European Journal of Scientific Research ISSN 1450-216X Vol.53 No.1 (2011), pp.6-16 © EuroJournals Publishing, Inc.


Textile Effluent Treatment with Reverse Osmosis Membrane using Anova Model
M. Ramesh Kumar Department of Textile Technology, SSM College of Engineering, Komarapalayam Namakkal, Tamilnadu, India - 638 183 E-mail: Tel: + 91 098 9431 0132; Fax: + 04288 267702 K. Saravanan Department of Chemical Engineering, Kongu Engineering College, Perundurai Erode, Tamilnadu, India - -638 052 E-mail: Tel: + 91 098 4270 5656 Abstract Textile dyeing industry involves a variety of chemicals comprising various classes of dyes and pigments along with a huge amount of water which is required for this operation. This industry consumes a vast quantity of water and generates an equally vast quantity of wastewater. This paper is concerned with the wastewater characteristics of textile knitted fabric dyeing industry. The membrane selection process was theoretically designed using well known design software’s like KOCH and ROSA. To design treatment plant system based on the analytical report and software membrane Reverse Osmosis (RO) system. To compare experimental and theoretical (KOCH and ROSA Software) values for the characteristics of dyeing industry. The results reveal that the Koch software membrane produces better results to treat the effluent from the knitted fabric effluent. The results were comparison of analysis of variances (Anova) methods.

Keywords: Anova method, algorithms, knitted fabric dyeing, KOCH and ROSA software membrane, Reverse Osmosis, textile effluent, treatment.

1. Introduction
Drewes (2003) study the Reverse osmosis (RO) membranes are widely used in drinking water, wastewater and industrial applications. The use of RO membranes in advanced wastewater reclamation using secondary treated wastewater effluent to produce water for indirect potable use has also increased over the past few years. However, a major impediment in the application of RO membrane technology for desalination and wastewater reclamation is membrane fouling. Barker (2000) investigate the advanced water reclamation, secondary effluent from wastewater treatment plants contains dissolved organic matter, commonly known as effluent organic matter. When the second wastewater effluent is introduced to the RO membrane processes as feed water, the presence of effluent organic matter contributes to organic fouling.

Brian (1965) study the finite difference method was used by Brian to calculate the salt concentration polarization over the length of the membrane for the case of permeate surface. The results obtained from this study were in total agreement with previous work regarding increase in concentration and decrease in permeate flux along the membrane length. Their results showed that the effect of gravity cannot be overlooked along the channel with the adverse gravity conditions giving the highest salt concentrations and lowest flux at the membrane surface. Fletcher (2004) In another numerical study. Machenbach (1998) study the membrane process the increasing cost of water and its wasteful consumption have now induced a treatment process which is integrated in in-plant water circuits rather than as a subsequent treatment. Bhattacharyya (1990) investigate in used a finite element method to predict flux behaviour and concentration polarization throughout various configurations of RO membranes. membrane fouling is still a great hindrance for operation and cost efficiency. the effect of gravity on the permeation velocity and salt mass fraction through out the membrane were investigated.6. Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) has become vigilant and has imposed very stringent measures for recovering pure water from such industrial effluents. However. From this standpoint. . Fouling phenomena could severely limit membrane process efficiency as they lead to several deleterious effects including flux decline. Walter (2006) study the membrane processes. possible permeate quality decrease and a gradual membrane degradation. tubular and frame and plate module with the target to reach an optimal performance for both operating conditions and configurating modules. Advancements in membrane developments result in the production of better and more economical membranes. Processes using membranes provide very interesting possibilities of separating hydrolyzed dyestuffs and dyeing auxiliaries. membrane filtration offers potential applications. nanofiltration (NO). The results obtained were compared with a constant flux model across the membrane length. The effect of fouling has been investigated extensively by numerous researchers. for the treatment of an effluent by conventional methods like aerobic and non-aerobic digestion. An uneconomical increase in applied pressure and the need for frequent cleaning (shortening membrane life) or replacement become the necessary options if the rate of water production is to be maintained constant. Previous studies reported that across the longitudinal direction of the SWMs a fall in the permeate flow rate and a rise in the permeate and concentrate concentrations always took place. the ratio of biological oxygen demand (BOD) to COD should be >0. hollow fibre. ultrafitration (UF) and microfiltration (MF) are continuing to get more and more attention world wide for their effectiveness in water treatment. reverse osmosis (RO). namely. However. Drewes (2006) investigate the RO process is gaining wider use for contaminant removal in advanced water and wastewater treatment and desalination. thus simultaneously reducing coloration and the BOD/COD of the wastewater. RO got recognition as an alternative option among other conventional treatment processes in the early 1960s when it was successfully used for the first time in the desalination of seawater. As a result of continuous research and development in this field. a new generation of RO membranes which can operate under ultra-low pressure was developed in the beginning of 1995. Chain (1977) investigate the most of the effluents from different industrial source were used to be discharged directly in the soil or in ground water. Studying how different variables in the process change along the membrane play an important role in the optimization process and it was the issue for most of the researches both numerically and experimentally. Schwinge (2004) study the membranes are manufactured in different shapes and configurations.Textile Effluent Treatment with Reverse Osmosis Membrane using Anova Model 7 Amjad (1993) study the membrane – based separation processes like Ultrafiltration (UF) and Reverse Osmosis (RO) have been applied for treating a wide variety of industrial effluents. This new generation of RO and NF were able to produce double the quantity of flux of the conventional RO and NF at low operating pressure without sacrificing the quality of the produced water by keeping the rejection of the organic and inorganic species at the same level. the most popular are spiral wound membrane (SWM). These are yielding the desired result of being adopted as an efficient water treatment technology. But due to stringent environmental restrictions.

