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of India Undertaking) Space for Institution Logo Best Practices in Distribution Systems Operation and Maintenance (O&M)Distribution Reform, Upgrades and Management (DRUM) Training Program

Earthing Practices M V S Birinchi, CORE International, Inc. and TNEB course material (Compiled and edited by Pradeep K.
Srivastava, CORE International, Inc.)

Earthing Practices At Substations

Introduction
Earthing practices adopted at Generating Stations,
Substations, Distribution structuresand lines are of great importance. It is however observed that this item is most oftenneglected. The codes of practice, Technical Reference books, Handbooks contain achapter on this subject but they are often skipped considering them as too elementaryor even as unimportant. Many reference books on this subject are referred to and such o f t h o s e p o i n t s w h i c h a r e m o s t i m p o r t a n t a r e c o m p i l e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g p a r a g r a p h s . These are of importance of every practicing Engineer in charge of Substations. OBJECTIVE OF EARTHING Prime Objective of Earthing is to provide a Zero potential surface in and around andunder the area where the electrical equipment is installed or erected.To achieve this objective the non-current carrying parts of the electrical equipment is c o n n e c t e d to the general mass of the earth which prevents the a p p e a r a n c e o f dangerous voltage on the enclosures and helps to provide safety to working staff andpublic. Importance of Earthing & Practices The earthing is provided for a ) S a f e t y o f P e r s o n n e l b ) P r e v e n t o r a t l e a s t m i n i m i s e d a m a g e t o e q u i p m e n t a s a r e s u l t o f f l o w o f h e a v y fault currents.c ) I m p r o v e r e l i a b i l i t y o f P o w e r s u p p l y The earthing is broadly divided asa ) S y s t e m e a r t h i n g ( C o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n p a r t o f p l a n t i n a n o p e r a t i n g s y s t e m l i k e LV neutral of a Power Transformer winding and earth).b ) E q u i p m e n t e a r t h i n g ( S a f e t y g r o u d i n g ) Connecting frames of equipment (like motor body, Transformer tank, Switch gear box, Operating rods of Air break switches, etc) to earth. 1 Power Finance Corporation Ltd. (A Govt. of India Undertaking) Space for Institution Logo Best Practices in Distribution Systems Operation and Maintenance (O&M)Distribution Reform, Upgrades and Management (DRUM) Training Program The system earthing and safety earthing are interconnected and therefore f a u l t current flowing through system ground raises the potential of the safety ground andalso causes steep potential gradient in and around the Substation. But separatingthe two earthing systems have disadvantages like higher short circuit current, lowcurrent flows through relays and long distance to be covered to separate the twoearths. After weighing the merits and demerits in each case, the common practice of common and solid (direct) grounding system designed for effective earthing and safepotential gradients is being adopted. Factors that change the requirement of earth electrodea ) I f a n e l e c t r i c a l f a c i l i t y c a n expand in system, it creates different routes in theelectrode. What was

f o r m e r l y a s u i t a b l e l o w e a r t h r e s i s t a n c e c a n b e c o m e obsolete standard.b)More number of metallic pipes, which were buried underground become less and less dependable as effective low resistance ground connection.c)Most of the location, the water table gradually falling. In a year or two, area end up with dry earth of high resistance.d ) T h e s e f a c t o r s e m p h a s i z e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f a c o n t i n u o u s , p e r i o d i c p r o g r a m o f earth resistance testing. The earth resistance shall be as low as possible and shall not exceed the followinglimits:P o w e r S t a t i o n s 0 . 5 O h m s E H T S u b s t a t i o n s 1 . 0 O h m s 3 3 K V S t a t i o n s 2 . 0 O h m s D / t S t r u c t u r e s 5 . 0 O h m s T o w e r f o o t r e s i s t a n c e - 1 0 . 0 O h m s Step Potential Step Potential is the difference in the voltage between two points which are one metreapart along the earth when ground currents flowing. Touch Potential Touch Potential is the difference in voltage between the object touched and the groundpoint just below the person touching the object when ground currents are flowing. Specification of Earthing Depending on soil resistivity, the earth conductor (flats) shall be buried at the followingdepths. 2 Power Finance Corporation Ltd. (A Govt. of India Undertaking) Space for Institution Logo Best Practices in Distribution Systems Operation and Maintenance (O&M)Distribution Reform, Upgrades and Management (DRUM) Training Program Soil Resistivity in ohms/metreEconomical depth of Burial in metres1 ) 5 0 1 0 0 0 . 5 2 ) 1 0 0 4 0 0 1 . 0 3 ) 4 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 . 5 To keep the earth resistance as low as possible in order to achieve safe step and touchvoltages, an earth mat shall be buried at the above depths below ground and the mat shall be provided with grounding rods at suitable points. All non-current carrying parts att h e S u b s t a t i o n shall be connected to this grid so as to ensure that under f a u l t conditions, none of these part are at a higher potential than the grounding grid. Plate Earths Taking all parameters into consideration, the size of plate earths are decided asP o w e r S t a t i o n s & E H T S t a t i o n - M a i n 1 0 0 x 1 6 m m A u x i l i a r y - 5 0 x 8 m m S m a l l

