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You are on page 1of 208

com

Dr D K R Babajee

dkrbabajee@gmail.com

Mauritius

Transformations

transformations of points.

Transformations

transformations of points.

rotation, enlargement, stretch and shear using some tricks without the use of ruler, protractor and compass.

Part 1: Reection

Reection in the x-axis

Part 1: Reection

Reection in the x-axis Reection in the horizontal line

Part 1: Reection

Reection in the x-axis Reection in the horizontal line Reection in the y-axis

Part 1: Reection

Reection in the x-axis Reection in the horizontal line Reection in the y-axis Reection in the vertical line

Part 1: Reection

Reection in the x-axis Reection in the horizontal line Reection in the y-axis Reection in the vertical line Reection in the line y=x

Part 1: Reection

Reection in the x-axis Reection in the horizontal line Reection in the y-axis Reection in the vertical line Reection in the line y=x Reection in the line

Part 1: Reection

Reection in the x-axis Reection in the horizontal line Reection in the y-axis Reection in the vertical line Reection in the line y=x Reection in the line

Part 1: Reection

Reection in the x-axis Reection in the horizontal line Reection in the y-axis Reection in the vertical line Reection in the line y=x Reection in the line

Reection in the x-axis Reection in the horizontal line Reection in the y-axis Reection in the vertical line Reection in the line y=x Reection in the line

Tricks in Transformations c dkrbabajee@gmail.com p.3/66

in x-axis

Reection

in x-axis

Reection

y-coordinate.

Example 1.1

Find the reection of the triangle having the coordinates

,

and C

in the x-axis.

Example 1.1

Find the reection of the triangle having the coordinates

,

and C

in the x-axis.

We must change the point We subtract

Change to line

We must change the point We subtract

Change to line

Reection in x-axis

We must change the point We subtract

Change to line

Reection in x-axis

Then we add

Change to line

We must change the point We subtract

Change to line

Reection in x-axis

Then we add

Change to line

from

subtract

of

reverse sign

add to

Example 1.2

Find the reection of the triangle having the coordinates

and C

,

in the line

Example 1.2

Find the reection of the triangle having the coordinates

and C

,

in the line

in y-axis

Reection

in y-axis

Reection

unchanged.

Example 1.3

Find the reection of the triangle having the coordinates

,

and C

in the y-axis.

Example 1.3

Find the reection of the triangle having the coordinates

,

and C

in the y-axis.

We must change the point

Change to line

We must change the point

We subtract from the x-coordinate to get Then we apply the rule to reection in y-axis.

Change to line

Reection in y-axis

We must change the point

We subtract from the x-coordinate to get Then we apply the rule to reection in y-axis.

Change to line

Reection in y-axis

Change to line

We must change the point

We subtract from the x-coordinate to get Then we apply the rule to reection in y-axis.

Change to line

Reection in y-axis

Change to line

subtract from

reverse sign of

add to

Example 1.4

Find the reection of the triangle having the coordinates C in the line .

,

and

Example 1.4

Find the reection of the triangle having the coordinates C in the line .

subtract

and

from

coor. (+1)

in y=x

Reection

in y=x

Reection

Example 1.5

Find the reection of the triangle having the coordinates

,

and C

in the line

Example 1.5

Find the reection of the triangle having the coordinates

,

and C

in the line

Interchange

We must change the point

Change to line

We must change the point

Change to line

We must change the point

Change to line

Change to line

We must change the point

Change to line

Change to line

subtract from

Example 1.6

Find the reection of the triangle having the coordinates C in the line .

,

and

Example 1.6

Find the reection of the triangle having the coordinates C in the line .

and

in y=-x

Reection

in y=-x

Reection

their signs.

Tricks in Transformations c dkrbabajee@gmail.com p.17/66

Example 1.7

Find the reection of the triangle having the coordinates

and C

in the line

Example 1.7

Find the reection of the triangle having the coordinates

and C

in the line

We must change the point

Change to line

We must change the point

Change to line

We must change the point

Change to line

Change to line

We must change the point

Change to line

Change to line

subtract from

Example 1.8

Find the reection of the triangle having the coordinates C in the line .

