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Tricks in Transformations c dkrbabajee@gmail.

com
Dr D K R Babajee
dkrbabajee@gmail.com

Mauritius

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Transformations

We require compass, protractor and ruler to nd the


transformations of points.

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Transformations

We require compass, protractor and ruler to nd the


transformations of points.

In this presentation, we show how to get the reection,


rotation, enlargement, stretch and shear using some tricks without the use of ruler, protractor and compass.

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Part 1: Reection
Reection in the x-axis

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Part 1: Reection
Reection in the x-axis Reection in the horizontal line

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Part 1: Reection
Reection in the x-axis Reection in the horizontal line Reection in the y-axis

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Part 1: Reection
Reection in the x-axis Reection in the horizontal line Reection in the y-axis Reection in the vertical line

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Part 1: Reection
Reection in the x-axis Reection in the horizontal line Reection in the y-axis Reection in the vertical line Reection in the line y=x

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Part 1: Reection
Reection in the x-axis Reection in the horizontal line Reection in the y-axis Reection in the vertical line Reection in the line y=x Reection in the line

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Part 1: Reection
Reection in the x-axis Reection in the horizontal line Reection in the y-axis Reection in the vertical line Reection in the line y=x Reection in the line

Reection in the line y=-x

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Part 1: Reection
Reection in the x-axis Reection in the horizontal line Reection in the y-axis Reection in the vertical line Reection in the line y=x Reection in the line

Reection in the line y=-x Reection in the line

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Part 1: Reection
Reection in the x-axis Reection in the horizontal line Reection in the y-axis Reection in the vertical line Reection in the line y=x Reection in the line

Reection in the line y=-x Reection in the line

Finding the mirror line (horizontal or vertical line)


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Reection in the x-axis (y=0)

The matrix of this transformation is given by


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Reection in the x-axis (y=0)

The matrix of this transformation is given by


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Reection in the x-axis (y=0)

The matrix of this transformation is given by


in x-axis

Reection

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Reection in the x-axis (y=0)

The matrix of this transformation is given by


in x-axis

Reection

-coordinate is unchanged and we reverse the sign of


y-coordinate.

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Example 1.1
Find the reection of the triangle having the coordinates
,

and C

in the x-axis.

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Example 1.1
Find the reection of the triangle having the coordinates
,

and C

in the x-axis.

reverse sign of coor.

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Reection in the horizontal line

We must change the point

relative to the x-axis

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Reection in the horizontal line



We must change the point We subtract

relative to the x-axis

from the y-coordinate to get

Change to line

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Reection in the horizontal line



We must change the point We subtract

relative to the x-axis

from the y-coordinate to get

Change to line

Then we apply the rule to reection in x-axis.

Reection in x-axis

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Reection in the horizontal line



We must change the point We subtract

relative to the x-axis

from the y-coordinate to get

Change to line

Then we apply the rule to reection in x-axis.

Reection in x-axis

Then we add

to the resulting y-coordinate to return to the line

Change to line

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Reection in the horizontal line



We must change the point We subtract

relative to the x-axis

from the y-coordinate to get

Change to line

Then we apply the rule to reection in x-axis.

Reection in x-axis

Then we add

to the resulting y-coordinate to return to the line

Change to line

from
subtract

of

reverse sign

add to

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Example 1.2
Find the reection of the triangle having the coordinates
and C
,

in the line

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Example 1.2
Find the reection of the triangle having the coordinates
and C
,

in the line

subtract from coor. reverse sign of coor. add 1 to coor.


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Reection in the y-axis (x=0)

The matrix of this transformation is given by

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Reection in the y-axis (x=0)

The matrix of this transformation is given by

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Reection in the y-axis (x=0)

The matrix of this transformation is given by

in y-axis
Reection

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Reection in the y-axis (x=0)

The matrix of this transformation is given by

in y-axis
Reection

we reverse the sign of x-coordinate and -coordinate is


unchanged.

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Example 1.3
Find the reection of the triangle having the coordinates
,

and C

in the y-axis.

