MYASTHENIA GRAVIS

Pakamas Pasogpakdee,MD

Introduction

•  The most common primary disorder of neuromuscular transmission •  Usual cause is an acquired immunological abnormality , some cases result from genetic abnormality at the NMJ •  Women : 2nd and 3rd decades , Men : 6th decades •  USA : M>F (5th decades)

Neurology in Clinical Practice , 5th Edition , 2008

Immunopathology of MG

LEMS!

Immunopathology of MG

•  80% of MG pts. , weakness result from the effects of circulating anti-AChR Ab (T cell dependent) •  destruction of the folds , accelerated internalization & destruction of AChR , block Ach-AchR binding •  10% of MG pts. have circulating Ab to MuSK •  Remaining = seronegative

Neurology in Clinical Practice , 5th Edition , 2008

Immunopathology of MG
AChR Ab neg
Antititin Ab to ryanodine receptor

AChR Ab +ve
AntiRapsyn

Anti MUSK

Clinical Presentation

•  65%  ptosis & diplopia •  15%  difficult chewing , swallowing , talking •  10%  limb weakness •  rare  single muscle group weakness •  Typically fluctuates during the day , usually being least in the morning and worse as the day progresses , esp. after prolonged use of affected muscles

Neurology in Clinical Practice , 5th Edition , 2008

Clinical Presentation

•  Careful questioning often reveals evidence of earlier myasthenic manifestration •  •  - frequent purchases of new eyeglasses - avoidance of foods that became difficult to chew or swallow

•  - cessation of activities that require prolonged use of specific m. •  •  - friends may have noted a sleepy or sad facial appearance caused by ptosis or facial weakness
Neurology in Clinical Practice , 5th Edition , 2008

Physical Findings
•  pattern of muscle •  •  •  •  •  •  Ocular muscle - eye movements - Eye lid Oropharyngeal muscle - "myasthenic snarl“ - nasal speech , difficulty chewing , difficulty swallowing •  hoking on liquids ! c •  •  Limb muscle - Limb muscle weakness , Fatiguability
Neurology in Clinical Practice , 5th Edition , 2008

involvement

EYE & MG

•  •  • 

Ptosis - usually asymmetrically - allow soap or water in the eyes during bathing

•  Diplopia •  - Asymmetric weakness of several muscle in both eyes •  - Pattern of weakness is not characteristic of lesions of one or more nerves •  - Pupillary responses are normal •  - Weakness is most frequent & usually most severe in MR •  should raise suspicion of MG in the combination of ptosis , ophthalmoparesis , weak eye closure

Neurology in Clinical Practice , 5th Edition , 2008

Eyelid manifestation

•  Levator palpebrae •  - Ptosis •  - Lid fatigue test •  - Cogan lid twitch sign •  - Sleep test -

Upper eyelid retraction Enhancing ptosis Ice test Rest test

•  Orbicularis oculi muscle •  - Forced eye closure: buried eyelashes •  - Open the eyes against forced eyelid closure

Upper eyelid retraction

Left upper eyelid retraction contralateral to a ptotic right upper eyelid

Lid fatigue test

(A)  On initial upgaze, minimal left upper eyelid ptosis is evident (C)  After 2 minutes of sustained upgaze, the degree of left upper eyelid ptosis is significantly increased owing to levator muscle fatigue

Cogan lid twitch sign

•  looks down for at least 10 to 20 seconds  makes an upward saccade back to primary gaze •  transient overshoot of the upper eyelid , which may be followed by nystagmoid twitches of the upper eyelid and then downward drifting of the eyelid to a normal or ptotic position

Ice test

Preceding the test

An ice pack is applied to the closed left eye for 2 minutes

Right upper eyelid ptosis is significantly improved

Sleep test

(A) before the test

(B) After 30 minutes of sleep (lying down in a quiet and dimly lit room), the ptosis is noticeably improved in both eyes