S t a t i o n s 7 5 x 8 m m The complete specifications for providing earth mats at EHT & 33KV Substations,Distribution transformers & Consumers premises are reproduced below. Specification for Earthing SystemI) EHT Substation Earthing of equipments in the sub-stations is taken of as discussed below: 1. Power transformers: i . T h e t r a n s f o r m e r b o d y o r t a n k i s d i r e c t l y c o n n e c t e d t o e a r t h g r i d . I n addition, there should be direct connection from the tank to the earth side of the lightning arresters.i i ) T h e t r a n s f o r m e r t r a c k r a i l s h o u l d b e e a r t h e d s e p a r a t e l y . iii)The neutral bushing is earthed by a separate connection to the earth grid. 2 . P o t e n t i a l a n d c u r r e n t t ra n s f o r m e r s : The bases of the CTs and Pts. are to be earthed. All bolted cover plates of the bushing are also to be connected the earth grid. 3 . L i g h t n i n g a r r e s t e r s : The bases of the L.As. are to be earthed with conductors as short and straight asP o s s i b l e (for reducing impedance). The earth side of the L.As. are to b e connected directly frolJ1 the equipment to be protected. Each L.A. should haveindividual earth rods, which are in turn connected to earth grid. 3 Power Finance Corporation Ltd. (A Govt. of India Undertaking) Space for Institution Logo Best Practices in Distribution Systems Operation and Maintenance (O&M)Distribution Reform, Upgrades and Management (DRUM) Training Program 4. Circuit breakers: The supporting structures, C.T. chambers, P.T. tanks, Cable glands etc., are to beconnected to earth. 5 . O t h e r e q u i p m e n t s : All equipments, structures, and metallic frames of switches and isolators are to be earthed separately. 6 . F e n c e s : Providing separate earth or connecting to the station earth depends upon thed i s t a n c e o f t h e f e n c e t h e s t a t i o n e a r t h . I f t h e d i s t a n c e i s w i t h i n f e e t , a n i n t e r - connection made to the station earth. If not, the metallic fences are earthed bymeans of earth rods spaced at not more than 200 feet. The gates and supportp a n s m a y b e e a r t h e d t h r o u g h a n e a r t h r o d . T h e c a b l e w i r e s p a s s i n g u n d e r metallic fence are to be buried below at a depth qf 26 or are to bc enclosed in ainsulating pipe (P. V.C or asbestos cement) for a distance of not less than 5 feeton each side of the fence. 7 . G r o u n d w i r e s : The ground wires over the station arc connected to the station earth. In order thatthe station earth potentials during fault condition5 arc not applied to transmissionline ground wires and towers, all ground wires coming to the stations shall bebroken !It an insulated on the fir5t tower external to station by means of strain disc. insulators.The followings are the important features in earthing:1 . T h e e a r t h m a t s h a l l b e a s p e r t h e a p p r o v e d l a y o u t . T h e e a r t h m a t s h a l l b e f o r m e d with the steel flats buried in the ground at a depth of 750mm on edge.2.The earth mat shall extend over the entire switchyard as

