 1
0
R r for
and
R r
> =
0
B
70
0
0.1
0.1m
m
3_F
2V
+
3V
6V
4
5_
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XVI. REFERENCES
List of Relevant Readings FOR ALL ACTIVITIES
Arthur F. Kip (1969). Fundamental of Electricity, International student edition,
McGrawHill International Book Company.
B.I Bleaney & B. Bleaney (1989). Electricity and Magnetism;3
rd
ed., Oxford
University Press, oxford
Dick, G and Edwards L; Gue D; Brown E and Callout R. (2000). Physics 12,
McGrawHill Ryerson, Toronto.
Duffin W.J. (1990). Electricity and Magnetism, 4th Edition, McGraw Hill
Book Company, London..
Edward R McCliment (1984). Physics, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Publishers,
San Diogo.
Gerald Pollack & Daniel Stump (2002). Electromagnetism 1st ed. Addison Wesley
Grant I S; W. R. Philips (1990). Electromagnetism, Second edition, JohnWiley
and Sons, Chichester.
Kathryn Whyman (2003). Electricity and magnetism
Paul Peter Urone (2000). College Physics, Brooks/Cole Pub. Co.
Serway, (1986) Physics for Engineers, 3rd Ed. pp.690, Sounders college
\publisshers, London..
African Virtual University 87
XVII. Main Author of The Module
Dr Sam Kinyera Obwoya was born on September 05, 1954 in Gulu District in
Uganda. He is a teacher trainer at Kyambogo University, Uganda, and a materials
scientist. He is a Senior Lecturer and the Director of Open Distance and eLearning
Centre (ODeL). He has published many papers in Materials Science and Physics
Education. Currently, he is a fellow of US/Africa Materials Science Institute
(USAMI), Princeton University, USA where he is a Visiting Scientist.