Rest test

(A) Before rest

(B) After only 5 minutes of gentle eye closure, the ptosis is much improved in both eyes

Orbicularis oculi muscle

severe bilateral orbicularis weakness secondary lower eyelid retraction

bilateral lagophthalmos

Not “bury” the eyelashes during forced eye closure

weak orbicularis muscle in the right eye during forced eye closure

Ocular finding in myasthenia gravis
Weakness usually involves one or more ocular muscles w/o overt pupillary abnormality Weakness is typically variable , fluctuating , fatigable Ptosis that shifts from one eye to the other is virtually pathognomonic of MG With limited ocular excursion , saccades are superfast , producing ocular “quiver” After downgaze , upgaze produces lid overshoot “lid twitch” Pseudo-internuclear ophthalmoplegia-limited adduction is present w/ nystagmoid jerks in abducting eye In asymmetrical ptosis , covering the eye w/ the ptotic lid may relieve contraction of the opposite frontalis Passively lifting a ptotic lid may cause the opposite lid to fall Edrophonium may improve only one of several weak ocular muscle , other may become weaker Edrophonium may relieve asymmetric ptosis & produce retraction of the opposite lid from frontalis contraction The opposite lid may droop further as the more involved lid strengthens after edrophonium Cold applied to the eye may improve lid ptosis
Neurology in Clinical Practice , 5th Edition , 2008

Oropharyngeal Muscles

•  •  •  •  •  • 

Changes in voice - nasal voice - asking high-pitched “EEEEEEEEE” sound Difficulty chewing and swallowing Inadequate maintenance of the upper airway Alter facial appearance •  - myasthenic snarl

Neurology in Clinical Practice , 5th Edition , 2008

Myasthenic Snarl Rest Smile

Corner of mouth droop downward

Contraction of medial portion of upper lip

No upward curling

Trunk & limb muscles

•  Neck muscle •  Upper extremities •  - Out stretched arms test •  - Grip fatigue can be measured with a dynamometer that the patient grasps repetitively •  - Repetitive exercise test •  Lower extremity •  - step up and down from a footstool as if climbing stairs •  - progressively more difficult and the patient begins to push off their knee with their arm in order to help the weakening quadriceps •  Neck flexors , Deltoids , Triceps , WE , FE , ankle * dorsiflexors *

Diagnostic test

•  Clinical diagnosis •  Investigation •  Anticholinesterase test •  Autoantibodies •  Electridiagnosting Testing •  repetitive nerve stimulation •  single-fibre electromyography

Neurology in Clinical Practice , 5th Edition , 2008

Diagnostic test

1. Anticholinesterase test
Edrophonium Chloride (Tensilon) Test - Rapid onset(30sec), short duration(5min) - 2 mg IV if no change add 8 mg IV Neostigmine test - Neostigmine 1-2 mg,IM - Effects seen within 20-40 min - Should have measurable parameter eg. Ptosis

Neurology in Clinical Practice , 5th Edition , 2008

Diagnostic test

1. Anticholinesterase test
False positive Edrophonium test - Lambert-Eaton syndrome (37%positive) - Botulism (27% positive) - Congenital end-plate acetylcholine receptor deficiency - Guillain-Barré syndrome - Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis - Brain stem glioma

Neurology in Clinical Practice , 5th Edition , 2008

Diagnostic test

2. Auto- Ab
•  serum antibodies that bind human AChR •  70-90% generalized myasthenia •  50-75% ocular myasthenia •  •  AChR binding antibodies conc. sometimes increased in patients w/ •  SLE , inflammatory neuropathy , ALS , RA taking Dpenicillamine , thymoma w/o MG , normal relatives of patients with MG
Neurology in Clinical Practice , 5th Edition , 2008

Diagnostic test

2. Auto-Ab
•  •  •  •  Positive AChR Ab plus clinical = confirm diagnosis Negative AChR Ab can not be rule out no correlation between disease severity and antibody titre clinical improvement: associated with a fall in Ab titre

