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# Tricks in Transformations c dkrbabajee@gmail.

com
Dr D K R Babajee
dkrbabajee@gmail.com

Mauritius

Transformations

## We require compass, protractor and ruler to nd the

transformations of points.

Transformations

## We require compass, protractor and ruler to nd the

transformations of points.

## In this presentation, we show how to get the reection,

rotation, enlargement, stretch and shear using some tricks without the use of ruler, protractor and compass.

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Part 1: Reection
Reection in the x-axis

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Part 1: Reection
Reection in the x-axis Reection in the horizontal line

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Part 1: Reection
Reection in the x-axis Reection in the horizontal line Reection in the y-axis

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Part 1: Reection
Reection in the x-axis Reection in the horizontal line Reection in the y-axis Reection in the vertical line

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Part 1: Reection
Reection in the x-axis Reection in the horizontal line Reection in the y-axis Reection in the vertical line Reection in the line y=x

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Part 1: Reection
Reection in the x-axis Reection in the horizontal line Reection in the y-axis Reection in the vertical line Reection in the line y=x Reection in the line

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Part 1: Reection
Reection in the x-axis Reection in the horizontal line Reection in the y-axis Reection in the vertical line Reection in the line y=x Reection in the line

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Part 1: Reection
Reection in the x-axis Reection in the horizontal line Reection in the y-axis Reection in the vertical line Reection in the line y=x Reection in the line

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Part 1: Reection
Reection in the x-axis Reection in the horizontal line Reection in the y-axis Reection in the vertical line Reection in the line y=x Reection in the line

## Finding the mirror line (horizontal or vertical line)

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in x-axis

Reection

in x-axis

Reection

y-coordinate.

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Example 1.1
Find the reection of the triangle having the coordinates
,

and C

in the x-axis.

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Example 1.1
Find the reection of the triangle having the coordinates
,

and C

in the x-axis.

## Reection in the horizontal line

We must change the point We subtract

Change to line

## Reection in the horizontal line

We must change the point We subtract

Change to line

## Then we apply the rule to reection in x-axis.

Reection in x-axis

## Reection in the horizontal line

We must change the point We subtract

Change to line

## Then we apply the rule to reection in x-axis.

Reection in x-axis

Change to line

## Reection in the horizontal line

We must change the point We subtract

Change to line

## Then we apply the rule to reection in x-axis.

Reection in x-axis

Change to line

from
subtract

of

reverse sign

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Example 1.2
Find the reection of the triangle having the coordinates
and C
,

in the line

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Example 1.2
Find the reection of the triangle having the coordinates
and C
,

in the line

in y-axis
Reection

in y-axis
Reection

unchanged.

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Example 1.3
Find the reection of the triangle having the coordinates
,

and C

in the y-axis.

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Example 1.3
Find the reection of the triangle having the coordinates
,

and C

in the y-axis.

## Reection in the vertical line

We must change the point

Change to line

## Reection in the vertical line

We must change the point

## relative to the y-axis,

We subtract from the x-coordinate to get Then we apply the rule to reection in y-axis.

Change to line

Reection in y-axis

## Reection in the vertical line

We must change the point

## relative to the y-axis,

We subtract from the x-coordinate to get Then we apply the rule to reection in y-axis.

Change to line

Reection in y-axis

Change to line

## Reection in the vertical line

We must change the point

## relative to the y-axis,

We subtract from the x-coordinate to get Then we apply the rule to reection in y-axis.

Change to line

Reection in y-axis

Change to line

subtract from

reverse sign of

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Example 1.4

Find the reection of the triangle having the coordinates C in the line .
,

and

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Example 1.4

Find the reection of the triangle having the coordinates C in the line .
subtract

and

from

coor. (+1)

in y=x

Reection

in y=x

Reection

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Example 1.5
Find the reection of the triangle having the coordinates
,

and C

in the line

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Example 1.5
Find the reection of the triangle having the coordinates
,

and C

in the line

Interchange

## Reection in the line

We must change the point

Change to line

## Reection in the line

We must change the point

Change to line

## Reection in the line

We must change the point

Change to line

Change to line

## Reection in the line

We must change the point

Change to line

Change to line

subtract from

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Example 1.6

Find the reection of the triangle having the coordinates C in the line .
,

and

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Example 1.6

Find the reection of the triangle having the coordinates C in the line .

and

in y=-x
Reection

in y=-x
Reection

## Interchange the coordinates of and and reverse

their signs.
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Example 1.7
Find the reection of the triangle having the coordinates

and C

in the line

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Example 1.7
Find the reection of the triangle having the coordinates

and C

in the line

## Reection in the line

We must change the point

Change to line

## Reection in the line

We must change the point

Change to line

## Reection in the line

We must change the point

Change to line

Change to line

## Reection in the line

We must change the point

Change to line

Change to line

subtract from

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Example 1.8

Find the reection of the triangle having the coordinates C in the line .
,

and

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Example 1.8

Find the reection of the triangle having the coordinates C in the line .

and

subtract

from

coor. (+1)

to coor. (-1)

## Finding the mirror line (horizontal or vertical line)

The line of reection (mirror line) is the perpendicular bisector of the object and the image.