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Example 1.3
Find the reection of the triangle having the coordinates
,

and C

in the y-axis.

reverse sign of coor.

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Reection in the vertical line

We must change the point

relative to the y-axis,

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Reection in the vertical line



We must change the point

relative to the y-axis,

We subtract from the x-coordinate to get

Change to line

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Reection in the vertical line



We must change the point

relative to the y-axis,

We subtract from the x-coordinate to get Then we apply the rule to reection in y-axis.

Change to line

Reection in y-axis

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Reection in the vertical line



We must change the point

relative to the y-axis,

We subtract from the x-coordinate to get Then we apply the rule to reection in y-axis.

Change to line

Reection in y-axis

Then we add to the resulting x-coordinate to return to the line

Change to line

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Reection in the vertical line



We must change the point

relative to the y-axis,

We subtract from the x-coordinate to get Then we apply the rule to reection in y-axis.

Change to line

Reection in y-axis

Then we add to the resulting x-coordinate to return to the line

Change to line

subtract from

reverse sign of

add to

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Example 1.4

Find the reection of the triangle having the coordinates C in the line .
,

and

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Example 1.4

Find the reection of the triangle having the coordinates C in the line .
subtract

and

from

coor. (+1)

reverse sign of coor.

add -1 to coor. (-1)

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Figure for Reection for Examples 1.1 to 1.4

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Reection in the line y=x

The matrix of this transformation is given by

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Reection in the line y=x

The matrix of this transformation is given by



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Reection in the line y=x

The matrix of this transformation is given by



in y=x

Reection

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Reection in the line y=x

The matrix of this transformation is given by



in y=x

Reection

Interchange the coordinates of and .

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Example 1.5
Find the reection of the triangle having the coordinates
,

and C

in the line

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Example 1.5
Find the reection of the triangle having the coordinates
,

and C

in the line

Interchange

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Reection in the line

We must change the point

relative to the line

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Reection in the line



We must change the point

relative to the line

We subtract from the y-coordinate to get

Change to line

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Reection in the line



We must change the point

relative to the line

We subtract from the y-coordinate to get

Change to line

Then we apply the rule to reection in the line

Reection in line y=x


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Reection in the line



We must change the point

relative to the line

We subtract from the y-coordinate to get

Change to line

Then we apply the rule to reection in the line

Reection in line y=x


Then we add to the resulting y-coordinate to return to the line

Change to line

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Reection in the line



We must change the point

relative to the line

We subtract from the y-coordinate to get

Change to line

Then we apply the rule to reection in the line

Reection in line y=x


Then we add to the resulting y-coordinate to return to the line

Change to line

subtract from

interchange x and y-c


add to new y coor.


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Example 1.6

Find the reection of the triangle having the coordinates C in the line .
,

and

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Example 1.6

Find the reection of the triangle having the coordinates C in the line .

and

subtract from coor. interchange add 1 to coor.


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Reection in the line y=-x

The matrix of this transformation is given by

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Reection in the line y=-x

The matrix of this transformation is given by

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Reection in the line y=-x

The matrix of this transformation is given by

in y=-x
Reection

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Reection in the line y=-x

The matrix of this transformation is given by

in y=-x
Reection

Interchange the coordinates of and and reverse


their signs.
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Example 1.7
Find the reection of the triangle having the coordinates

and C

in the line

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Example 1.7
Find the reection of the triangle having the coordinates

and C

in the line

Interchange Reverse signs of both coor.


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Reection in the line

We must change the point

relative to the line

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Reection in the line



We must change the point

relative to the line

We subtract from the y-coordinate to get

Change to line

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Reection in the line



We must change the point

relative to the line

We subtract from the y-coordinate to get

Change to line

Then we apply the rule to reection in the line

Reection in line y=-x


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Reection in the line



We must change the point

relative to the line

We subtract from the y-coordinate to get

Change to line

Then we apply the rule to reection in the line

Reection in line y=-x


Then we add to the resulting y-coordinate to return to the line



Change to line

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Reection in the line



We must change the point

relative to the line

We subtract from the y-coordinate to get

Change to line

Then we apply the rule to reection in the line

Reection in line y=-x


Then we add to the resulting y-coordinate to return to the line



Change to line

subtract from

interchange and reverse signs add to new y coor.