Biodrugs 2001 March; 15 (3): 173-83 N Engl J Med 1994; 330 (25): 1797-810

Diagnostic test

2. Auto-Ab
•  Anti-MUSK Ab •  Antistriational muscle Ab : predicting thymoma (60% of pts. w/ MG w/ onset before age 50 have thymoma) •  Others : •  Antititin Ab Anti ryanodine Ab

Neurology in Clinical Practice , 5th Edition , 2008

Diagnostic test

3. Electrodiagnostic test
•  Repetitive Nerve Stimulation (RNS) •  - Decrement of > 10% at 3 Hz: highly probable •  - more often in proximal muscles, such as the facial muscles, biceps, deltoid, and trapezius than in hand muscles •  - Anti-ChE medications should withheld 12 hours (24 hours) prior to testing •  - Yield of RNS : Ocular MG 30-40% •  Generalized MG 70-80%
Neurology in Clinical Practice , 5th Edition , 2008

Diagnostic test

3. Electrodiagnostic test
•  Single Fiber EMG (SFEMG) •  - most sensitive clinical test of neuromuscular transmission •  - shows increased jitter in some muscles in almost all patients with myasthenia gravis •  - positive in 95-99% of pts. with generalized MG

Neurology in Clinical Practice , 5th Edition , 2008

Diagnostic test

•  Anticholinesterase test : often Dx in pts. w/ ptosis or ophthalmoparesis , less useful in assessing other muscles •  Autoantibodies : presence of AChR-Ab , anti-MUSK Ab ensures the Dx of MG , but absence dose not exclude •  Electrodiagnosting Testing •  repetitive nerve stimulation : confirm impaired neuromuscular transmission , but frequently normal in mild or purely ocular disease •  single-fibre electromyography : normal jitter in weak muscle excludes MG •  Neither EDx is specific for MG
Neurology in Clinical Practice , 5th Edition , 2008

Sensitivity of tests in MG

Tests
Edrophonium test Ice pack / sleep test AChR Ab MuSK Ab Antistriatal Ab

Ocular MG
80-90% Criteria poorly defined 30-50% Rare 80% in pt. w/ thymoma 30% in pt. w/o thymoma 30-60% 90-95%

Generalized MG
80-90% Criteria poorly defined 80-90% 30-40% of seronegative 80% in pt. w/ thymoma 30% in pt. w/o thymoma 90% 90-95%

RNS Single fiber EMG

DDx : Ocular MG

•  Mitochondrial disorder : CPEO •  Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy •  Thyroid ophthalmopathy •  Brainstem lesion •  Local eyelid disorder

DDx : Generalized MG

•  NMJ •  •  • 

disorder - LEM - Congenital myasthenic syndrome - Neurotoxins eg. Botulism

•  Myopathies •  Demyelinating polyneuropathies

Assessment

•  Associated disorder •  - Disorder of thymus : Thymoma , Hyperplasia •  - Other autoimmune disorder : Hashimoto thyroiditis , Grave’s disease , RA , SLE •  Disorder or circumstance that may exacerbate MG •  - Hyperthyroidism , Occult infection •  - Medical Rx of other condition (aminoglycoside, quinidine, antiarrhythmic drug) •  Disorder that may interfere therapy •  - TB , DM , PU , GI bleed , Asthma , osteoporosis

Classification (modifications of Osserman)
Class I Class IIA Class IIB - Ocular myasthenia - Mild generalized myasthenia with slow progression; no prominent bulbar signs; no crisis; drug responsive

- Moderate generalized myasthenia; severe skeletal and bulbar involvement but no crisis; drug response than satisfactory Class III drug Class IV - Acute fulminating myasthenia; rapid progression of severe symptoms with respiratory crisis and poor response; high incidence of thymoma; high mortality - Late severe myasthenia; same as III but progress over two years from class I to II !