## Finding the mirror line (horizontal or vertical line)

The line of reection (mirror line) is the perpendicular bisector of the object and the image. We show a trick to nd the mirror line in case of a vertical or horizontal.

Example 1.9

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Example 1.9

Describe the transformation when the triangle is mapped on triangle :

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Example 1.9

Describe the transformation when the triangle is mapped on triangle :

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Example 1.9

Describe the transformation when the triangle is mapped on triangle :

We observe that y-coor. are unchanged and so it is a reection in the line To nd , we nd the x-coor. of the midpoint of the object and image.

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Example 1.9

Describe the transformation when the triangle is mapped on triangle :

We observe that y-coor. are unchanged and so it is a reection in the line To nd , we nd the x-coor. of the midpoint of the object and image.

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Example 1.9

Describe the transformation when the triangle is mapped on triangle :

We observe that y-coor. are unchanged and so it is a reection in the line To nd , we nd the x-coor. of the midpoint of the object and image.

Example 1.10

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Example 1.10

Describe the transformation when the triangle is mapped on triangle :

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Example 1.10

Describe the transformation when the triangle is mapped on triangle :

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Example 1.10

Describe the transformation when the triangle is mapped on triangle :

We observe that x-coor. are unchanged and so it is a reection in the line To nd , we nd the y-coor. of the midpoint of the object and image.

## Tricks in Transformations c dkrbabajee@gmail.com p.24/66

Example 1.10

Describe the transformation when the triangle is mapped on triangle :

We observe that x-coor. are unchanged and so it is a reection in the line To nd , we nd the y-coor. of the midpoint of the object and image.

## Tricks in Transformations c dkrbabajee@gmail.com p.24/66

Example 1.10

Describe the transformation when the triangle is mapped on triangle :

We observe that x-coor. are unchanged and so it is a reection in the line To nd , we nd the y-coor. of the midpoint of the object and image.

Part 2: Rotation

Part 2: Rotation

Part 2: Rotation

Part 2: Rotation

Part 2: Rotation

Part 2: Rotation

Rotation

Rotation

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Example 2.1
Find the
,

rotation of the triangle having the coordinates and C about the origin.

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Example 2.1
Find the
,

rotation of the triangle having the coordinates and C about the origin.

Change to origin

from

to get

Change to origin

from

to get

Rotation

Change to origin

from

to get

Rotation

to point

Change

Change to origin

from

to get

Rotation

to point

Change

subtract

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Example 2.2
Find the

rotation of the triangle having the coordinates and C about the point .

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Example 2.2
Find the

rotation of the triangle having the coordinates and C about the point . subtract

Anticlockwise

Anticlockwise

## We reverse the sign of y-coordinate and interchange

the resulting coordinates.

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Example 2.3
Find the
anticlockwise rotation of the triangle having the coordinates , and C about the origin.

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Example 2.3
Find the

anticlockwise rotation of the triangle having the coordinates , and C about the origin.

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We must change the point origin.

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We must change the point origin. We subtract

Change to origin

from

to get

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We must change the point origin. We subtract

Change to origin

from

to get

anticlockwise

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We must change the point origin. We subtract

Change to origin

from

to get

anticlockwise

to point
Change

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We must change the point origin. We subtract

Change to origin

from

to get

anticlockwise

to point
Change

subtract

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Example 2.4
Find the
,

anticlockwise rotation of the triangle having the coordinates and C about the point .

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Example 2.4
Find the
,

anticlockwise rotation of the triangle having the coordinates and C about the point .
reverse sign of coor. Interchange add

subtract

Clockwise

Clockwise

## We reverse the sign of x-coordinate and interchange

the resulting coordinates.

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Example 2.5
Find the
clockwise rotation of the triangle having the coordinates , and C about the origin.

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Example 2.5
Find the

clockwise rotation of the triangle having the coordinates , and C about the origin.

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We must change the point origin.

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We must change the point origin. We subtract

Change to origin

from

to get

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We must change the point origin. We subtract

Change to origin

from

to get

clockwise

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We must change the point origin. We subtract

Change to origin

from

to get

clockwise

to point

Change

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We must change the point origin. We subtract

Change to origin

from

to get

clockwise

to point

Change

subtract

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Example 2.6
Find the
,

clockwise rotation of the triangle having the coordinates and C about the point .

