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Histology Syllabus

September - December 2013


Instructors: Dr. Sudhakar Avancha Class Schedule: Monday, Wednesday, & Friday from 10:00 AM to 12:00 PM Office Hours: Monday to Friday Without Appointment (Walk-in): 7: 30 AM to 8:00 AM and from 12 PM to 1 PM By Appointment: 1:00 PM to 3:00 PM Exam Schedule: Two Mid-term exams and One Final Exam Exam policy: Final grades will be based on total points earned. There will be two mid-term exams followed by a comprehensive final exam. All Questions will be typically in USMLE format. I (incomplete) or W (withdrawn) grades will be reported to the Office of the Registrar in compliance with the policies of Atlantic University School of Medicine Written documentation must be provided for failure to sit for the exam.

Histology Syllabus
Grading: Passing = 70% to 91%; Honors = 92% and above; Failing = Below 70% Textbook: Wheaters Functional Histology, H.C. Burkitt, B. Young & J.W. Heath, 3rd Edition (Churchill Livingstone) ISBN 0-433-04691-3 Objective of course: This course is taught as an interdisciplinary course & is aimed to provide a broad foundation of knowledge in cell & tissue biology. The course attempts to present the information in a manner that will serve as an effective building block for understanding the cellular basis of pathology, physiology, endocrinology & other medical science subjects.

Course Objectives
1. Introduction to Histology 1.1.General objective 1.1.1.To outline the general principles of histology. 1.2.Specific objectives 1.2.1.To define the characteristics of tissues, organs and systems 1.2.2.To outline the four principle tissue types 1.2.3.To explain the principle of tissue function and form 2. Histolgical Techniques 2.1.General objectives 2.1.1.To outline the main methods used in histological investigations 2.2.Specific objectives 2.2.1.To outline the light and electron microscopy 2.2.2.To explain the method of specimen preparation and section 3. Epithelia 3.1.General objective

Histology Syllabus
3.1.1.To describe the main histological features typical of epithelia 3.2.Specific objectives 3.2.1.To define an epithelium 3.2.2.To describe the characteristic forms and functions of epithelial tissues 3.2.3.To list the classification of types of epithelia and know examples of location within the body 3.2.4.To describe the general form and function of the following intercellular junctions namely desmosomes, intermediate junctions, and occluding junctions 3.2.5.To compare/contrast and give an example of each of the following types of glands -- tubular, tubuloacinar, and acinar 4. Connective Tissue 4.1.General objective 4.1.1.To describe the nature, diversity and distribution of different connective tissues 4.2.Specific objectives 4.2.1.To list the main functions of connective tissue 4.2.2.To list the normal cellular constituents of connective tissue 4.2.3.To describe the form and function of connective tissue fibers 4.2.4.To know the basic features of the three principle forms of fibers, vis-a-vis, collagen, reticular, and elastic 4.2.5.To outline the biosynthesis of collagen 4.2.6.To describe the form and function of Ground Substance, especially the major glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) 4.2.7.To describe how a mast cell can be recognised under the microscope 4.2.8.To list the main structural characteristics of adipose tissue 5. Bone and Cartilage 5.1.General objective 5.1.1.To understand the form and function of bone and cartilage

Histology Syllabus
5.2.Specific objectives 5.2.1.To describe the form, function, and location of the three major forms of cartilage; hyaline, elastic, fibrous 5.2.2.To describe the functional properties of cartilage, giving examples of their location in the body 5.2.3.To describe the structure and function of the cells (chondrocytes) and intercellular substance that constitute cartilage 5.2.4.To discuss how cartilage grows, is nourished, ages, and regenerate 5.2.5.To outline the embryological formation of bone 5.2.6.To describe the gross and microscopic anatomy of compact and cancellous bone 5.2.7.To describe the form and function of bone cell types 5.2.8.To list types of ossification process and indicate examples of sites where each occurs 5.2.9.To discuss growth, remodeling, and repair of bone 6. Nervous Tissues 6.1.General objective 6.1.1.To list the main components of the nervous system and understand the histological form and function of the tissues and cells of the nervous system 6.2.Specific objectives 6.2.1.To classify the following neurons by characteristics of form and function: mulitpolar, bipolar, and unipolar. 6.2.2.To describe the form and function of the structures found within typical nerve cell bodies. 6.2.3.To describe the form and function of typical nerve cell processes; axons and dendrites 6.2.4.To define and describe the form and function of the major neuroglial cell types