Classification (MGFA)

Class I - Any ocular muscle weakness - May have weakness of eye closure - All other muscle strength is normal Class II - Mild weakness affecting other than ocular muscles - May also have ocular muscle weakness of any severity IIa - Predominantly affecting limb , axial muscles , or both - May also have lesser involvement of oropharyngeal IIb - Predominantly affecting oropharyngeal ,respiratory muscles or both - May also have lesser or equal involvement of limb , axial muscles or both!

musc

Classification (MGFA)

Class III- Moderate weakness affecting other than ocular muscles - May also have ocular muscle weakness of any severity IIIa - Predominantly affecting limb , axial muscles , or both - May also have lesser involvement of oropharyngeal IIIb - Predominantly affecting oropharyngeal ,respiratory muscles or both - May also have lesser or equal involvement of limb , axial muscles or both!

muscl

Classification (MGFA)
Class IV- Severe weakness affecting other than ocular muscles - May also have ocular muscle weakness of any severity IVa - Predominantly affecting limb , axial muscles , or both - May also have lesser involvement of oropharyngeal IVb - Predominantly affecting oropharyngeal ,respiratory muscles or both - May also have lesser or equal involvement of limb , axial muscles or both Class V - Defined by intubation , w/ or w/o mechanical ventilation except when employed during routine postoperative management
The use of a feeding tube w/o intubation places the patients in class IVb !

muscl

Classification (MGFA)
Class IV- Severe weakness affecting other than ocular muscles - May also have ocular muscle weakness of any severity IIIa - Predominantly affecting limb , axial muscles , or both - May also have lesser involvement of oropharyngeal IIIb - Predominantly affecting oropharyngeal ,respiratory muscles or both - May also have lesser or equal involvement of limb , axial muscles or both Class V - Defined by intubation , w/ or w/o mechanical ventilation except when employed during routine postoperative management
The use of a feeding tube w/o intubation places the patients in class IVb !

musc

Clinical subtypes

•  Early onset cases •  Late onset cases •  Ocular myasthenia •  Seronegative MG •  Thymoma associated MG •  Positive antititin antibodies •  Neonatal MG

Early onset cases

•  Female •  Onset before age 40 •  AChR Ab-positive •  Usually do not Ab to muscle Ag •  Hyperplasia of thymus gland •  60% of cases : HLA-D8 , HLA-DRw3

Late onset cases

•  Men slightly more than female •  Onset after age 40 •  Associated with HLA-B7 , HLA-DRw2

Ocular myasthenia

•  AChR Ab positive only 40-60% of cases •  Represent mild cases of autoimmune generalized MG •  50-60% develop generalized weakness in 1-2 years •  40% remain ocular MG •  Pts. w/ pure ocular symptoms for 2 yrs. have less chance to develop generalized MG

Seronegative MG

•  Clinicla similar to MG with AChR Ab •  Many evidence suggest autoimmune in origin •  Development of neonatal MG in babies born to seronegative mother •  Response to plasma exchange •  A good proportion of cases have autoantibodies to a muscle specific receptor tyrosine kinase (MuSK)

Thymus & MG

•  more mature T cells than normal Thymus •  70% of pt. have lymphoid follicular hyperplasia •  > 10% of pt. have a thymoma •  30–60% of thymomas associated with MG

Neurology in Clinical Practice , 5th Edition , 2008

TREATMENT

•  Controlled clinical trials : rare •  Objectives : •  Directly target autoimmune response •  Modify Ab production or modify immune mediated damage to NMJ •  Modify natural history of disease •  Strategy : induce remission , maintain remission

TREATMENT

•  CSR : no s/s of MG ≥ 1 yr. & has received no therapy for MG during that time , isolated weakness of eyelid closure is accept •  PR : same criteria of CSR except that the pts. continue to take some from of therapy of MG. Pts. taking cholinesterase inh. are excluded from this category because their use suggests the presence of weakness