,

and

Example 1.8

Find the reection of the triangle having the coordinates C in the line .

and

subtract

from

coor. (+1)

add

to coor. (-1)

The line of reection (mirror line) is the perpendicular bisector of the object and the image.

The line of reection (mirror line) is the perpendicular bisector of the object and the image. We show a trick to nd the mirror line in case of a vertical or horizontal.

Example 1.9

Example 1.9

Describe the transformation when the triangle is mapped on triangle :

Example 1.9

Describe the transformation when the triangle is mapped on triangle :

Example 1.9

Describe the transformation when the triangle is mapped on triangle :

We observe that y-coor. are unchanged and so it is a reection in the line To nd , we nd the x-coor. of the midpoint of the object and image.

Example 1.9

Describe the transformation when the triangle is mapped on triangle :

We observe that y-coor. are unchanged and so it is a reection in the line To nd , we nd the x-coor. of the midpoint of the object and image.

Example 1.9

Describe the transformation when the triangle is mapped on triangle :

We observe that y-coor. are unchanged and so it is a reection in the line To nd , we nd the x-coor. of the midpoint of the object and image.

Example 1.10

Example 1.10

Describe the transformation when the triangle is mapped on triangle :

Example 1.10

Describe the transformation when the triangle is mapped on triangle :

Example 1.10

Describe the transformation when the triangle is mapped on triangle :

We observe that x-coor. are unchanged and so it is a reection in the line To nd , we nd the y-coor. of the midpoint of the object and image.

Example 1.10

Describe the transformation when the triangle is mapped on triangle :

We observe that x-coor. are unchanged and so it is a reection in the line To nd , we nd the y-coor. of the midpoint of the object and image.

Example 1.10

Describe the transformation when the triangle is mapped on triangle :

We observe that x-coor. are unchanged and so it is a reection in the line To nd , we nd the y-coor. of the midpoint of the object and image.

Part 2: Rotation

Part 2: Rotation

Part 2: Rotation

Part 2: Rotation

Anticlockwise Rotation about the origin Anticlockwise Rotation about the point

Part 2: Rotation

Anticlockwise Rotation about the origin Anticlockwise Rotation about the point Clockwise Rotation about the origin

Part 2: Rotation

Anticlockwise Rotation about the origin Anticlockwise Rotation about the point Clockwise Rotation about the origin Clockwise Rotation about the point

about origin

Rotation

about origin

Rotation

Example 2.1

Find the

,

rotation of the triangle having the coordinates and C about the origin.

Example 2.1

Find the

,

rotation of the triangle having the coordinates and C about the origin.

Change to origin

from

to get

Change to origin

from

to get

about origin

Rotation

Change to origin

from

to get

about origin

Rotation

Then we add

to point

Change

Change to origin

from

to get

about origin

Rotation

Then we add

to point

Change

subtract

add

Example 2.2

Find the

rotation of the triangle having the coordinates and C about the point .

Example 2.2

Find the

rotation of the triangle having the coordinates and C about the point . subtract

Anticlockwise

Anticlockwise

the resulting coordinates.

Example 2.3

Find the

anticlockwise rotation of the triangle having the coordinates , and C about the origin.

Example 2.3

Find the

anticlockwise rotation of the triangle having the coordinates , and C about the origin.

We must change the point origin.

We must change the point origin. We subtract

Change to origin

from

to get

We must change the point origin. We subtract

Change to origin

from

to get

anticlockwise

We must change the point origin. We subtract

Change to origin

from

to get

anticlockwise

Then we add

to point

Change

We must change the point origin. We subtract

Change to origin

from

to get

anticlockwise

Then we add

to point

Change

subtract

add (a,b)

Example 2.4

Find the

,

anticlockwise rotation of the triangle having the coordinates and C about the point .

Example 2.4

Find the

,

anticlockwise rotation of the triangle having the coordinates and C about the point .

reverse sign of coor. Interchange add

subtract

Clockwise

Clockwise

the resulting coordinates.