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Example 1.8

Find the reection of the triangle having the coordinates C in the line .
,

and

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Example 1.8

Find the reection of the triangle having the coordinates C in the line .

and

subtract

from

coor. (+1)

interchange and reverse signs

add

to coor. (-1)

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Figure for Reection for Examples 1.5 to 1.8

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Finding the mirror line (horizontal or vertical line)

The line of reection (mirror line) is the perpendicular bisector of the object and the image.

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Finding the mirror line (horizontal or vertical line)



The line of reection (mirror line) is the perpendicular bisector of the object and the image. We show a trick to nd the mirror line in case of a vertical or horizontal.

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Example 1.9

Describe the transformation when the triangle is mapped on triangle :

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Example 1.9

Describe the transformation when the triangle is mapped on triangle :

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Example 1.9

Describe the transformation when the triangle is mapped on triangle :

We observe that y-coor. are unchanged and so it is a reection in the line

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Example 1.9

Describe the transformation when the triangle is mapped on triangle :

We observe that y-coor. are unchanged and so it is a reection in the line To nd , we nd the x-coor. of the midpoint of the object and image.

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Example 1.9

Describe the transformation when the triangle is mapped on triangle :

We observe that y-coor. are unchanged and so it is a reection in the line To nd , we nd the x-coor. of the midpoint of the object and image.

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Example 1.9

Describe the transformation when the triangle is mapped on triangle :

We observe that y-coor. are unchanged and so it is a reection in the line To nd , we nd the x-coor. of the midpoint of the object and image.

Reection in the line

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Example 1.10

Describe the transformation when the triangle is mapped on triangle :

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Example 1.10

Describe the transformation when the triangle is mapped on triangle :

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Example 1.10

Describe the transformation when the triangle is mapped on triangle :

We observe that x-coor. are unchanged and so it is a reection in the line

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Example 1.10

Describe the transformation when the triangle is mapped on triangle :

We observe that x-coor. are unchanged and so it is a reection in the line To nd , we nd the y-coor. of the midpoint of the object and image.

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Example 1.10

Describe the transformation when the triangle is mapped on triangle :

We observe that x-coor. are unchanged and so it is a reection in the line To nd , we nd the y-coor. of the midpoint of the object and image.

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Example 1.10

Describe the transformation when the triangle is mapped on triangle :

We observe that x-coor. are unchanged and so it is a reection in the line To nd , we nd the y-coor. of the midpoint of the object and image.

Reection in the line

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Figure for Reection for Examples 1.9 and 1.10

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Part 2: Rotation

Rotation about the origin

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Part 2: Rotation

Rotation about the origin Rotation about the point

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Part 2: Rotation

Rotation about the origin Rotation about the point

Anticlockwise Rotation about the origin

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Part 2: Rotation

Rotation about the origin Rotation about the point

Anticlockwise Rotation about the origin Anticlockwise Rotation about the point

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Part 2: Rotation

Rotation about the origin Rotation about the point

Anticlockwise Rotation about the origin Anticlockwise Rotation about the point Clockwise Rotation about the origin

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Part 2: Rotation

Rotation about the origin Rotation about the point

Anticlockwise Rotation about the origin Anticlockwise Rotation about the point Clockwise Rotation about the origin Clockwise Rotation about the point

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Rotation about the origin

The matrix of this transformation is given by

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Rotation about the origin

The matrix of this transformation is given by

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Rotation about the origin

The matrix of this transformation is given by

about origin
Rotation

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Rotation about the origin

The matrix of this transformation is given by

about origin
Rotation

We reverse the signs of both x- and y-coordinates.

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Example 2.1
Find the
,

rotation of the triangle having the coordinates and C about the origin.

