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Re elationB BetweenCpandCv

Relation nbetweenCpandCv:To oproveCpCv C =R Let us consider c 1 kg g mole of a perfect gas s enclosed in n a cylinder fitted with a piston at constant pressure e. Some heat is supplied d to the gas externally th he temperature as well a as the volum me of the gasrises s.

Given: P=cons stantpressur reappliedon nthepiston =Area aofcrosssec ctionofthepiston p T=riseintemperat tureofthegas dx=The edistanceAB Bthroughwh hichthepisto onispushed dup dv=dx=Theincre easeinvolum meofthegas s. Cp&Cv=Molarspe ecificheatcapacitiesofth hegasatcon nstantpressu ureandcons stantvolume e respectively. Qbethe eheatsuppli ied. Althoughboththechangestakeplacesimult taneouslybu utforconven nienceofcalc culationweassume ginstepsfirstthetempe eraturechan ngesandthenvolumechanges. themtobeoccurring Step1:The T volumeis i assumedto t beconstan ntandthete emperaturerises r bydTand LetQ1be b theheatrequiredforthat t Q1=1.Cv.dT C Joules (1) StepII:Thevolumeofthegasth henincrease esbypushing gthepistonupbyadista ancedxagainsta forcePx LetQ2=energyrequ uiredtodothe t mechanic calworkinpushing p thepiston p up. Q2=Px(xdx)=PxdvJoules s(2)
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RelationBetweenCpandCv

SinceQ1andQ2arethepartofthetotalheatsuppliedtothegasQhence Q=Q1+Q2(3) ButifwelookatthechangeasawholewefindthatQheatrisesthetemperatureof 1kgmoleofthegasbydTatconstantpressure. Q=1.Cp.dT(4) Puttingequation(1),(2)and(4)in(3) CpdT=CvdT+Pdv CpCv=P.dv/dT(5) ForperfectgastheequationisPV=nRT For1kgMolen=1PV=RT DifferentiatingwithPconstantPdv/dT=R(6) Puttingequation(6)in(5)weget CpCv=R(7) If M be the molecular weight of the gas and cp & cv are the ordinary specific heat of the gas at constantpressureandconstantvolumerespectivelythen McpMcv=R cpcv=R/M=
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Re elationB BetweenCpandCv

Transfor rmationofHeat H :Thesta ateofagascan c berepres sentedbyth hreevariables (i)Pressure (ii)Volum me (iii)Tem mperature Ifoneof fthesechang gesthestate eofthegaschanges. c Isotherm malTransfor rmation:Wh henthestate eofagasischangedkeep pingitstemp peraturecon nstant thechan ngeisknown nasIsotherm malchange. ForIsoth hermalchangeT=0 Generally slow chan nges are trea ated as Isothermal. In iso othermal pro ocess the pre essure and vo olume of r byPV V=constantwhentempe eratureisconstant(Boyle eslaw). agasisrelated Adiabat ticProcess:When W thesta ateofagasis i changedso othatnoheatisallowed dtoleavethesystem or no he eat is allowe ed to enter into the system from th he surroundi ing i.e. exchange of hea at energy between n the system m and the su urrounding is s zero the ch hange is kno own as Adiab batic process s. Thus if the syst tem is therm mally insulat ted from the e surroundin ng the change is adiaba atic Q=0. Generally G suddenchangesaretreatedasadiabatic. a Relation nbetweenpressure,volu umeandtem mperatureof o agasinad diabatictrans sformation: Letusco onsider1kgmoleofape erfectgasen nclosedinacylinder c fittedwithapist ton.Ifsomeheatis supplied dtothegasthe t temperat tureaswellasvolumeofthegasincreases. LetQ=Am mountofhea atsuppliedto othegas P=Pressure eappliedonthepiston. =Areaof fcrosssectio onofthepist ton dT=Riseintemperatureofthegas dx=AB=The T distancethroughwhi ichthepistonispushedup dv=dx=T Theincreaseinvolumeof o thegas Cp&Cv=Molar M specific cheatcapac citiesoftheg gasatconsta antpressureand constantvo olumerespec ctively.

Althoughboththechangestakeplacesimult taneouslybu utforconven nienceofcalc culationweassume themtobeoccurring ginsteps. Step1:Let L thevolum meremainco onstantandthetempera aturerisesby ydTonlyand dletQ1bethe t amountofheatabso orbedbythe egasforthischange
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RelationBetweenCpandCv

Q1=1.Cv.dTJoules(1) StepII:TemperatureremainsconstantatT+dTandthevolumeofthegasincreasesbydv LetQ2=Amountofheatenergyabsorbedbygasindoingthemechanicalwork,inpushingthepiston upbyadistancedxagainstaforce(Px)

Q 2 = (P )dx = P ( dx ) = Pdv Joules (2)

Sinceboththepartsofheatabsorbedareobtainedfromthesuppliedheat

Since both parts of the heat absorbed from supplied heat


=Q +Q Q 1 2

Integratin g bothsides: dV = 0 V loge P + logeV = constant

Q = C v dT + PdV For adiabatic transformation Q = 0 C v dT + PdV = 0 (3)


a perfect gas PV = nRT ( here n = 1 ) For PV = RT

P +

dP

loge PV = constant Takingantilog PV = econstant = constant PV = constant (5) We know that PV = RT RT (6) V RT V= (7) P Fromequation(5) & (6) P= RT V = constant V TV -1 = constant (8) Fromequation(5 ) and (7)

Differentiating : PdV + VdP = RdT dT =

PdV + VdP PdV + VdP = (4) dT Cp Cv Putting equation (4) in (3) :

PdV + VdP + PdV = 0 Cp - Cv C v Vdp + C p PdV = 0 Cv

Dividing both sides by C p PV


C dP p dV + =0 P C v V

dP dV =0 + P V

Where =

Cp Cv

= Constant

RT P = constant P T P1 = constant (9)

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