Example 2.5

Find the

clockwise rotation of the triangle having the coordinates , and C about the origin.

Example 2.5

Find the

clockwise rotation of the triangle having the coordinates , and C about the origin.

We must change the point origin.

We must change the point origin. We subtract

Change to origin

from

to get

We must change the point origin. We subtract

Change to origin

from

to get

clockwise

We must change the point origin. We subtract

Change to origin

from

to get

clockwise

Then we add

to point

Change

We must change the point origin. We subtract

Change to origin

from

to get

clockwise

Then we add

to point

Change

subtract

add (a,b)

Example 2.6

Find the

,

clockwise rotation of the triangle having the coordinates and C about the point .

Example 2.6

Find the

,

clockwise rotation of the triangle having the coordinates and C about the point .

reverse sign of coor. Interchange add

subtract

Enlargement about origin with scale factor Enlargement about point

Enlargement about origin with scale factor Enlargement about point Stretch parallel to -axis,

Enlargement about origin with scale factor Enlargement about point Stretch parallel to -axis, Stretch parallel to -axis,

with scale factor invariant with stretch factor invariant with stretch factor

Enlargement about origin with scale factor Enlargement about point Stretch parallel to -axis, Stretch parallel to -axis, Stretch parallel to -axis,

with scale factor invariant with stretch factor invariant with stretch factor invariant with stretch factor

Enlargement about origin with scale factor Enlargement about point Stretch parallel to -axis, Stretch parallel to -axis, Stretch parallel to -axis, Stretch parallel to -axis,

with scale factor invariant with stretch factor invariant with stretch factor invariant with stretch factor invariant with stretch factor

Enlargement about origin with scale factor Enlargement about point Stretch parallel to -axis, Stretch parallel to -axis, Stretch parallel to -axis, Stretch parallel to -axis, Shear parallel to -axis,

with scale factor invariant with stretch factor invariant with stretch factor invariant with stretch factor invariant with stretch factor invariant with shear factor

Enlargement about origin with scale factor Enlargement about point Stretch parallel to -axis, Stretch parallel to -axis, Stretch parallel to -axis, Stretch parallel to -axis, Shear parallel to -axis, Shear parallel to -axis,

with scale factor invariant with stretch factor invariant with stretch factor invariant with stretch factor invariant with stretch factor invariant with shear factor

Enlargement about origin with scale factor Enlargement about point Stretch parallel to -axis, Stretch parallel to -axis, Stretch parallel to -axis, Stretch parallel to -axis, Shear parallel to -axis, Shear parallel to -axis, Shear parallel to -axis,

with scale factor invariant with stretch factor invariant with stretch factor invariant with stretch factor invariant with stretch factor invariant with shear factor

Enlargement about origin with scale factor Enlargement about point Stretch parallel to -axis, Stretch parallel to -axis, Stretch parallel to -axis, Stretch parallel to -axis, Shear parallel to -axis, Shear parallel to -axis, Shear parallel to -axis, Shear parallel to -axis,

invariant with shear factor invariant with shear factor invariant with shear factor

Example 3.1

Find the enlargement about the origin with scale factor 2 of the

triangle having the coordinates

,

and C

Example 3.1

Find the enlargement about the origin with scale factor 2 of the

triangle having the coordinates

,

and C

We must change the point origin. We subtract

Change to origin

from

to get

We must change the point origin. We subtract

Change to origin

from

to get

We must change the point origin. We subtract

Change to origin

from

to get

Then we add

Change to point

We must change the point origin. We subtract

Change to origin

from

to get

Then we add

Change to point

add

subtract

coor. by

Tricks in Transformations c dkrbabajee@gmail.com p.44/66

Example 3.2

Find the enlargement about the point

triangle having the coordinates

,

Example 3.2

Find the enlargement about the point

triangle having the coordinates

,

subtract

Stretch along x-axis

Stretch along x-axis

We multiply x-coor. by

Example 3.3

Find the stretch parallel to -axis,

of the triangle having the coordinates

Example 3.3

Find the stretch parallel to -axis,

of the triangle having the coordinates

Multiply x coor. by 2

.