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Example 2.6
Find the
,

clockwise rotation of the triangle having the coordinates and C about the point .
reverse sign of coor. Interchange add

subtract

## Part 3: Enlargement, Stretch and Shear

Enlargement about origin with scale factor Enlargement about point Stretch parallel to -axis,

## Part 3: Enlargement, Stretch and Shear

Enlargement about origin with scale factor Enlargement about point Stretch parallel to -axis, Stretch parallel to -axis,

with scale factor invariant with stretch factor invariant with stretch factor

## Part 3: Enlargement, Stretch and Shear

Enlargement about origin with scale factor Enlargement about point Stretch parallel to -axis, Stretch parallel to -axis, Stretch parallel to -axis,

with scale factor invariant with stretch factor invariant with stretch factor invariant with stretch factor

## Part 3: Enlargement, Stretch and Shear

Enlargement about origin with scale factor Enlargement about point Stretch parallel to -axis, Stretch parallel to -axis, Stretch parallel to -axis, Stretch parallel to -axis,

with scale factor invariant with stretch factor invariant with stretch factor invariant with stretch factor invariant with stretch factor

## Part 3: Enlargement, Stretch and Shear

Enlargement about origin with scale factor Enlargement about point Stretch parallel to -axis, Stretch parallel to -axis, Stretch parallel to -axis, Stretch parallel to -axis, Shear parallel to -axis,

with scale factor invariant with stretch factor invariant with stretch factor invariant with stretch factor invariant with stretch factor invariant with shear factor

## Part 3: Enlargement, Stretch and Shear

Enlargement about origin with scale factor Enlargement about point Stretch parallel to -axis, Stretch parallel to -axis, Stretch parallel to -axis, Stretch parallel to -axis, Shear parallel to -axis, Shear parallel to -axis,

with scale factor invariant with stretch factor invariant with stretch factor invariant with stretch factor invariant with stretch factor invariant with shear factor

## Part 3: Enlargement, Stretch and Shear

Enlargement about origin with scale factor Enlargement about point Stretch parallel to -axis, Stretch parallel to -axis, Stretch parallel to -axis, Stretch parallel to -axis, Shear parallel to -axis, Shear parallel to -axis, Shear parallel to -axis,

with scale factor invariant with stretch factor invariant with stretch factor invariant with stretch factor invariant with stretch factor invariant with shear factor

## Part 3: Enlargement, Stretch and Shear

Enlargement about origin with scale factor Enlargement about point Stretch parallel to -axis, Stretch parallel to -axis, Stretch parallel to -axis, Stretch parallel to -axis, Shear parallel to -axis, Shear parallel to -axis, Shear parallel to -axis, Shear parallel to -axis,

with scale factor invariant with stretch factor invariant with stretch factor invariant with stretch factor invariant with stretch factor invariant with shear factor

invariant with shear factor invariant with shear factor invariant with shear factor

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Example 3.1
Find the enlargement about the origin with scale factor 2 of the
triangle having the coordinates
,

and C

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Example 3.1
Find the enlargement about the origin with scale factor 2 of the
triangle having the coordinates
,

and C

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We must change the point origin. We subtract

Change to origin

from

to get

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We must change the point origin. We subtract

Change to origin

from

to get

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We must change the point origin. We subtract

Change to origin

from

to get

Change to point

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We must change the point origin. We subtract

Change to origin

from

to get

Change to point

subtract

coor. by

## multiply both coor.

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Example 3.2
Find the enlargement about the point
triangle having the coordinates
,

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Example 3.2
Find the enlargement about the point
triangle having the coordinates
,

subtract

## x=0 invariant with stretch factor

Stretch along x-axis

## x=0 invariant with stretch factor

Stretch along x-axis

We multiply x-coor. by

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Example 3.3
Find the stretch parallel to -axis,
of the triangle having the coordinates

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Example 3.3
Find the stretch parallel to -axis,
of the triangle having the coordinates

## invariant, stretch factor 2 , and C .

Multiply x coor. by 2

.

## Stretch parallel to -axis,

We must change the point

.

Change to line

## Stretch parallel to -axis,

We must change the point

.

## relative to the y-axis,

We subtract from the x-coordinate to get Then we apply the rule to stretch with

Change to line

as invariant line.

## Stretch parallel to -axis,

We must change the point

.

## relative to the y-axis,

We subtract from the x-coordinate to get Then we apply the rule to stretch with

Change to line

as invariant line.

to line
Change

## Stretch parallel to -axis,

We must change the point

.

