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EPITHELIAL TISSUE

EPITHELIAL TISSUE - Introduction


n

The outer surface of the body and the luminal surfaces of cavities within the body are lined by continuous cellular sheets called Epithelial Membranes or epithelia which along with various glands that develop from them, constitute epithelial tissue

EPITHELIAL TISSUE - Origin


n

Epithelial component of skin arises from ectoderm Epithelial lining and glands of the digestive tract are derived from endoderm Serous linings of the peritoneal, pleural, pericardial cavities, and also the circulatory system, are products of mesoderm

EPITHELIAL TISSUE - Functions


n

Epithelia mediate a wide range of activities such as


q q q q

Selective diffusion Absorption Secretion Physical protection and containment

EPITHELIAL TISSUE Common Characteristics


n

Cell Junctions
q

Membrane specializations that bind adjacent epithelial cells Membrane which separates epithelia from underlying supporting tissue Basal surface Apical surface

Basement Membrane
q

Polarity
q q

Classification of epithelium
n

n n n

Epithelial membranes are classified according to the number of constituent cell layers and the cell shape at the free surface Simple epithelium - Single layer of cells Stratified epithelium At least 2 layers thick Pseudostratified epithelium - epithelium is only one cell thick, but it gives the impression of being stratified because some of its cells are shorter than others and therefore do not reach its free surface

EPITHELIAL TISSUE Other Names


n

Endothelium
q q

Epithelial tissue lining the blood vessels Derived from Mesoderm Epithelial tissue lining the serous body cavities like pleura, pericardium, & peritoneum Derived from Mesoderm Epithelium that is primarily involved in secretion is often arranged into structures called glands

Mesothelium
q

Glandular Epithelium
q

SIMPLE EPITHELIA
n n

Consists of a single layer of cells Found at interfaces involved in selective diffusion, absorption and/or secretion Provide little protection against mechanical abrasion Cells range in shape from extremely flattened to tall columnar cells Exhibit a variety of surface specializations, such as microvilli and cilia, which facilitate their specific surface functions

SIMPLE SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM

SIMPLE SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM


n n

Pavement Epithelium Consists of a single layer of flat, scale shaped cells Best suited in areas where the primary function is diffusion
q q

Lungs Gases Capillaries - Fluids

SIMPLE SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM

SIMPLE SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM

SIMPLE SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM Silver Method/Neutral Red preparation

SIMPLE SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM


n

Common sites:
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q q

q q

Alveoli of lungs Free surface of serous pericardium, of the pleura, & of the peritoneum collectively called as Mesothelium Inside of the heart called as Endocardium Inside (luminal side) of the blood vessels called as Endothelium Thin walled tubules in the renal medulla Some parts of Inner ear

SIMPLE CUBOIDAL EPITHELIUM

SIMPLE CUBOIDAL EPITHELIUM


n

Consists of single layer of cuboidal cells In transverse section the cells appear square Best suited for areas with excretory, secretory, & absorptive functions
q

Collecting tubules of the kidney and the small excretory ducts of the salivary glands and pancreas

SIMPLE CUBOIDAL EPITHELIUM

SIMPLE CUBOIDAL EPITHELIUM

SIMPLE CUBOIDAL EPITHELIUM


n

Common sites:
q q q q q q

Follicles of thyroid gland Ducts of many glands Surface of ovary called as Germinal Epithelium Choroid plexus Inner surface of lens Pigment cell layer of retina

SIMPLE COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM

SIMPLE COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM


n

Consists of single layer of tall columnar cells Best Suited in places with absorptive function like Small Intestine or Places with secretory function like Stomach & gall bladder Seen in linings of minor ducts of many exocrine glands

SIMPLE COLUMNAR CILIATED EPITHELIUM

SIMPLE COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM


n

Simple secretory columnar epithelium


q

Mucous secreting as well as protective No cilia or microvilli

Simple ciliated columnar epithelium


q

Cilia cover the free surface

Simple columnar epithelium with microvilli


q q

Striated border Brush border

SIMPLE COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM


Goblet Cells: The apical parts of the secretory epithelium contains mucous containing vesicles which are light staining. These cells are called Goblet cells.