We must change the point

.

Change to line

We must change the point

.

We subtract from the x-coordinate to get Then we apply the rule to stretch with

Change to line

as invariant line.

We must change the point

.

We subtract from the x-coordinate to get Then we apply the rule to stretch with

Change to line

as invariant line.

to line

Change

We must change the point

.

We subtract from the x-coordinate to get Then we apply the rule to stretch with

Change to line

as invariant line.

to line

Change

multiply coor. by

add to coor.

Example 3.4

Find the stretch parallel to -axis,

,

and

Example 3.4

Find the stretch parallel to -axis,

,

and

Multiply x coor. by 2

Figure for Stretch parallel to -axis for Examples 3.3 and 3.4

Stretch along x-axis

Stretch along x-axis

We multiply y-coor. by

Example 3.5

Find the stretch parallel to -axis,

of the triangle having the coordinates

Example 3.5

Find the stretch parallel to -axis,

of the triangle having the coordinates

Multiply y coor. by 2

.

We must change the point We subtract

.

Change to line

We must change the point We subtract

.

Change to line

as invariant line.

We must change the point We subtract

.

Change to line

as invariant line.

Then we add

Change to line

We must change the point We subtract

.

Change to line

as invariant line.

Then we add

Change to line

multiply coor. by

add to coor.

Example 3.6

Find the stretch parallel to -axis,

invariant, stretch factor 2 of the triangle having the coordinates , and C .

Example 3.6

Find the stretch parallel to -axis,

of the triangle having the coordinates

add 1 to y-coor. (+1)

Multiply y coor. by 2

Figure for Stretch parallel to -axis for Examples 3.5 and 3.6

Shear along x-axis

Shear along x-axis

We multiply x-coor. by to get a new y-coor. and add the result to y-coor.

Example 3.7

Find the shear parallel to -axis,

the triangle having the coordinates invariant, shear factor 2 of , and C .

Example 3.7

Find the shear parallel to -axis,

the triangle having the coordinates invariant, shear factor 2 of , and C .

relative to the y-axis,

.

We must change the point

relative to the y-axis,

Change to line

We must change the point

relative to the y-axis,

We subtract from the x-coordinate to get Then we apply the rule to shear with

Change to line

as invariant line.

We must change the point

relative to the y-axis,

We subtract from the x-coordinate to get Then we apply the rule to shear with

Change to line

as invariant line.

to line

Change

We must change the point

relative to the y-axis,

We subtract from the x-coordinate to get Then we apply the rule to shear with

Change to line

as invariant line.

to line

Change

add to coor.

Example 3.8

Find the shear parallel to -axis,

of the triangle having the coordinates

,

and C

Example 3.8

Find the shear parallel to -axis,

,

and C

Figure for Shear parallel to -axis for Examples 3.7 and 3.8

shear along x-axis

shear along x-axis

We multiply y-coor. by to get a new x-coor. and add the result to x-coor.

Example 3.9

Find the shear parallel to -axis,

the triangle having the coordinates invariant, shear factor 2 of , and C .

Example 3.9

Find the shear parallel to -axis,

the triangle having the coordinates invariant, shear factor 2 of , and C .

relative to the x-axis,

.

We must change the point We subtract

relative to the x-axis,

Change to line

We must change the point We subtract

relative to the x-axis,

Change to line

as invariant line.

We must change the point We subtract

relative to the x-axis,

Change to line

as invariant line.

Then we add

Change to line

We must change the point We subtract

relative to the x-axis,

Change to line

as invariant line.

Then we add

Change to line

add to coor.

Example 3.10

Find the shear parallel to -axis,

the triangle having the coordinates invariant, shear factor 2 of , and C .

Example 3.10

Find the shear parallel to -axis,

the triangle having the coordinates invariant, shear factor 2 of , and C .

Figure for Shear parallel to -axis for Examples 3.9 and 3.10

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