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# Rotational Dynamics

we now introduce rotational dynamics. Our most important equation in linear dynamics was Newton's Second Law, F = ma. This equation stated that a force applied to a mass at its center of mass will result in the mass undergoing an acceleration. The important point is that the net force is acting on the center of mass of the object, so its effect can't cause any rotation of the object.

What will happen if the force is applied at a location which is not the center of mass? Start with F = ma, multiply by r, rF = rma substitute a = r , rF = rmr, let rF = = mr2 = I, where I = mr2.

Torque
Torque is the rotational influence of a force applied away from the center of mass of an object. The application of an unbalanced torque will create rotational acceleration. The definition of torque, , is = rFsin, where the angle, , is between the direction of r and F Notice that the torque has a maximum value for an angle of 90 degrees.

Note: = F R sin
Lever arm : l or R (Perpendic ular distance...)

= F ( R sin ) = F R

= (F sin ) R = F R

Example 1
Torques create clockwise or counterclockwise rotational influences. Clockwise torques are positive and counterclockwise torques are negative. The net torque on an object is calculated from the sum of the counterclockwise torques minus the sum of the clockwise torques. The result of this net torque acting upon an object of moment of inertia, I, is expressed by, = I
Calculate the torque on the 2.00-m long beam due to a 50.0 N force (top) about (a) point C (= c.m.) (b) point P Calculate the torque on the 2.00-m long beam due to a 60.0 N force about (a) point C (= c.m.) (b) point P Calculate the torque on the 2.00-m long beam due to a 50.0 N force (bottom) about (a) point C (= c.m.) (b) point P

Example 1 (contd)
Calculate the net torque on the 2.00-m long beam about (a) point C (= c.m.) (b) point P

Note: sign of
1 = F1 ( R1 sin 90o )
= (50.0 N)(0.300 m) = 15.0 N m

2 = F2 ( R2 sin 60o )
= (50.0 N)(0.500 m)(0.866) = 21.7 N m net = 1 (c.c.w) + 2 (c.w.)
0.5 m 0.3 m

## Rotational Kinetic Energy

Even though rotating objects are not moving horizontally they still possess kinetic energy. It takes effort, i.e. work, to stop a rotating object. Anything that requires work in order to influence it must possess energy. Rotational kinetic energy is defined as, KE = I2

Angular Momentum
The angular momentum is defined as, L = I

Example 1 A flywheel has a moment of inertia of 300 kg m2. It is rotating 2 rad s-1. A constant torque of 150 N m is applied to the flywheel for 10 seconds, in a sense such as to increase its rate of rotation. Find a) the angular velocity at the end of this time b) the angular displacement during this time c) the increase in the kinetic energy of the flywheel.
SOLUTION

b)

i = 2

t = 10

= 0.5

=?

= i t + t 2
= 2 x 10 + x 0.5 x 100 = 45
So, the angular displacement during this time is 45 rad. c) rotational KE = Initial KE =

1 2

= 150 Nm,

/ = 300 kg m2,

1 2 I 2

i = 2
Using,

t = 10 s

we have

f = ?

f = i + t

## 1 x 300 x 4 = 600 J 2 1 x 300 x 49 = 7350 J Final KE = 2

f = 2 + 0.5 x 10 = 7
So, the angular velocity at the end of the time is 7 rad s 1.

## So, the increase in KE = 7350 600 = 6750 J.

2) The moment of inertia of a flywheel about its axis is 20kgm2. When it is stationary, a constant torque of 40 Nm is applied to the flywheel. Find its kinetic energy after three seconds assuming the flywheel has smooth bearings. (A flywheel is either a circular disc or a circular rim which can rotate about an axis through its centre perpendicular to the flywheel.) Let represent the angular acceleration of the flywheel at any instant and let be the angular velocity after three seconds. Using

KE = =

1 2 1 2

I 2 x 20 x 62

40 Nm

= 360 J

= I
40 = 20

=2 Therefore the flywheel has a constant angular acceleration of 2 rad s2 The flywheel starts from rest so, after three seconds, f = ? i = 0 =2 f = 0 +t = 2 x 3 = 6 Hence the flywheel has an angular velocity of 6 rad s 1

Example 3 A gate has a moment of inertia about its hinges of 500 kgm2. The gate is open and perpendicular to the gateway. It is given an impulse so that it starts to close with an initial angular velocity of 3 rad s1. The hinges provided a resisting torque of 400Nm. Find a) the time taken for the gate to shut b) the angular velocity of the gate at the instant that it shuts.
SOLUTION

The first of these values is clearly the required one, so the gate takes 0.566 s to shut. Using
2 2 f = i + 2 2 = 6.488 f = 9 1.6

a)

using = I

f = 2.547

400 500

## Final angular velocity = 2.547 rad s1. t=?

i = 3

= 0.8 1 2 = i t + t 2
2
2 2 = 3t 0.4t

## => 0.8t2 - 6t + = 0 solving this quadratic equation, we obtain t = 0.566 or 6.934.

Example 4 A uniform disc of mass 20 kg and radius 0.5 m can turn about a smooth axis through its centre and perpendicular to the disc. A constant torque is applied to the disc for three seconds from rest and the angular velocity at the end of that time is 240/ revolutions per minute. Find the magnitude of the torque. If the torque is then removed and the disc is brought to rest in t seconds by a constant force of 10 N applied tangentially at a point on the rim of the disc, find t The moment of inertia of the disc about the axis of rotation is given by: I=

i = 0

f = 8

t=3

=?

f = i + t
8 = 0 + (3)

80 3
5 8 2 3 20 Nm 3

1 ma 2 2 20 = (0.5) 2 2 240

= I

5 = kg m2 2

= =

240 2 = 60

= 10 x 0.5 =5 = I 5 =

5 2

= 2

i = 8

f = 0

= 2

t=?

f = i + t
0 = 8 2t t=4s