per the layout.3.All the junctions of the steel flats while forming the earth mat and taking risers fromthe earth mat for giving earth connections to equipment, steel structures, conduitsc a b l e s h e a t h s s h a l l b e p r o p e r l y w e l d e d . A l l j o i n t s s h a l l b e p r o v i d e d w i t h s u i t a b l e angle pieces for proper contact between flats.4 . P r o v i s i o n s shall be made for thermal expansion of the steel flats by giving s m o o t h circular bends. Bending shall not cause any fatigue in the material at bends.5 . T h e earth mat shall be formed by welding 50x8 mm steel flat to the 1 0 0 x 1 6 m m peripheral earth conductor. The grounding grid shall be spaced about 5 meters i.e inlongitude and about 5 meters in the transverse directions. After the completion of 4 Power Finance Corporation Ltd. (A Govt. of India Undertaking) Space for Institution Logo Best Practices in Distribution Systems Operation and Maintenance (O&M)Distribution Reform, Upgrades and Management (DRUM) Training Program earth mat, the earth resistance shall be measured. In case the earth resistance ismore than one ohm the earth mat shall be extended by installing extra electrodes, sothat the earth resistance is less than one ohm.6.All fence corner posts and gate posts shall be connected to the ground by providing 3 2 m m d i a M . S r o d s o f 3 m e t r e l e n g t h n e a r t h e p o s t s a n d c o n n e c t e d t o t h e m a i n grounding mat.7 . A l l p a i n t e n a m e l a n d s c a l e s h a l l b e r e m o v e d f r o m s u r f a c e o f c o n t a c t o n m e t a l surface before making ground connection.8 . T h e r i s e r s t a k e n a l o n g t h e m a i n s w i t c h y a r d s t r u c t u r e s a n d e q u i p m e n t s t r u c t u r e s (upto their top) shall be clamped to the structures at an interval of not more than onemetre.9 . 5 0 x 8 m m g r o u n d c o n d u c t o r s h a l l b e r u n i n c a b l e r o u t e s a n d s h a l l b e c o n n e c t e d t o the ground mat at an interval of 10 metres.1 0 . G r o u n d i n g e l e c t r o d e s o f 3 2 m m d i a 3 m t r . l o n g M S r o d s shall be provided at theperipheral corners of the earth mat. The grounding rods shall be driven into theground and their tops shall be w e l d e d t o c l a m p a n d t h e c l a m p t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e grounding rods shall be welded to the ground mat.11.Lightening arrestors shall be provided with earth pits near them for earthing.12.Cast iron pipes 125mm dia and 2.75 metres long and 9.5mm thick shall be buriedvertically in the pits and a mixture of Bentonite compound with Black cotton soil aratio of 1:6 is to be filled 300 mm dia and the pipe for the entire depth. Where it is notpossible to go to a depth of 2.75 metres, 1.3 x 1.3 MMS plates, 25mm thick shall beb u r i e d vertically in pits of 2 metres depth and surrounded by Bentonite m i x t u r e atleast 2 metre away from any building or structure foundation. The plates shall beatleast 15 metres apart. These earth pits in turn shall be connected to the earth mat. II) Earthing at 33KV Substations 1. Providing of earth pit and earth matting include the following connected works:a)Excavation of earth pits of size 21/2ft x 21/2ft x 9ft in all type of soils.b)Providing of CI pipe of 3 inch diameter 9ft length with flange. All connections to CI pipe shall be with GI bolts and nuts.c ) F i l l i n g o f e a r t h p i t e x c a v a t e d w i t h B e n t o n i t e w i t h B l a c k c o t t o n s o i l ( 1 : 6 ) i n alternate layers.d ) P r o v i d i n g o f c e m e n t c o l l a r o f s i z e 2 f t d i a m e t e r 2 f t h e i g h t 1 i n c h b e l o w t h e ground level.e)The top of the CI earth pipe should be at the surface level of the ground. 5 Power Finance Corporation Ltd. (A Govt. of India Undertaking) Space for Institution Logo