SIMPLE COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM

SIMPLE COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM

SIMPLE COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM


n

Common sites:
q

Simple columnar (without cilia or microvilli)


n

Lines the stomach, uterine cervix, & large intestine Seen in most of respiratory tract, uterus, & uterine tubes Also seen in efferent ductules of testis, parts of middle ear & auditory tube, ependyma lining central canal of spinal cord, & ventricles of brain
Striated border
q

Simple ciliated columnar


n n

Simple columnar with microvilli


n

Small intestine Gall bladder

Brush border
q

PSEUDOSTRATIFIED COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM

PSEUDOSTRATIFIED COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM


n

All component cells lie in contact with the basement membrane Nuclei are visible at more than one level Some of its cells are shorter and do not reach its free surface Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
q

With scattered goblet cells, lines most of the major airways

PSEUDOSTRATIFIED COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM

PSEUDOSTRATIFIED COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM

PSUEDO-STRATIFIED EPITHELIUM
n

Common sites:
q q q

Some part of auditory tube Ductus deferens Male urethra (membranous & penile part)

Ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium


q

Trachea & in large bronchi

STRATIFIED EPITHELIA
n

Consists of two or more layers of cells Mainly perform protective function Poorly suited for absorption and secretion

STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM

STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM


n n

Several layers of cells Cells of deepest (or basal) layer rest on basement membrane & are usually columnar in shape As we go to periphery (basal to outer layers) Cells become polyhedral or cuboidal and eventually become squamous. Sub-types
q q

Non-keratinized Keratinized

STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS NON KERATINIZING EPITHELIUM


n

Cells on surface layer has nuclei & are living It lines the wet surfaces submitted to wear and tear Lines the inside of the mouth, the esophagus, the vagina, & the cornea

STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS NON KERATINIZING EPITHELIUM

STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS KERATINING EPITHELIUM


n

n n

The cells near the free surface transform into scales of soft keratin that remain strongly adherent to the underlying layers of living cells These cells are dead & lose their nuclei Suitable for protecting surfaces Seen in epidermal layer of skin Resists water loss and uptake

STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS KERATINING EPITHELIUM

SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA

STRATIFIED CUBOIDAL EPITHELIUM

STRATIFIED CUBOIDAL EPITHELIUM


n

Two to Three layers of low columnar cells Lines the larger ducts of skin-derived glands like Salivary glands

TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIUM

TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIUM
n

The microscopic appearance of Transitional epithelium changes as the membrane stretches In the unstretched configuration usually seen in sections, the rounded superficial cells bulge out Under lateral tension, these cells are attenuated and squamous Lines almost all of the urinary tract.( urinary bladder , ureter ) Some surface cells of the bladder are multinucleated

TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIUM

TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIUM

Cell Junctions, Cilia, Microvilli, & Stereocilia

MEMBRANE SPECIALIZATIONS

CELL JUNCTIONS
n

Tight junctions or Occluding junctions (Zonula occludens) Adhering junctions


q q q q

Adhesive spots (Desmosomes or macula adherens) Adhesive belts (Zona adherens) Adhesive strips (Fascia adherens) Hemidesmosomes or focal spots

Gap junctions or Communicating junctions

Junctional complex

Tight junctions ( Zonula Occludens)


n

Formed by fusion of opposed cell membranes It extends completely around apical cell border

Tight Junctions

Tight junctions ( Zonula Occludens)


n

Transmembrane proteins form the socalled sealing strands that 'stitch' the membranes together Each 'stitch' comprises two molecules of the transmembrane protein claudin, one an integral part of each opposing plasma membrane, linked tightly together

TIGHT JUNCTIONS
n

Act as barriers that prevent movement of molecules into intercellular spaces Seen in between cells of membranes that are specialized for absorption or secretion Prevent leakage of substances absorbed by cells against concentration gradient Leaky tight junctions
q

Incomplete tight junctions

Fascia Occludens
n

Structurally similar but discontinuous strips of tight junctions Found between the endothelial cells lining blood vessels, except in the vessels of the brain where they are of the continuous (zonula occludens) type

Desmosomes ( Macula adherens)


n

Is formed by juxtra position of two disk shaped plaques contained with in cytoplasm of adjacent cells Tonofilaments radiate away from plaques . These intermediate filaments are anchored by Plaques that also bind to transmembrane linker proteins. These are considered spot welds that hold cells together