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Example 2.1
Find the
,

rotation of the triangle having the coordinates and C about the origin.

reverse signs of and coor.

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Rotation about the point

We must change the point origin.

relative to the origin so that the centre is the

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Rotation about the point

We must change the point origin. We subtract

relative to the origin so that the centre is the


Change to origin

from

to get

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Rotation about the point

We must change the point origin. We subtract

relative to the origin so that the centre is the


Change to origin

from

to get

Then we apply the rule to

rotation about origin.

about origin

Rotation

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Rotation about the point

We must change the point origin. We subtract

relative to the origin so that the centre is the


Change to origin

from

to get

Then we apply the rule to

rotation about origin.

about origin

Rotation

Then we add

to the resulting coordinates to return to the point

to point

Change

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Rotation about the point

We must change the point origin. We subtract

relative to the origin so that the centre is the


Change to origin

from

to get

Then we apply the rule to

rotation about origin.

about origin

Rotation

Then we add

to the resulting coordinates to return to the point

to point

Change

subtract

reverse signs of x and y coor.

add

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Example 2.2
Find the

rotation of the triangle having the coordinates and C about the point .

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Example 2.2
Find the

rotation of the triangle having the coordinates and C about the point . subtract

reverse signs of and coor. add

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Anticlockwise Rotation about the origin

The matrix of this transformation is given by


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Anticlockwise Rotation about the origin


The matrix of this transformation is given by


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Anticlockwise Rotation about the origin


The matrix of this transformation is given by


Rotation about origin


Anticlockwise

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Anticlockwise Rotation about the origin


The matrix of this transformation is given by


Rotation about origin


Anticlockwise

We reverse the sign of y-coordinate and interchange


the resulting coordinates.

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Example 2.3
Find the
anticlockwise rotation of the triangle having the coordinates , and C about the origin.

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Example 2.3
Find the

anticlockwise rotation of the triangle having the coordinates , and C about the origin.

reverse signs of coor. Interchange

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Anticlockwise about the point


We must change the point origin.

relative to the origin so that the centre is the

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Anticlockwise about the point


We must change the point origin. We subtract

relative to the origin so that the centre is the


Change to origin

from

to get

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Anticlockwise about the point


We must change the point origin. We subtract

relative to the origin so that the centre is the


Change to origin

from

to get

Then we apply the rule to

anticlockwise rotation about origin.

rotation about origin

anticlockwise

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Anticlockwise about the point


We must change the point origin. We subtract

relative to the origin so that the centre is the


Change to origin

from

to get

Then we apply the rule to

anticlockwise rotation about origin.

rotation about origin


anticlockwise

Then we add

to the resulting coordinates to return to the point

to point
Change

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Anticlockwise about the point


We must change the point origin. We subtract

relative to the origin so that the centre is the


Change to origin

from

to get

Then we apply the rule to

anticlockwise rotation about origin.

rotation about origin


anticlockwise

Then we add

to the resulting coordinates to return to the point

to point
Change

subtract

reverse sign of y coor. and interchange

add (a,b)

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Example 2.4
Find the
,

anticlockwise rotation of the triangle having the coordinates and C about the point .

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Example 2.4
Find the
,

anticlockwise rotation of the triangle having the coordinates and C about the point .
reverse sign of coor. Interchange add

subtract

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Clockwise Rotation about the origin

The matrix of this transformation is given by

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Clockwise Rotation about the origin

The matrix of this transformation is given by

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Clockwise Rotation about the origin

The matrix of this transformation is given by

Rotation about origin


Clockwise

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Clockwise Rotation about the origin

The matrix of this transformation is given by

Rotation about origin


Clockwise

We reverse the sign of x-coordinate and interchange


the resulting coordinates.

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Example 2.5
Find the
clockwise rotation of the triangle having the coordinates , and C about the origin.