Best Practices in Distribution Systems Operation and Maintenance (O&M)Distribution Reform, Upgrades and Management (DRUM) Training Program 2.Providing of earth matting with MS flat 75 x 8mm including the f o l l o w i n g c o n n e c t e d works:a)Excavation of trench in all types of soils of size 2 ft depth and 1 ft. width.b)Laying of M.S flat 75 x 8mm in the excavated trench.c ) I n t e r c o n n e c t i n g a l l e a r t h p i t s a n d w e l d i n g p r o p e r l y a t j o i n t i n g l o c a t i o n a n d junctions.d ) B a c k f i l l i n g o f e a r t h c o m p l e t e l y . III) Earthing at Consumers premises The earthing at Consumers premises shall be as per sketch below using a 6mm thick plate IV) Earthing at D/P Structure Three electrodes forming an equilateral triangle with minimum distance of 6500mm, so that adequate earth buffer is available. Each Electrode shall be A gradeGI pipe of 2 inch thick and 8ft long and buried vertically so as to leave about 4 inchpipe length above ground level to fix a U shaped clamp. Note: 6 Power Finance Corporation Ltd. (A Govt. of India Undertaking) Space for Institution Logo Best Practices in Distribution Systems Operation and Maintenance (O&M)Distribution Reform, Upgrades and Management (DRUM) Training Program 1. The connections to the three earth conn.Electrodes should be as follows.(A) To one of the earth electrodes on either side of double pole structure (X or Y)i.One direct connection from three 11KV Lightening Arrestors.ii.Another direct connection from the LT lightening Arrestors if provided. ( B ) T o e a c h o f t h e r e m a i n i n g t w o e a r t h electrodes.i . O n e s e p a r a t e c o n n e c t i o n f r o m n e u t r a l ( o n t h e m e d i u m v o l t a g e s i d e ) o f t h e Transformer (Two wires)i i . O n e s e p a r a t e c o n n e c t i o n f r o m t h e T r a n s f o r m e r b o d y a n d t h e h a n d l e o f t h e 1 1 K V A.B switch (Two separate body earths to tank)iii.One separate connection from the Earthing Terminal of poles.( C ) 4 m m G . I w i r e s h o u l d b e u s e d f o r e a r t h leads. Joints There shall be minimum joints preferably no joints enroute to earth electrodes Where Joints are unavoidable, they shall be brazed, rivetted or welded (and paintedw i t h r e d lead and alluminium paints one after the other and finely coated w i t h bitumen) Tower Line Grounding 1)Ground rods are driven at the base of the tower. Where it i s n o t f e a s i b l e , a n electrode is located within a distance of 200 ft. of the tower and grounding rods areprovided at that point and tied to the tower base by a single buried wire.2 ) I f l o w r e s i s t a n c e i s n o t o b t a i n e d w i t h 2 0 0 f t , c r o w f o o t c o u n t e r p o i s e w i t h 4 w i r e s i s installed. The counterpoise conductors shall be 6 SWG galvanised steel wires takenaway from the tower at mutually right angles and kept at least 50ft apart. Each of t h e s e w i r e s i s t e r m i n a t e d a t a r o d a t t h e n e a r e s t p o i n t w h e r e l o w r e s i s t a n c e i s obtained. If counterpoise wires cannot be terminated within half span from the tower the wire is carried through a continuous counterpoise to the next tower, where theprocedure is repeated. Earth Mat Design

Earthing System in a Sub Station comprises of Earth Mat or Grid, Earth E l e c t r o d e , Earthing Conductor and Earth Connectors. Earth Mat or Grid 7 Power Finance Corporation Ltd. (A Govt. of India Undertaking) Space for Institution Logo Best Practices in Distribution Systems Operation and Maintenance (O&M)Distribution Reform, Upgrades and Management (DRUM) Training Program Primary requirement of Earthing is to have a low earth resistance. Substation involvesmany Earthings thro individual Electrodes, which will have fairly high resistance. But if t h e s e individual electrodes are inter linked inside the soil, it increases the area i n contact with soil and creates number of parallel paths. Hence the value of the earthresistance in the inter linked state which is called combined earth value which will bemuch lower than the individual value.The inter link is made thro flat or rod conductor which is called as Earth Mat or Grid. Itk e e p s t h e s u r f a c e o f s u b s t a t i o n e q u i p m e n t a s n e a r l y a s a b s o l u t e e a r t h p o t e n t i a l a s possible.To achieve the primary requirement of Earthing system, the Earth Mat should be designproperly by considering the safe limit of Step Potential, Touch Potential and Transfer Potential. Step Potential It is the potential difference available between the legs while standing on the ground. Touch Potential It is the potential difference between the leg and the hand touching the equipment inoperation. The factors which influence the Earth Mat design are: a . M a g n i t u d e o f F a u l t C u r r e n t b . D u r a t i o n o f F a u l t c . S o i l R e s i s t i v i t y d . R e s i s t i v i t i y o f S u r f a c e M a t e r i a l e . S h o c k D u r a t i o n f . M a t e r i a l o f E a r t h M a t C o n d u c t o r g . E a r t h i n g M a t G e o m e t r y The design parameters for the following can be worked out as given in t h e annexure I i . S i z e o f E a r t h G r i d C o n d u c t o r i i . S a f e S t e p a n d T o u c h P o t e n t i a l i i i . M e s h P o t e n t i a l ( E m e s h ) iv.Grid configuration for Safe Operationv . N u m b e r o f E l e c t r o d e s r e q u i r e d Measurement of Earth Resistance 8 Power Finance Corporation Ltd. (A Govt. of India Undertaking) Space for Institution Logo Best Practices in Distribution Systems Operation and Maintenance (O&M)Distribution Reform, Upgrades and Management (DRUM) Training Program The measurement of earth resistance is done using three terminal earth meggars or four terminal earth meggars. Three Terminal : Two temporary electrodes or spikes are driven one for current and theother voltage at a distance of 150 feet and 75 feet from the earth electrode under test and ohmic values of earth electrode is read in the meggar. Four Terminal