## relative to the y-axis,

We subtract from the x-coordinate to get Then we apply the rule to stretch with

Change to line

as invariant line.

to line
Change

## subtract from coor.

multiply coor. by

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Example 3.4
Find the stretch parallel to -axis,

,

and

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Example 3.4
Find the stretch parallel to -axis,

,

and

## subtract -1 from x-coor. (+1)

Multiply x coor. by 2

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Figure for Stretch parallel to -axis for Examples 3.3 and 3.4

## y=0 invariant with stretch factor

Stretch along x-axis

## y=0 invariant with stretch factor

Stretch along x-axis

We multiply y-coor. by

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Example 3.5
Find the stretch parallel to -axis,
of the triangle having the coordinates

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Example 3.5
Find the stretch parallel to -axis,
of the triangle having the coordinates

## invariant, stretch factor 2 , and C .

Multiply y coor. by 2

.

## Stretch parallel to -axis,

We must change the point We subtract

.

Change to line

## Stretch parallel to -axis,

We must change the point We subtract

.

Change to line

## Then we apply the rule to stretch with

as invariant line.

## Stretch parallel to -axis,

We must change the point We subtract

.

Change to line

## Then we apply the rule to stretch with

as invariant line.

Change to line

## Stretch parallel to -axis,

We must change the point We subtract

.

Change to line

## Then we apply the rule to stretch with

as invariant line.

Change to line

## subtract from coor.

multiply coor. by

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Example 3.6
Find the stretch parallel to -axis,
invariant, stretch factor 2 of the triangle having the coordinates , and C .

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Example 3.6
Find the stretch parallel to -axis,
of the triangle having the coordinates

## subtract 1 from y-coor. (-1)

Multiply y coor. by 2

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Figure for Stretch parallel to -axis for Examples 3.5 and 3.6

## x=0 invariant with shear factor

Shear along x-axis

## x=0 invariant with shear factor

Shear along x-axis

## The x-coor. is unchanged.

We multiply x-coor. by to get a new y-coor. and add the result to y-coor.

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Example 3.7
Find the shear parallel to -axis,
the triangle having the coordinates invariant, shear factor 2 of , and C .

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Example 3.7
Find the shear parallel to -axis,
the triangle having the coordinates invariant, shear factor 2 of , and C .

## invariant with shear factor

relative to the y-axis,
.

## Shear parallel to -axis,

We must change the point

## invariant with shear factor

relative to the y-axis,

Change to line

## Shear parallel to -axis,

We must change the point

## invariant with shear factor

relative to the y-axis,

We subtract from the x-coordinate to get Then we apply the rule to shear with

Change to line

as invariant line.

## Shear parallel to -axis,

We must change the point

## invariant with shear factor

relative to the y-axis,

We subtract from the x-coordinate to get Then we apply the rule to shear with

Change to line

as invariant line.

to line
Change

## Shear parallel to -axis,

We must change the point

## invariant with shear factor

relative to the y-axis,

We subtract from the x-coordinate to get Then we apply the rule to shear with

Change to line

as invariant line.

to line
Change

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Example 3.8
Find the shear parallel to -axis,
of the triangle having the coordinates

,

and C

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Example 3.8
Find the shear parallel to -axis,

,

and C

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Figure for Shear parallel to -axis for Examples 3.7 and 3.8

## y=0 invariant with shear factor

shear along x-axis

## y=0 invariant with shear factor

shear along x-axis

## The y-coor. is unchanged.

We multiply y-coor. by to get a new x-coor. and add the result to x-coor.

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Example 3.9
Find the shear parallel to -axis,
the triangle having the coordinates invariant, shear factor 2 of , and C .

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Example 3.9
Find the shear parallel to -axis,
the triangle having the coordinates invariant, shear factor 2 of , and C .

## invariant with shear factor

relative to the x-axis,
.

## Shear parallel to -axis,

We must change the point We subtract

## invariant with shear factor

relative to the x-axis,

Change to line

## Shear parallel to -axis,

We must change the point We subtract

## invariant with shear factor

relative to the x-axis,

Change to line

## Then we apply the rule to shear with

as invariant line.

## Shear parallel to -axis,

We must change the point We subtract

## invariant with shear factor

relative to the x-axis,

Change to line

## Then we apply the rule to shear with

as invariant line.

Change to line

## Shear parallel to -axis,

We must change the point We subtract

## invariant with shear factor

relative to the x-axis,

Change to line

## Then we apply the rule to shear with

as invariant line.

Change to line

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Example 3.10
Find the shear parallel to -axis,
the triangle having the coordinates invariant, shear factor 2 of , and C .

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Example 3.10
Find the shear parallel to -axis,
the triangle having the coordinates invariant, shear factor 2 of , and C .

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Figure for Shear parallel to -axis for Examples 3.9 and 3.10