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Example 2.5
Find the

clockwise rotation of the triangle having the coordinates , and C about the origin.

reverse signs of coor. Interchange

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clockwise about the point


We must change the point origin.

relative to the origin so that the centre is the

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clockwise about the point


We must change the point origin. We subtract

relative to the origin so that the centre is the


Change to origin

from

to get

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clockwise about the point


We must change the point origin. We subtract

relative to the origin so that the centre is the


Change to origin

from

to get

Then we apply the rule to

clockwise rotation about origin.

rotation about origin

clockwise

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clockwise about the point


We must change the point origin. We subtract

relative to the origin so that the centre is the


Change to origin

from

to get

Then we apply the rule to

clockwise rotation about origin.

rotation about origin

clockwise

Then we add

to the resulting coordinates to return to the point

to point

Change

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clockwise about the point


We must change the point origin. We subtract

relative to the origin so that the centre is the


Change to origin

from

to get

Then we apply the rule to

clockwise rotation about origin.

rotation about origin

clockwise

Then we add

to the resulting coordinates to return to the point

to point

Change

subtract

reverse sign of x coor. and interchange

add (a,b)

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Example 2.6
Find the
,

clockwise rotation of the triangle having the coordinates and C about the point .

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Example 2.6
Find the
,

clockwise rotation of the triangle having the coordinates and C about the point .
reverse sign of coor. Interchange add

subtract

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Figure for Rotation about the origin

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Figure for Rotation about the point

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Part 3: Enlargement, Stretch and Shear

Enlargement about origin with scale factor

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Part 3: Enlargement, Stretch and Shear



Enlargement about origin with scale factor Enlargement about point

with scale factor

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Part 3: Enlargement, Stretch and Shear



Enlargement about origin with scale factor Enlargement about point Stretch parallel to -axis,

with scale factor invariant with stretch factor

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Part 3: Enlargement, Stretch and Shear



Enlargement about origin with scale factor Enlargement about point Stretch parallel to -axis, Stretch parallel to -axis,

with scale factor invariant with stretch factor invariant with stretch factor

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Part 3: Enlargement, Stretch and Shear



Enlargement about origin with scale factor Enlargement about point Stretch parallel to -axis, Stretch parallel to -axis, Stretch parallel to -axis,

with scale factor invariant with stretch factor invariant with stretch factor invariant with stretch factor

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Part 3: Enlargement, Stretch and Shear



Enlargement about origin with scale factor Enlargement about point Stretch parallel to -axis, Stretch parallel to -axis, Stretch parallel to -axis, Stretch parallel to -axis,

with scale factor invariant with stretch factor invariant with stretch factor invariant with stretch factor invariant with stretch factor

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Part 3: Enlargement, Stretch and Shear



Enlargement about origin with scale factor Enlargement about point Stretch parallel to -axis, Stretch parallel to -axis, Stretch parallel to -axis, Stretch parallel to -axis, Shear parallel to -axis,

with scale factor invariant with stretch factor invariant with stretch factor invariant with stretch factor invariant with stretch factor invariant with shear factor

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Part 3: Enlargement, Stretch and Shear



Enlargement about origin with scale factor Enlargement about point Stretch parallel to -axis, Stretch parallel to -axis, Stretch parallel to -axis, Stretch parallel to -axis, Shear parallel to -axis, Shear parallel to -axis,

with scale factor invariant with stretch factor invariant with stretch factor invariant with stretch factor invariant with stretch factor invariant with shear factor

invariant with shear factor

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Part 3: Enlargement, Stretch and Shear



Enlargement about origin with scale factor Enlargement about point Stretch parallel to -axis, Stretch parallel to -axis, Stretch parallel to -axis, Stretch parallel to -axis, Shear parallel to -axis, Shear parallel to -axis, Shear parallel to -axis,

with scale factor invariant with stretch factor invariant with stretch factor invariant with stretch factor invariant with stretch factor invariant with shear factor

invariant with shear factor invariant with shear factor

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Part 3: Enlargement, Stretch and Shear