: Four spikes are driven into the ground at equal intervals. The two outer spikes are connected to current terminals of earth meggar and the two inner spikes to potential terminals of the meggar till a steady value is obtained. Marking (i) F o r 3 T e r m i n a l M e t e r ( i i ) F o r 4 T e r m i n a l M e t e r C u r r e n t T e r m i n a l C o r H C u r r e n t T e r m i n a l C 1 , C 2 P o t e n t i a l T e r m i n a l P o r U P o t e n t i a l T e r m i n a l P 1 , P 2 Earth Terminal E Maintenance of Earthing System Checking and Testing The Earthing systems are to be inspected regularly. Regular checking or j o i n t s a n d broken connections, if any and rectifying the same will prove to be of immense help inmaintenance of earth grid and equipments. The condition of the electrodes, joints arealso to be checked. If the electrodes are corroded immediate steps for replacement areto be taken. The earth resistance is to be measured periodically. The megger, or testersare used for this purpose.As discussed earlier, low earth resistance Path is a must for clearing the fault current instantaneously. For achieving -low earth values, the following ways are followed:i ) A n u m b e r o f e l e c t r o d e s a r e c o n n e c t e d i n p a r a l l e l t h e r e b y p r o v i d i n g a l o w resistance. 9 Power Finance Corporation Ltd. (A Govt. of India Undertaking) Space for Institution Logo Best Practices in Distribution Systems Operation and Maintenance (O&M)Distribution Reform, Upgrades and Management (DRUM) Training Program ii) The ground surrounding the electrodes is treated with common salt whichr e d u c e s t h e r e s i s t a n c e b y 8 0 % . C a l c i u m c h l o r i d e a n d m a g n e s i u m sulphate may also be used. In general practice. But now the bentoniteis used .The following Maintenance schedule in mandatory at each of the Substations S . N o I t e m P e r i o d i c i t y 1 . W a t e r i n g o f E a r t h P i t s D a i l y 2 . M e a s u r e m e n t o f e a r t h r e s i s t a n c e o f i n d i v i d u a l e a r t h pitsHalf yearly @3 . M e a s u r e m e n t o f c o m b i n e d e a r t h r e s i s t a n c e a t a l l t h e pitsHalf yearly...4 . C h e c k i n g o f i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n s b e t w e e n e a r t h p i t s a n d tightness of bolts and nutsQuarterly@ Earth resistance of individual earth pits can be measured by disconnecting the earthc o n n e c t i o n s t o t h e e l e c t r o d e . T h i s i s p o s s i b l e i f t h e c o n n e c t i o n s a r e m a d e t o a common clamp which is in turn is fixed round the pipe.... Combined earth