•  SR = complete stable remission , PR = pharmacologic remission C

TREATMENT

•  MM : no symptoms of functional limitation from MG , some weakness on examination of some muscles •  MM-0 : no MG treatment ≥ 1 yr. •  MM-1 : receive some form of immunosuppression , no ChE inhibitor or other symptomatic therapy •  MM-2 : receive low dose of ChE inhibitor(<120 mg) ≥1 yr. •  MM-3 : receive ChE inhibitor or other symptomatic therapy & some form of immunosuppression during the past yr.
•  M = minimal manifestations M

TREATMENT

•  Controlled clinical trials : rare •  Objectives : •  Directly target autoimmune response •  Modify Ab production or modify immune mediated damage to NMJ •  Modify natural history of disease •  Strategy : induce remission , maintain remission

TREATMENT
•  Symptomatic treatment •  Immunomodulating therapies/Thymectomy •  Others : treatment of comorbidities

•  Improvement •  Minimal manifestation •  Pharmacologic remission •  Complete stable remission

•  Unchanged •  Worse •  Died

SYMPTOMATIC TREATMENTS

•  Pharmacologic treatment •  Cholinesterase inhibitor (first line medication) •  Muscle training , weight control , lifestyle modification

Cholinesterase inhibitor

•  retard the enzymatic hydrolysis of ACh at cholinergic synapses  ACh accumulates at NMJ  prolonged effects •  diagnostic test •  early treatment , symptomatic treatment •  response usually becomes less w/ chronic use

Cholinesterase inhibitor

•  Pyridostigmine bromide (Mestinon) & neostigmine bromide (Prostigmine) •  initial oral dose = 30-60 mg every 4-6 hrs. •  mestinon 60 mg , oral = neostigmine methylsulfate 0.5 mg , IV •  no fixed dosage schedule suits all patients •  varies from day to day & during the same day •  different muscles response differently

Cholinesterase inhibitor

•  Drugs schedule should be titrated to produce an optimal response in muscles causing the greatest disability •  Attempts to eliminate all weakness by increasing the dose or shortening the interval causes overdose at the time of peak effect • “keep the dose low enough to provide definite improvement in the most important muscle groups w/in 30-45 min , expect the effect to wear off before the next dose”

Cholinesterase inhibitor

•  Adverse effect : •  muscarinic receptor on smooth muscle & autonomic glands •  nicotinic receptor on skeletal muscle •  common : GI  queasiness , nausea , vomiting , abdominal cramp , loose stool , diarrhea •  suppress with loperamide hydrochloride(Imodium) , propantheline bromide(Pro-Banthine) , glycopyrrolate(Robinul) diphenoxylate hydrochloride w/ atropine(Lomotil)

IMMUNOMODULATION

•  Corticosteroids •  Immunosuppressant drugs •  Plasma exchange •  Intravenous immunoglobulin •  Thymectomy

IMMUNOMODULATION
G2= perimitotic phase

CY

CY

M= mitotic phase

S= DNA synthesis phase

CY , AZA MMF , MTX

Cell cycle

CY , AZA MMF , MTX
G1= resting phase

CY
G0=dormant phase

IMMUNOMODULATION

S T-cell receptor Macrophage

Extracellular T-cell receptor Intracellular

CSA TAC Nucleus S

T cell

Corticosteroids

•  Mechanism : •  Blocking Ag processing •  Decrease number of circulating T cells •  Reducing trafficking of inflammatory cells •  Reduce expression of inflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules •  Never been studied in large RCT marked improvement or complete relief of symptoms > 75% of pts. •  onset : 6-8 weeks •  remission : 3 months •  good response : pts w/ recent onset of symptoms

Corticosteroids

•  1.5-2.0 mg/kg/day until sustained improvement (2 wks.)  EOD •  reduced 20 mg/mo.    60 mg , EOD •  reduced 10 mg/mo.     20 mg , EOD •  reduced 5 mg q 3 mo   10 mg , EOD •  not reduce the dose further than this unless another immunosuppressant being given •  weakness returns  increased dosage or add immunosuppressant