Enlargement about origin with scale factor Enlargement about point Stretch parallel to -axis, Stretch parallel to -axis, Stretch parallel to -axis, Stretch parallel to -axis, Shear parallel to -axis, Shear parallel to -axis, Shear parallel to -axis, Shear parallel to -axis,

with scale factor invariant with stretch factor invariant with stretch factor invariant with stretch factor invariant with stretch factor invariant with shear factor

invariant with shear factor invariant with shear factor invariant with shear factor

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Enlargement about origin with scale factor

The matrix of this transformation is given by

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Enlargement about origin with scale factor

The matrix of this transformation is given by



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Enlargement about origin with scale factor

The matrix of this transformation is given by



with scale factor

Enlargement about origin

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Enlargement about origin with scale factor

The matrix of this transformation is given by



with scale factor

Enlargement about origin

We multiply both x and y-coor. by .

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Example 3.1
Find the enlargement about the origin with scale factor 2 of the
triangle having the coordinates
,

and C

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Example 3.1
Find the enlargement about the origin with scale factor 2 of the
triangle having the coordinates
,

and C

Multiply x and y coor. by 2


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Enlargement about point

We must change the point origin.

with scale factor

relative to the origin so that the centre is the

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Enlargement about point



We must change the point origin. We subtract

with scale factor

relative to the origin so that the centre is the


Change to origin

from

to get

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Enlargement about point



We must change the point origin. We subtract

with scale factor

relative to the origin so that the centre is the


Change to origin

from

to get

Then we apply the rule to enlargement about origin.

Enlargement about origin with scale factor

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Enlargement about point



We must change the point origin. We subtract

with scale factor

relative to the origin so that the centre is the


Change to origin

from

to get

Then we apply the rule to enlargement about origin.

Enlargement about origin with scale factor

Then we add

to the resulting coordinates to return to the point

Change to point

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Enlargement about point



We must change the point origin. We subtract

with scale factor

relative to the origin so that the centre is the


Change to origin

from

to get

Then we apply the rule to enlargement about origin.

Enlargement about origin with scale factor

Then we add

to the resulting coordinates to return to the point

Change to point


add

subtract

coor. by

multiply both coor.


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Example 3.2
Find the enlargement about the point
triangle having the coordinates
,

with scale factor 2 of the and C .

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Example 3.2
Find the enlargement about the point
triangle having the coordinates
,

with scale factor 2 of the and C .

subtract

Multiply x and y coor. by 2 add


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Figure for Enlargement for Examples 3.1 and 3.2

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Stretch parallel to -axis,

invariant with stretch factor


The matrix of this transformation is given by

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Stretch parallel to -axis,

invariant with stretch factor


The matrix of this transformation is given by



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Stretch parallel to -axis,

invariant with stretch factor


The matrix of this transformation is given by



x=0 invariant with stretch factor


Stretch along x-axis

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Stretch parallel to -axis,

invariant with stretch factor


The matrix of this transformation is given by



x=0 invariant with stretch factor


Stretch along x-axis

We multiply x-coor. by

and y-coor. is unchanged.

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Example 3.3
Find the stretch parallel to -axis,
of the triangle having the coordinates

invariant, stretch factor 2 , and C .

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Example 3.3
Find the stretch parallel to -axis,
of the triangle having the coordinates

invariant, stretch factor 2 , and C .

Multiply x coor. by 2

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Stretch parallel to -axis,

We must change the point

invariant with stretch factor


.

relative to the y-axis,

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Stretch parallel to -axis,



We must change the point

invariant with stretch factor


.

relative to the y-axis,

We subtract from the x-coordinate to get

Change to line

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Stretch parallel to -axis,



We must change the point

invariant with stretch factor


.

relative to the y-axis,

We subtract from the x-coordinate to get Then we apply the rule to stretch with

Change to line

as invariant line.

Stretch as invariant line

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Stretch parallel to -axis,



We must change the point

invariant with stretch factor


.

relative to the y-axis,

We subtract from the x-coordinate to get Then we apply the rule to stretch with

Change to line

as invariant line.