resistance shall be the same at every earth pit unless it gets disconnected from the earth mat Definitions of General Earthing TermsSoil Resistivity : This is the resistivity of a typical sample of soil Earth Surface Voltage: The voltage between a specified point on the ground around the rod and reference earth. Earth Electrode These are conductors, which are in direct contact with the soil a n d p r o v i d e t h e conductive part in electrical contact with earth. They c a n i n c l u d e r o d s , t a p e , s t e e l reinforcing bars. Definitions of Terms associated with Power SystemsNeutral Point 10 Power Finance Corporation Ltd. (A Govt. of India Undertaking) Space for Institution Logo Best Practices in Distribution Systems Operation and Maintenance (O&M)Distribution Reform, Upgrades and Management (DRUM) Training Program The common point of a star connected poly phase system or the earthed mid-point of asingle phase system. Independent Earth Electrode An earth electrode located at such a distance from other electrodes that its electricalp o t e n t i a l i s n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d b y e l e c t r i c c u r r e n t s b e t w e e n E a r t h a n d o t h e r electrodes. Exposed Conductive Part Conductive part of equipment and which is not normally live, but which can become livewhen basic insulation fails. Points of Earthing 1.Earth mat of 75 x 8 MS flat should be laid as outer of the switchyard c o m p u l s o r i l y and see that the pole structures are enclosed in the outer mat.2 . M a k e vertical and horizontal sections for the outer mat as shown in the f i g . T h e internal vertical and horizontal sections may be 75 x 8 or 50 x 6 MS flat.3 . T h e Earth mat should be laid minimum 600MM, below the ground level under t h e Earth mat and Bentonite powder is to be laid upto 25mm and over the earth mat.The same Bentonite compound with Black cotton soil a mixture of 1:6 ratio is to beplaced upto 100 mm and the remaining earth trench is to be back filled with the soil.4 . S e e t h a t e a c h a n d e v e r y p o l e s t r u c t u r e i s e a r t h e d w i t h 5 0 x 6 M S f l a t t o t h e E a r t h Mat.5 . F o r e v e r y b r e a k e r t h e r e w i l l b e f i n e e a r t h c o n n e c t i o n s t o t h e e a r t h m a t w i t h 5 0 x 6 MS flat (a) Breaker body (b) Relay Panel (c) CTs of the Breaker (d) and two sides of the breaker structure.6 . L i g h t e n i n g a r r e s t o r i s t o b e c o n n e c t e d o n e e n d d i r e c t l y t o t h e e a r t h m a t a n d t h e other end is to the nearer earth pit or to the earth mat.7.Line Isolators are to be connected directly to the earth mat.8.The Power transformer body is to be connected two sides to the earth mat.9.Twin neutral earthing should be done to Power Transformer as shown in the fig. oneE a r t h f l a t o f s i z e 7 5 x 8 m m M . S f l a t i s d i r e c t l y c o n n e c t e d t o t h e earth pit and thee a r t h p i t i s a g a i n c o n n e c t e d t o t h e E a r t h m a t . T h e s e c o n d n e u t r a l i s d i r e c t l y connected to the earth mat,10.Provide flexible jumpers thoroughly brazed as shown in figure11.All AB switches operating rods are to be provided with coil earths and the AB switch support is to be earthed to the earth mat.12.All the exposed earth flat, which is dropping down from the breakers, CTs structuresshould be applied with bituminous paint.

11 Power Finance Corporation Ltd. (A Govt. of India Undertaking) Space for Institution Logo Best Practices in Distribution Systems Operation and Maintenance (O&M)Distribution Reform, Upgrades and Management (DRUM) Training Program 13.75 x 8 MS flat is to be laid around the control room from main earth and the panelso f t h e b r e a k e r s , m i d p o i n t o f t h e B a t t e r y a n d B a t t e r y s t a n d s t r u c t u r e s a r e t o b e earthed to the earth flat and make a section in front of the control room.14.The distance between any two earth electrodes should be twice the length of theElectrode.15.The cable (11 x 33KV) sheaths are to be earthed with 25 x 3 GI strip to the Earthmat.16.The neutral of the station transformer is to be connected to the Earth mat directlywith 25 x 3 GI strip. The body of the Station transformer two sides to be connected to the earth mat with 25 x 3 GI strip.17.All the welding joints should be painted with bituminous paint. V. CONCLUSION The various practices and standards are to be followed in respect of providingE a r t h i n g i n o u r s y s t e m s . I f p r o p e r E a r t h i n g i s n o t d o n e , t h e r e i s e v e r y l i k e l i h o o d o f equipment I getting damaged and also have to be personnel -public and staff. Hencedue attention is to be given in providing and maintaining of earth grid properly and ingood condition. 12 Power Finance Corporation Ltd. (A Govt. of India Undertaking) Space for Institution Logo Best Practices in Distribution Systems Operation and Maintenance (O&M)Distribution Reform, Upgrades and Management (DRUM) Training Program Annexure I Calculation of design parameters for the earthing is given below: Data Needed a . S o i l R e s i s t i v i t y b.Resistivity of Crushed Rockc.Crushed Rock Surface Layer Thicknessd.Switch Yard overall Dimensions e . E a r t h F a u l t L e v e l f.Duration consider for earth fault. I.CALCULATION OF SIZE OF EARTH GRID CONDUCTOR C o n d u c t o r A r e a A = I Tcapx10 4 x ln Ko + Tm t c r x P v K o + T a Simplified formula for Steel Grid Conductor Area A = I x tKWhere A = area of earth conductor in mm 2 .I = short circuit current in KA.t = duration of short circuit current in seconds.K factor = 80 for steel.If mat is made of Flat thenA = Area of FlatGive allowance of 35 % for corrosionIf it is a conductor A = pie r

