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Eg 1 A pulley wheel has mass 1 kg and radius 0.25 m.

A rope has one end attached to a point of the rim of the wheel and is wound several times around the rim. A brick of mass 0.5 kg attached to the other end of the rope hangs freely. The wheel is free to rotate in a vertical plane about a fixed, smooth, horizontal axis through the centre of the wheel. The brick is released from rest. By modelling the pulley wheel as a uniform disc, the brick as a particle and the rope as a light, inextensible string, calculate the tension in the rope and the acceleration of the brick. Let the tension be T N and the acceleration of the brick be a. you must consider the motions of the discand the brick separately. [Using F = ma] For the brick, (1) 0.5g T = 0.5a For the pulley wheel, [Using = I] 2 The moment of inertia of the wheel = x 1 x 0.252 = 0.03125 kgm (2) T x 0.25 = 0.03125 x (3) r = a

= 0.25
T x 0.25 = 0.03125 x

and since r = 0.25 m, (2)

a T x 0.25 = 0.03125 x 0.25


T =

1 a 2
(1) a = 5.0

0.5g T = 0.5a Solve simultaneously: T = 2.5

The tension is 2.5 N and the acceleration is 5.0 ms2.

Example 2 The diagram shows two particles, each of mass m, connected by a light, inextensible string. One particle rests on a smooth, horizontal table. The other is suspended on the string, which passes over a pulley of radius r at the edge of the table. The moment of inertia of the pulley is 6mr2. The system is released from rest. Assuming that the pulley can rotate freely, and that the contact between the string and the pulley is rough, find the angular acceleration of the pulley.
SOLUTION Let the tensions in the two portions of the string be T and T, as shown. If the angular acceleration of the pulley is ,

Substituting from [1] and [2] into [3], we have (mg 2mr)r = 6mr2 g 2r = 6r =

g 8r

So, the angular acceleration of the pulley is

For the particle, [Using mg T = mr and T = mr

F = ma] [1] [2]

For the pulley wheel, [Using = I] [3] (T T')r = 6mr2

Eg 3 A cylinder of radius r is free to rotate about its axis which is horizontal. A light string hangs over the pulley and carries a particle P of mass m at one end and a particle Q of mass km at the other end. The string is rough enough not to slip on the pulley. When the system is released from rest a constant frictional torque
1 mgr acts on the pulley. 5

Using = I

for the motion of the pulley we have

T2r T1r

If the acceleration of the particles when k = 3 is twice their acceleration when k = 2 find the moment of inertia of the pulley.
When a rough string passes over a pulley, the tensions in the string on either side of the pulley are different. Let the moment of inertia of the pulley be /. Using F = ma for the motion of P and Q we have

1 mgr = I 5 1 T2 T1 mg = I r 5

(2)

Adding (1), (2) and (3) (k When k = 3


6 ) mg = (kmr + mr + 5

I ) r

3 =

9 mg 5

for P for Q

T1 mg = m(r ) kmg T2 = km(r )

(1) (2)

When k = 2

I (4mr + ) r 4 mg = 5 I (3mr + ) r

But

3 = 2 2

8 mg 5 = I I (4mr + ) (3mr + ) r r
I I 9(3mr + ) = (4mr +r ) r I = 5mr2

9 mg 5

Example 4 A load of mass 20 kg is being raised on the end of a light, inextensible rope by means of a winch. The pulley of the winch has radius 0.2 m and moment of inertia 2.5 kgm2. The pulley bearing is assumed to be smooth. The load starts from rest and accelerates at a rate of 0.4 m s2. Taking g = 9.8 ms 2, find a) the torque driving the pulley b) the kinetic energy of the system after 3 seconds.
SOLUTION

a) For the load, [Using

F = ma]

T 20g = 20x0.4 = T= 204 [1]

Therefore the moment of inertia of the pulley is 5mr2.

Let the torque driving the pulley be G, The total moment acting on the pulley is then. G 0.2T

The angular acceleration, , of the pulley is such that a point on the rim of the pulley has a transverse acceleration of 0.4ms 2. 0.2 = 0.4 =>

b) After 3 seconds, the load is travelling at a speed of 1.2ms1. Using KE = mv2, we have

= 2 rad s2 = I ]

For the pulley wheel, [Using

KE of load = x 20 x 1.22 = 14.4 J 0.20 =1.2 =

The total moment acting on the pulley is G 0.2T G 0.2T =2.5x2 G = 0.2T+5 Substituting from equation [1], we have G = 0.2 x 204 + 5 = 45.8 So, the driving torque is 45.8 Nm.

=6

KE of pulley = x 2.5 x 62 = 45 J So, the total KE of the system is = 45 + 14.4 = 59.4 J