Stretch as invariant line

Then we add to the resulting x-coordinate to return to the line

to line
Change

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Stretch parallel to -axis,



We must change the point

invariant with stretch factor


.

relative to the y-axis,

We subtract from the x-coordinate to get Then we apply the rule to stretch with

Change to line

as invariant line.

Stretch as invariant line

Then we add to the resulting x-coordinate to return to the line

to line
Change

subtract from coor.

multiply coor. by

add to coor.

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Example 3.4
Find the stretch parallel to -axis,

invariant, stretch factor


,

2 of the triangle having the coordinates C .

and

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Example 3.4
Find the stretch parallel to -axis,

invariant, stretch factor


,

2 of the triangle having the coordinates C .

and

subtract -1 from x-coor. (+1)


Multiply x coor. by 2

add -1 to x-coor. (-1)


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Figure for Stretch parallel to -axis for Examples 3.3 and 3.4

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Stretch parallel to -axis,

invariant with stretch factor


The matrix of this transformation is given by

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Stretch parallel to -axis,

invariant with stretch factor


The matrix of this transformation is given by



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Stretch parallel to -axis,

invariant with stretch factor


The matrix of this transformation is given by



y=0 invariant with stretch factor


Stretch along x-axis

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Stretch parallel to -axis,

invariant with stretch factor


The matrix of this transformation is given by



y=0 invariant with stretch factor


Stretch along x-axis

We multiply y-coor. by

and x-coor. is unchanged.

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Example 3.5
Find the stretch parallel to -axis,
of the triangle having the coordinates

invariant, stretch factor 2 , and C .

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Example 3.5
Find the stretch parallel to -axis,
of the triangle having the coordinates

invariant, stretch factor 2 , and C .

Multiply y coor. by 2

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Stretch parallel to -axis,

We must change the point

invariant with stretch factor


.

relative to the x-axis,

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Stretch parallel to -axis,



We must change the point We subtract

invariant with stretch factor


.

relative to the x-axis,

from the y-coordinate to get

Change to line

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Stretch parallel to -axis,



We must change the point We subtract

invariant with stretch factor


.

relative to the x-axis,

from the y-coordinate to get


Change to line

Then we apply the rule to stretch with

as invariant line.

Stretch as invariant line

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Stretch parallel to -axis,



We must change the point We subtract

invariant with stretch factor


.

relative to the x-axis,

from the y-coordinate to get


Change to line

Then we apply the rule to stretch with

as invariant line.

Stretch as invariant line

Then we add

to the resulting y-coordinate to return to the line

Change to line

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Stretch parallel to -axis,



We must change the point We subtract

invariant with stretch factor


.

relative to the x-axis,

from the y-coordinate to get


Change to line

Then we apply the rule to stretch with

as invariant line.

Stretch as invariant line

Then we add

to the resulting y-coordinate to return to the line

Change to line

subtract from coor.

multiply coor. by

add to coor.

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Example 3.6
Find the stretch parallel to -axis,
invariant, stretch factor 2 of the triangle having the coordinates , and C .

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Example 3.6
Find the stretch parallel to -axis,
of the triangle having the coordinates

invariant, stretch factor 2 , and C .


add 1 to y-coor. (+1)

subtract 1 from y-coor. (-1)


Multiply y coor. by 2

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Figure for Stretch parallel to -axis for Examples 3.5 and 3.6

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Shear parallel to -axis,

invariant with shear factor


The matrix of this transformation is given by

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Shear parallel to -axis,

invariant with shear factor


The matrix of this transformation is given by



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Shear parallel to -axis,

invariant with shear factor


The matrix of this transformation is given by



x=0 invariant with shear factor


Shear along x-axis

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Shear parallel to -axis,

invariant with shear factor


The matrix of this transformation is given by



x=0 invariant with shear factor


Shear along x-axis

The x-coor. is unchanged.


We multiply x-coor. by to get a new y-coor. and add the result to y-coor.

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Example 3.7
Find the shear parallel to -axis,
the triangle having the coordinates invariant, shear factor 2 of , and C .