Histology Syllabus
6.2.5.To compare and contrast myelination of peripheral versus central nervous tissues 6.2.6.To describe the organization and structure of peripheral nerves, as well as cranial and spinal ganglia 6.2.7.To define and/or describe the form and function of the neural components of the autonomic nervous system; sympathetic parasympathetic systems 6.2.8.To describe the gross organization, microscopic anatomy, and general function of the major parts of the brain -cerebrumcerebellum, and brainstem 6.2.9.To understand what is meant by epineurium, endoneurium and perineurium 7. Muscle Tissues 7.1.General objective 7.1.1.To understand the histological basis of muscle form and function. 7.2.Specific objectives 7.2.1.To characterize the form and function of the three major muscle tissue types -- skeletal, smooth, cardiac. 7.2.2.To describe the organization of skeletal muscle at gross, histological, and ultrastructure levels. 7.2.3.To compare/contrast the form and function of skeletal and cardiac muscle tissues. 8. Circulatory System 8.1.General objective 8.1.1.To describe histological constituents of blood and lymph vessels 8.2.Specific objectives 8.2.1.To list the structural layers which form the wall of medium size muscular arteries 8.2.2.To discuss the form and function of the four major types of capillaries

Histology Syllabus
8.3.To define and/or describe the microscopic anatomy and characteristics of blood circulation in arterial and venous vessels 8.4.To describe the microscopic anatomy and general function of the structures of the heart 9. Blood & Hematopoiesis 9.1.General objective 9.1.1.To understand the function of blood and its poiesis 9.2. Specific objectives 9.2.1.To define and/or describe the form and function of blood plasma, red blood cells, platelets, and lymph 9.2.2.To characterize the various leukocytes by staining properties, form of nucleus, size, and relative abundance 9.2.3.To describe the process of recycling (disposal) of blood cells 9.2.4.To describe the differentiation of granulocyte and erythrocyte series within bone marrow 9.2.5.To describe the differentiation of lymphocyte and monocyte series in lymphoid tissues and bone marrow 9.2.6.To discuss the development of blood cells in the liver, spleen, red bone marrow, and white bone marrow. 9.2.7.To describe the differences between B and T lymphocytes 9.2.8.To outline the path of recirculation of lymphocytes 9.2.9.To describe the morphological onsequences of B and T lymphocyte stimulation 9.2.10.To explain the origin, morphology and function of plasma cells 9.2.11.To list the cells belonging to the mononuclear phagocyte system 9.2.12.To list the important antigen presenting cells and indicate where they are found. 10.Lymphoid Tissues 10.1.General objective 10.1.1.To describe the structure and function of lymphoid tissues

Histology Syllabus
10.2.Specific objectives 10.2.1.To name and list the differences between primary and secondary lymphoid tissues 10.2.2.To describe the microscopic anatomy and general function of lymphoid tissues; lymph nodes, tonsils 10.2.3.To describe the origin and fate of lymphocytes in the thymus and explain the consequences of a lack of a thymus 10.2.4.To describe, the form, function of the spleen 10.2.5.To explain what is meant by the "white pulp" of the spleen and describe the most important cells found there 10.2.6.To outline the structure and role of GALT, MALT, BALT 11.Gastrointestinal Tract 11.1.General objective 11.1.1.To describe the structure and function of digestive tissues and associated digestive organs 11.2.Specific objectives 11.2.1.To describe the overall gross organization of the digestive tract 11.2.2.To describe the microscopic anatomy of the esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, appendix, and rectum 11.2.3.To be able to distinguish the abovementioned digestive organs from one another by characteristic structures found within them 11.2.4.To describe the microscopic anatomy of the tongue, including all papillar types and internal features 11.2.5.To describe the basic microscopic anatomy of a mammalian tooth, including details of the external and internal structure of enamel, dentine, cementum, periodontal membranes, and pulp cavities. 12.Digestive Glands 12.1.General objective 12.1.1.To describe the structure, roles for digestive accessory organs and biosynthesis digestive secretion

Histology Syllabus
12.2.Specific objectives 12.2.1.To describe the form and function of the major salivary glands; parotid, sublingual, and submandibular 12.2.2.To describe the form and function of the pancreas as a digestive gland 12.2.3.To describe the form and function of the liver as a digestive gland 12.2.4.To list the main products of the hepatocyte, both endocrine and exocrine 12.2.5.To be able to indicate the arrangement of cells in a liver sinusoid 12.2.6.To explain the function of Kupffer cells 12.2.7.To explain how the functions of the gall bladder relate to its structure. 12.2.8.To describe the features visible in a histological section of the pancreas, and explain the acinar organisation of its exocrine part 13.Respiratory system 13.1.General objective 13.1.1.To describe the structure and function of respiratory tissues and cells 13.2.Specific objectives 13.2.1.To list the main functions of the respiratory system 13.2.2.To describe the gross organization of the entire respiratory tract 13.2.3.To characterize the form and function of the larynx, including trachea and primary bronchi 13.2.4.To describe the microscopic anatomy of lung tissue from primary bronchi to alveolar sacs 13.2.5.To describe the functions of the conducting passages 13.2.6.List the types of cells and the transition of the cells through the respiratory tract