Desmosomes
n

Most common type of cellular junction The fibrils seen in the intercellular space (linking the two plaques) represent CAMs (Cellular adhesion molecules) CAMs normally seen are
q q q

Integrins (Desmogleins I, II) Desmoplakins Plakoglobin

Zonula Adherens
n n n

This lies basal to Zonula Occludens It extends continuously around cell Major site of attachment of microfilaments to cell membrane. Many of these microfilaments are arranged circumferentially as marginal band CAMs present are cadherins

Zonula Adherens
n

Differ from Macula adherens


q

By forming a continuous band passing all around the apical part of the epithelial cells By not having a filaments traverse the gaps between the cells

Fascia Adherens
n n

n n n

Similar to Zonular adherens Differ by not going all around the cells (form strips of attachment) Seen in smooth muscles Intercalated discs of cardiac muscles Junctions between glial cells & neurons

Junctional complex

Gap junction
n n n

Tubular channels Made by Connexons Permit ions and small molecules Regulated by intra cellular calcium ions and Ph

Each connexon is made up of six transmembrane proteins known as connexins

Hemidesmosome
n

Role of this junction is to anchor tonofilaments to underlying basement membrane through integrins

Transmembrane proteins are integrins, the extracellular components of which bind to extracellular laminins in the basement membrane

Junctional Complex

Basement membrane
n

Matrix structure called a basement membrane strongly attaches epithelial cells to the adjacent connective tissue Basement membrane is made up off two adjacent basal lamina or more commonly basal lamina and reticular lamina.

Basement membrane
n

Basal lamina is made up of q Type IV collagen q Laminin q Heparan sulphate Reticular lamina q Reticular fibers

EPITHELIAL GLANDS

EPITHELIAL GLANDS
n

Are subdivided into


q q

Exocrine glands Endocrine glands Develop as down growths of an epithelial membrane and secrete onto its surface through their ducts Are ductless, they release their secretory product close to the external surface of thin walled blood vessels. (Product enters blood stream).

Exocrine Glands
q

Endocrine glands
q

EPITHELIAL GLANDS

EPITHELIAL GLANDS
n

Goblet cells
q

Mucous secreting unicellular exocrine glands They assume shape of goblet because secretory vesicles accumulate and compress neighboring cells Nucleus lies in stem like basal region Synthesis of Mucus begins at rER and glycosylation is completed in golgi apparatus

Goblet cell

Exocrine glands
n

Made up of
q q

Secretory unit Duct with its supporting connective tissue Group of epithelial cells that release their secretion into a lumen Epithelially lined tube that conveys the secretion to epithelial surface

Secretory unit
q

Duct
q

Glands
n

Simple gland
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A gland with a single unbranched duct E.g. Sweat gland A gland with a branching tree like duct system E.g. Pancreas

Compound gland
q q

Simple Gland

Compound Gland

Compound exocrine glands


n

Parenchyma
q

Epithelial component Supporting connective tissue (Together with blood vessels and nerve fibres) Gland is enclosed by a fibrous connective tissue

Stroma
q

Capsule
q

Depending on the shape of the secretory unit


n

Tubular glands
q

Tubular secretory units

Acinar or Alveolar glands


q

Spherical or Flask like secretory units Mixture of above types Racemose glands

Tubuloalveolar
q q

Depending on the type of secretory product


n

Serous glands
q

Produce watery secretions Produce viscid mucus

Mucous glands
q

Mixed glands

Serous glands Vs Mucous glands


n

Serous glands
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Mucous glands
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Brightly stained Basal part is basophilic Large spherical nucleus

Appear pale Mucus can be stained by PAS stain Nucleus small flattened against basal cell boarder

Serous, Mucus and Mixed secretory units

Secretory cells of exocrine glands also can be differentiated into


n

Merocrine glands (eccrine or epicrine) q Release their secretion by Exocytosis q E.g. Pancreatic acinar cells Holocrine gland q Entire cell is sacrificed in producing the secretion q E.g. Sebaceous glands associated with hair follicle Apocrine gland q The apical portions are sacrificed during release q Eg: Atypical Sweat glands

Endocrine glands
n

Instead of releasing their secretions into ducts, they discharge them into the blood stream Secretions of endocrine glands are called hormones They elicit functional changes in target cells