Corticosteroids

•  1/3 of pts. become weaker temporarily , usually in first 7-10 days •  managed w/ ChE inhibitors •  oropharyngeal weakness or respiratory insufficiency : plasma exchange before started prednisone •  should be hospitalized to start this treatment

Corticosteroids

•  start 20 mg/day •  •  increase 10 mg q 1-2 wks.    maximum improvement •  reduced as above •  reduced frequency or severity of corticosteroid-induced exacerbations

Corticosteroids

•  SE : hypercorticism , weight gain , HT , diabetes , anxiety / depression / insomnia “steroid psychosis” , glaucoma , osteoporosis , cataracts , ulcer/GI perforations , myopathy , opportunistic infections , avascular necrosis of large joints •  SE increased when high daily dose > 1 mo. •  SE resolved when taper dose , <20 mg EOD

Azathioprine onset action : 4-8 months common SE : allergic reaction (flu-like syndrome) less common SE : hepatic toxicity , leukopenia Cyclosporine onset action : 2-3 months common SE : renal toxicity , HTN , multiple potential drug interactions

Cyclophosphamide onset action : variable common SE : leukopenia , hair loss , cystitis

Mycophenolate mofetil onset action : 2-4 weeks common SE : diarrhea , mild leukopenia

Neurology in Clinical Practice , 5th Edition , 2008

Azathioprine

•  inhibiting purine synthesis & hence cell proliferation ( lymphocytes) •  onset : 4-8 months •  initial dose 50 mg/day  50 mg/day q 7 day  150-200 mg/day •  discontinue or reduced below therapeutic level : symptoms almost always recur in 3 mo. •  start azathioprine & prednisone simultaneously •  rapidly taper the dose of prednisone when azathioprine becomes effective

Azathioprine

•  prospective , randomized study •  azathioprine + prednisolone significant reduced the dose of “ prednisolone required to maintain remission & reduced the number of treatment failure ”

Palace et al. 1998

Azathioprine

Side effects : •  allergic reaction w/ flu-like symptoms occurs w/in 2 wks.  stop •  GI irritation : divided dose , after meals , dose reduction •  leukopenia or pancytopenia : •  •  •  •  •  - CBC every wk. in 1st mo. - CBC every mo. in 1st yr. - every 3-6 mo. Thereafter - WBC < 3500/mm3  temporarily reduced dose - WBC < 1000/mm3  temporarily discontinued

Azathioprine

Side effects : •  increased liver enzyme : •  •  enzyme > 2x  discontinue restart when values become normal

•  pancreatitis : rare •  potentially mutagenic  adequate contraception

Cyclosporine (CYA)

•  Retrospective analyses : •  “ improvement in most pts. taking CYA w/ or w/o

•  orticosteroids ” c

Ciafaloni et al. 2000

Cyclosporine (CYA)

•  inhibits predominantly T-lymphocyte dependent immune response •  start at 5-6 mg/kg/day (divided 12 hr. apart) •  measured serum level at 1 mo. •  keep trough serum CYA concentration 75-150 ng/mL •  monitor serum creatinine q 2-3 mo.

Cyclosporine (CYA)

•  SE : renal toxicity , HTN •  improve 1-2 mo. , maximum improvement after 6 mo. •  after maximum response  gradually reduced CYA to minimum that maintain improvement

Cyclophosphamide

“ given IV in monthly pulsed doses has been used effectively in severe , generalized MG that is refractory to other therapy ”

De Feo et al ,2002 Drachman et al,2002

Cyclophosphamide

•  IV : 500 mg/m2 •  oral : 150-200 mg/day  total dose 5-10 g •  SE : alopecia , cystitis , nausea , vomiting , anorexia , •  iscoloration of nail & skin d

Mycophenolate mofetil (MM)