Histology Syllabus
13.2.7.Outline the production and function of surfactant 14.Endocrine Tissue 14.1.General objective 14.1.1.To describe the structure and functions of the endocrine glands 14.2.Specific objectives 14.2.1.To describe the overall gross organization, microscopic anatomy, and function of the major endocrine glands 14.2.2.To distinguish each of the endocrine glands from one another by the specific hormones that each secretes 14.2.3.To explain the differences in structure between a typical exocrine gland and a typical endocrine gland 14.2.4.To differentiate between the two main parts of the pituitary and explain how hormone secretion is controlled in each part. 14.2.5.To describe the histology and functions of the two parts of the suprarenal gland 14.2.6.To explain the structure of the thyroid gland, and how its appearance varies with glandular activity 14.2.7.To understand the ultrastructural differences between endocrine cells secreting: (a) peptide hormones (b) amine-derived hormones (c) steroid hormones 15. Urinary system 15.1.General objective 15.1.1.To describe the macroscopic and microscopic structure of the kidney in relation to function 15.2.Specific objectives 15.2.1.To describe the gross organization of the kidney 15.2.2.To list the constituent parts of a nephron 15.2.3.To explain the function of the renal corpuscle, nephron, and collecting ducts relative to osmolarity, ion permeability, and the effects of antidiuretic hormone

Histology Syllabus
15.2.4.To describe, in detail, the microscopic anatomy of the nephron, including the following cells and structures: Glomerulus Podocytes, Bowman's capsule (visceral and parietal layers), Proximal convoluted tubule, Thin (descending) loop of Henle, Thick (ascending) loop of Henle, Distal convoluted tubule, Collecting ducts 15.2.5.To understand the role of podocytes and the basement membrane and capillaries in filtration 15.2.6.To understand the microscopic structure of the ureters, bladder and urethra 15.2.7.Describe the distinguishing features of the urinary or "transitional" epithelium 16.Reproductive System 16.1.General objective 16.1.1.To describe the microscopic anatomy of the reproductive system and development of germ cells 16.2.Specific objectives 16.2.1.To describe, in detail, the microscopic anatomy of the testis, epididymis, ductus deferens, and penis 16.2.2.To describe the anatomical changes at the cellular and tissue levels that occur within the seminiferou tubule during spermatogenesis 16.2.3.To list, compare and contrast oogensis and spermatogenesis 16.2.4.To describe the process of the development of the male reproductive system relating it to that which occurs in the female 16.2.5.To describe, in detail, the microscopic anatomy of the ovary, oviducts, uterus, and vagina 16.2.6.To describe the anatomical changes at cellular and tissue levels that occur within the ovary during the process of ovulation

Histology Syllabus
16.2.7.To describe the anatomical changes at cellular and tissue levels that occur within the uterus during the process of menstruation

Course Curriculum
Week 1 Introduction to Histology Preparation of Histology Slides Common Stains in Histology Light Microscope and Electron Microscope Week 2 Epithelial Tissue Introduction Classification of epithelia Glandular epithelia Simple epithelia Stratified epithelia Membrane specializations of epithelia Exocrine glands Endocrine glands Connective Tissue Introduction The cells of supporting/connective tissue The fibres of supporting/connective tissue Ground substance The structural glycoproteins Basement membranes Adipose tissue

Histology Syllabus
Weeks 3 and 4 Skeletal Tissues Introduction Cartilage Bone Bone matrix and mineralization Bone development and growth Joints Blood Introduction Blood cell types Histological methods used to study blood and bone marrow White cell series Haemopoiesis Bone marrow Week 5 Muscle Introduction Skeletal muscle Smooth muscle Smooth muscle contraction Cardiac muscle Nervous Tissue Introduction Myelinated and non-myelinated nerve fibres Synapses and neuromuscular junctions Peripheral nervous tissues Central nervous tissues Sensory receptors

Histology Syllabus
Week 6 & 7 Respiratory System Introduction Nasal cavity Pharynx Larynx Trachea Main bronchi Bronchioles Terminal bronchioles Respiratory bronchioles Alveolar ducts Alveoli Pathohistology Circulatory System Introduction The heart The arterial system The microcirculation The venous system The lymph vascular system Pathohistology Week 8 Immune System Introduction Lymphocytes Thymus Lymph nodes Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue

Histology Syllabus
Spleen Pathohistology Week 9 & 10 Oral Tissues Introduction Tongue Palate Lips & Gums Salivary glands Gastrointestinal tract Esophagus Stomach Duodenum Jejunum & Ileum Cecum, Appendix, & Colon Rectum Anal canal Liver and Pancreas Pathohistology of GIT & Oral cavity Week 11 & 12 Endocrine System Introduction Pituitary gland Thyroid gland Parathyroid gland Adrenal gland Endocrine pancreas Pineal gland Diffuse neuroendocrine system

Histology Syllabus
Pathohistology Urinary System Introduction The renal cortex The renal medulla The lower urinary tract Pathohistology Week 13 & 14 Male Reproductive System Testis Epididymis Ductus deferens Seminal vesicles Prostate gland Urethra Gametogenesis Pathohistology Female Reproductive System Introduction Ovaries Follicular development Fallopian tubes Uterus The human menstrual cycle The genital tract The placenta The breasts Pathohistology

Histology Syllabus
Week 15 Review of Key concepts of histology Final Exam Week The syllabus may vary slightly. The student will be informed in case there are signi8icant changes.