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Example 3.7
Find the shear parallel to -axis,
the triangle having the coordinates invariant, shear factor 2 of , and C .

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Shear parallel to -axis,

We must change the point

invariant with shear factor


relative to the y-axis,
.

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Shear parallel to -axis,



We must change the point

invariant with shear factor


relative to the y-axis,

We subtract from the x-coordinate to get

Change to line

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Shear parallel to -axis,



We must change the point

invariant with shear factor


relative to the y-axis,

We subtract from the x-coordinate to get Then we apply the rule to shear with

Change to line

as invariant line.

shear as invariant line

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Shear parallel to -axis,



We must change the point

invariant with shear factor


relative to the y-axis,

We subtract from the x-coordinate to get Then we apply the rule to shear with

Change to line

as invariant line.

shear as invariant line

Then we add to the resulting x-coordinate to return to the line

to line
Change

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Shear parallel to -axis,



We must change the point

invariant with shear factor


relative to the y-axis,

We subtract from the x-coordinate to get Then we apply the rule to shear with

Change to line

as invariant line.

shear as invariant line

Then we add to the resulting x-coordinate to return to the line

to line
Change

subtract from coor.

multiply coor. by k and add to y coor.

add to coor.

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Example 3.8
Find the shear parallel to -axis,
of the triangle having the coordinates

invariant, shear factor 2


,

and C

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Example 3.8
Find the shear parallel to -axis,

invariant, shear factor 2


,

of the triangle having the coordinates

and C

subtract -1 from x-coor. (+1)


Multiply x coor. by 2 + y coor.


add -1 to x-coor. (-1)


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Figure for Shear parallel to -axis for Examples 3.7 and 3.8

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Shear parallel to -axis,

invariant with shear factor


The matrix of this transformation is given by

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Shear parallel to -axis,

invariant with shear factor


The matrix of this transformation is given by



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Shear parallel to -axis,

invariant with shear factor


The matrix of this transformation is given by



y=0 invariant with shear factor


shear along x-axis

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Shear parallel to -axis,

invariant with shear factor


The matrix of this transformation is given by



y=0 invariant with shear factor


shear along x-axis

The y-coor. is unchanged.


We multiply y-coor. by to get a new x-coor. and add the result to x-coor.

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Example 3.9
Find the shear parallel to -axis,
the triangle having the coordinates invariant, shear factor 2 of , and C .

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Example 3.9
Find the shear parallel to -axis,
the triangle having the coordinates invariant, shear factor 2 of , and C .

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Shear parallel to -axis,

We must change the point

invariant with shear factor


relative to the x-axis,
.

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Shear parallel to -axis,



We must change the point We subtract

invariant with shear factor


relative to the x-axis,

from the y-coordinate to get

Change to line

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Shear parallel to -axis,



We must change the point We subtract

invariant with shear factor


relative to the x-axis,

from the y-coordinate to get

Change to line

Then we apply the rule to shear with

as invariant line.

shear as invariant line

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Shear parallel to -axis,



We must change the point We subtract

invariant with shear factor


relative to the x-axis,

from the y-coordinate to get

Change to line

Then we apply the rule to shear with

as invariant line.

shear as invariant line

Then we add

to the resulting y-coordinate to return to the line


Change to line

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Shear parallel to -axis,



We must change the point We subtract

invariant with shear factor


relative to the x-axis,

from the y-coordinate to get

Change to line

Then we apply the rule to shear with

as invariant line.

shear as invariant line

Then we add

to the resulting y-coordinate to return to the line


Change to line

subtract from coor.

multiply coor. by and add to x coor.

add to coor.

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Example 3.10
Find the shear parallel to -axis,
the triangle having the coordinates invariant, shear factor 2 of , and C .

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Example 3.10
Find the shear parallel to -axis,
the triangle having the coordinates invariant, shear factor 2 of , and C .

subtract 1 from y-coor. (-1)


Multiply y coor. by 2 x coor.


add 1 to y-coor. (+1)


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Figure for Shear parallel to -axis for Examples 3.9 and 3.10

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