•  inhibits the proliferation of B & T-lymphocyte clones , responding to antigenic stimulation •  suppresses the formation of Ab active in complementdependent lysis & cell-mediated cytotoxicity •  2 g/day in divided 12 hr. apart •  onset action : 2 wks. •  SE : leukopenia , diarrhea •  refractory MG , as corticosteroid sparing agent when azathioprine has produced intolerable SE or has not been effective

Mycophenolate mofetil (MM)

Mycophenolate mofetil (MM)

Plasma Exchange

•  sudden worsening of myasthenic symptoms for any reason •  rapidly improve strength before surgery •  concomitantly w/ starting high dose corticosteroids •  chronic intermittent treatment for refractory MG

Plasma Exchange

•  remove 2-3 Liters of plasma , 3 times a wk. until improvement , usually 5-6 exchanges •  improvement usually begin after 2nd or 3rd exchange •  improvement last for wks or months •  repeated exchange not produce a cumulative benefit •  SE : cardiac arrythmias , nausea , lightheadedness , chills , obscured vision , pedal edema

Intravenous Immunoglobulin

•  2 g/kg (0.4 g/kg/day) infused over 2-5 days •  improvement 50-100% , begin in 1 wk. , lasting for several wks. or mo. •  SE : headache , chills , fever , alopecia , aseptic meningitis , leukopenia , retinal necrosis , renal failure , cerebral infarction , myocardial infarction

Intravenous Immunoglobulin

•  C/I : selective IgA deficiency •  because may develop anaphylaxis to IgA in IVIg •  preperation •  A multicenter , randomized , controlled study comparing plasmapheresis with IVIg has demonstrated equal efficacy but significanly fewer and less severe SE for IVIg

Thymectomy

•  classic long-term treatment •  effect is usually not apparent until after 1 yr , and the full effect is not felt for 5 yr •  never been demonstrated to be effective in a prospective , controlled study

Thymectomy

Controversies
•  Effectiveness in late onset pts. (>50 year old) •  Reduced effectiveness in MuSK +ve patients •  Cost effectiveness •  When to performed thymectomy •  Which surgical techniques

Thymectomy

•  American Academy of Neurology : •  medication free remission : 2x •  asymptomatic : 1.6x •  show improvement : 1.7x •  For pts. w/ nonthymomatous autoimmune MG , “ thymectomy is recommended as an option to increase the probability of remission or improvement ”

• 

Thymectomy

•  recommended thymectomy for most pts. w/ MG whose symptoms begin before age 60 •  good response : young people , women , early in course of disease •  advantage : induce sustained , drug-free remission , remove thymoma •  transthoracic approach

Thymectomy

•  repeat thymectomy : •  chronic refractory disease •  all thymic tissue not removed at prior surgery •  good response to original surgery

Ocular MG

MG (II,III,IV)

Special situations
Factor that worsen myasthenic symptoms •  emotional upset •  systemic illness (esp. viral respiratory infections) •  hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism •  pregnancy •  menstrual cycle •  Drugs •  Fever
Neurology in Clinical Practice , 5th Edition , 2008

Special situations

•  Surgery : •  spinal block •  avoidance neuromuscular blocking agent •  Pregnancy : •  improve-stable-worse •  ChE inhibitor induce uterine contraction •  immunosuppressant : only corticosteroids •  transient neonatal myasthenia

Special situations

“ Avoidance of situations in which neuromuscular transmission may be compromised ” Penicillamine , amiodarone , aminoglycosides thyroid dysfunction may have direct effect on the NMJ

Prognosis

•  course of disease : variable but usually progressive •  ocular myasthenia  generalized myasthenia (2 years) , 1st year maximum weakness (65%) •  active stage : symptoms fluctuate over a relatively short period and then become more severe •  burnt-out stage : after 15-20 years , untreated weakness become fixed , muscle atrophy •  remission : may occur early on but rarely permanent
Neurology in Clinical Practice , 5th Edition , 2008

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