2 r= A/pie 13

Power Finance Corporation Ltd. (A Govt. of India Undertaking) Space for Institution Logo Best Practices in Distribution Systems Operation and Maintenance (O&M)Distribution Reform, Upgrades and Management (DRUM) Training Program STANDARD FLATS

i ) 1 0 x 6 i v ) 4 0 x 6 v i i ) 6 0 x 6 i i ) 2 0 x 6 v ) 5 0 x 6 v i i i ) 6 5 x 1 0 i i i ) 3 0 x 6 v i ) 5 0 x 8 i x ) 7 5 x 1 0 ROD 40 mm Mild Steel Rod II.Determination of Maximum Permissible Step and Touch Potential E s t e p = ( 1 0 0 0 + 6 s xP s ) 0.116where P s = Resistivity of Crushed Rock s = Reduction factor for derating the value of surface layer is a functionof reflection factor K of crushed rock.K = s + s where is the Soil resistivity s is the resistivity of Crushed RockTo plot the value of s Refer the graph fig. 8 of page 41 of I EEE 80.At hs = ? and K = ?Calculate s Then calculateE s t e p = ( 1 0 0 0 + 6 s xP s ) 0.116 tSimilarlyE T o u c h = ( 1 0 0 0 + 6 s xP s ) 0.116

t 14 t

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Calculatio n of Mesh PotentialEm = Km K i P IG.Lwhere Km =

Geometrical Factor Ki = Correction factor for GridIG = Maximum earth fault

current in amps.L = Total Length of Conductor in metres.The value of Km can be

calculated from the formula


K
m L n
2

= D +

1 2 h

+ ( D
o

-h +

K
ij

l
n 82 1 6 D d K n h d 4 d 8

(2n-1)

WhereK n =

1+ h/hoW h e r e h = de p t h o f

buried c on d u c t o r ho = reference depthD = Spacing between the

Gridd = diameter of earth conductor n = no. of parallel conductor Calculate Km

= ?Ki = correction factor for grid geometer Ki = 0.656 + 0172 nI G= Current

Diversion Factor which is 60% full load currentSo E


m=

K
mx

K
ix

I
G VoltL

The Mesh Potential always less than the permissible touch & step potential.

Then onlythe design is considered as safe. Calculation of Number of Electrode

R =100 x ln 4lohmd
15

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Minimum No. of parallel electrodes needed = Value of REarth Electrodes

Stations Plate Electrodes Pipe electrodes


a) Larger Power Stations

G.I. Plates of 120 x 120 cm and i)G.I. Pipes of 152mm diaand Major sub-stations 12.5 mm thick x

3.048mts. longand not less than12.5. thick.ii) In case of G .I. or steelpipes, not smaller than 38mm

internaldiamete r.b) Small substations 60 x 60cm G.!. plates of 9.4 mm G.I. pipes of 50.8 minthick

internal diameter and3.058mts., long.

Earth conductors

a) Main and subsidiary connection : Cross Section not less than 161sq. cm; {Copper)b)

Branch connections : Cross section not less than 64.5 sq. cm.
16

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