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A turbine is defined as a device which draws energy from a fluid moving at a high speed and converts that energy into work. The purpose of turbines is basically to produce electricity and to propel various machinery and objects via the mechanical energy produced. Every turbine has a one basic principle that is: a moving fluid which can be water, steam, wind or gas is made to run over blades at a high speed, the blades induced by the moving fluid start rotating and as a result they start the rotor engine attached to the device which is responsible for converting the energy into work. Turbines came into being after the industrial revolution when the entire world changed its shape. Almost the entire electricity of the world is produced by turbines; however the source of energy may vary. The first turbines to be used were the steam turbines but now on the basis of the fluid from which energy is extracted there are four major types of turbines:

Steam turbines Water turbines Wind turbines Gas turbines

1.1 Steam Turbine

Steam turbines were the first turbines ever produced by man. These turbines are composed of shaft blades and a rotor engine. The steam which is produced by the burning of coal, oil or from nuclear reactor is made to pass through blades which spin at a very high speed to drive the generator which produces energy. The principle on which it works is that the thermal energy which is extracted from the steam is converted into mechanical energy. The concept of converting the energy produced by fast moving steam into work was first given in the first century by a Greek mathematician. However since there were not many resources at that time the concept was not given much of a thought. In 1884 when the world was at the peak of the industrial revolution the advent of steam engine changed the world at a rapid speed. First it was used to run ships and various machinery then soon it was put into use for producing electricity.

For more than a century steam turbines were majorly used for production of electricity but later other types of turbines took over. Because of the fact that they use up the fossil fuels which are now are being diminished they are not preferred today for the making of electricity for masses.

1.1-1 Rotating blade assembly of a steam turbine

1.1-2 Modern steam turbine with generator Blade Materials Blade material must have some or all of the following properties, depending on the position and role. Corrosion resistance (especially in the wet LP stage) Tensile strength (to resist centrifugal and bending stresses) Ductility (to accommodate stress peaks and stress concentrations) Impact strength (to resist water slugs) Material damping (to reduce vibration stresses) creep resistance 12% Cr stainless steels are a widely used material. Their weakness is at very high temperatures (> 480C). A typical high temperature steel is 12% Cr alloyed with molybdenum and vanadium (to 650C).

Titanium has some attractions but it is expensive and material damping is low. It has poor vibration characteristics. Because of its high strength/weight ratio, titanium is used in lacing wire and for cover bands and shrouding

1.2 Water Turbine

Water turbines work on the same principle as the steam turbines but the difference is that they use water instead of steam. The water used by these turbines comes from lakes and rivers. Dams which are built in these huge water bodies store the water at one end, at the other end they possess hydraulic turbines which possess a shaft bearing vertical blades and a generator which produces hydroelectric power which is in turn used as electricity. Water turbines today are the major source of electricity all over the world. Nearly 70% of the world uses hydroelectric power to produce electricity. They are more preferable than the steam turbines as they do not waste up the fossil fuels. The first water turbines were built in Niagara Falls at the end of the 19 thcentury but their use became massive at the mid of the 20thcentury with the fall of industries.

1.2-1 Rotor of a water turbine Blade Erosion Water droplets in the last stages of a turbine can cause erosion at the leading edge of moving blades, and cracks can form. Leading edges can be protected by surface hardening or by welding a shield of hard material such as tungsten chromium tool steel or satellite (an alloy of cobalt and chromium). Shields will probably need to be replaced once during the lifetime of the turbine.

Design Considerations Geometry Cooling Vanes Attachment Interface Safety Factors

1.3 Wind Turbines

Wind turbines use up the moving wind to produce electricity. These turbines might not be as popular as water and steam turbines but in many parts of the world like in Scotland and some parts of America this turbine is used to produce electricity. Long egg beater- like shafts, possessing bow shaped blades, are placed high in the sky. These blades move with the moving wind to produce electricity. Producing electricity from wind may sound a good option as wind is a resource which can never end; however this process has huge restrictions as wind is as reliable as water. It can only be applicable in parts of the world where wind moves fast continuously.

1.3-1 Wind turbine

Blade Materials Wind Blade Composition *Wood


Strong, light weight, cheap, abundant, flexible Popular on do-it yourself turbines *Metal Steel Heavy & expensive Aluminum Lighter-weight and easy to work with Expensive Subject to metal fatigue Blade Construction Fiberglass Lightweight, strong, inexpensive, good fatigue characteristics Variety of manufacturing processes can be used Most modern large turbines use fiberglass

1.4 Gas Turbine

Gas turbines use up high pressure gas to produce energy. These turbines are not used for producing electricity but they are used to propel jet engines. Gas turbines are the latest types of turbines. Their structure is advanced but the principle is same.

1.4-1 Gas turbine

Applications: Jet Engines Gas Turbine Generators


Design Factors: Geometry Safety factors

Materials should be: Very high temperatures Strength / Fatigue Life Machinability

Material used: Initially Steel Nickel Alloys Most common material is Titanium Laser peening Ceramic Coatings

2 Governors
Generally governors are used to maintain a fixed speed not readily adjustable by the operator or to maintain a speed selected by means of a throttle control lever. In either case, the governor protects against over speeding. Governors serve three basic purposes: Maintain a speed selected by the operator which is within the range of the governor. Prevent over-speed which may cause engine damage. Limit both high and low speeds.

How does it work? If the load is removed on an operating engine, the governor immediately closes the throttle. If the engine load is increased, the throttle will be opened to prevent engine speed form being reduced.

Function To maintain the engine speed at the desire value by controlling the fuel injection.

Also used for power generation and their function remains the same in this situation as well. The power delivered by the alternator needs to be constant despite load variations and this depends to a great degree on the speed at which the prime mover of the generator diesel engine is rotating since the alternator is getting its movement from that engine only. Hence the role of the governor is equally important in this case as well.

Mainly there are three types of governor. They are, 1. Centrifugal Governor Sometimes referred to as a mechanical governor, it uses pivoted flyweights that are attached to a revolving shaft or gear driven by the engine. With this system, governor rpm is always directly proportional to engine rpm. If the engine is subjected to a sudden load that reduces rpm, the reduction in speed lessens centrifugal force on the flyweights. The weights move inward and lower the spool and governor lever, thus opening the throttle to maintain engine speed.

2. Pneumatic Governors Sometimes called air-vane governors, they are operated by the stream of air flow created by the cooling fins of the flywheel. When the engine experiences sudden increases in load, the flywheel slows causing the governor to open the throttle to maintain the desired speed. The same is true when the engine experiences a decrease in load. The governor compensates and closes the throttle to prevent over speeding.

3. Electronic Governor The electronic governor uses a combination of electrical and mechanical components.