and iron. In most published studies concerning dye house effluents. Fons Moi. Teng (2009) investigates the hydroxide precipitation and coagulation-flocculation methods were used to treat wastewater containing lead. 2000) study the treatment of wastewater after dyeing by nanofiltration thus represents one of the rate applications possible for the treatment of solutions with highly concentrated and complex solution. Teng. Under those conditions. Mg2+ and Mn2+ ions only had slight effects on the rate of oil removal for the range of concentrations studied. 8. Daniel Babineau. Ciardelli (2001) study Ultrafiltration can only be used as a pretreatment for reverse osmosis or in combination with a biological reactor. (Abari. Microfiltration can be used as a pretreatment for nanofiltration or reverse osmosis Hitendra Bhuptawat (2007) investigates the water extract of Moringa. (Freger. Zhi Lin Li. Model waters (kaolinite suspensions) of turbidities 10. such as hydrolyzed reactive dyes as well as dyeing auxiliaries. such as color is never complete (between 31% and 76%). Decoloration and the elimination of chemical auxiliaries in dye house wastewater can be carried out in a single step. A 95% oil removal rate could be obtained when actual wastewaters were treated using laccase with the additive chitosan under the suitable technological conditions. Roland Leduc (2009) investigates the treatment of municipal wastewaters by physical-chemical methods normally requires the use of a metallic salt coagulant and a synthetic coagulant aid. Integrating the sustainable development concept in the . Watters (1991) study the Ultrafiltration enables the elimination of macromolecules and particles but the elimination of polluting substances. such as the dyeing of textile.1. (Rott. 1999) study the even in the best of cases. Wei Liu. The problem involved is that the higher the concentration of salts. (1997) study the Microfiltration is suitable for treating dye baths containing pigment dyes as well as subsequent rinsing baths. hydrolyzed reactive dyes and chemical auxiliaries. (Tang.6. The effects of Mg2+. 300 and 700 NTU were prepared. For the 10 NTU water. the more important the osmotic pressure becomes and therefore the greater the energy required.2 to 7. Ramesh Kumar and K.1. Cu2+. Oleifera seed was applied to a treatment sequence comprising coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation-sand filtration.1 to 11. Mn2+. Chen (2010) study the feasibility of using laccase to treat oily wastewater was examined. On the other hand. 2002) investigate the effect of the concentration of dyes has been frequently reported in dye house effluents as well as the concentration of salt and the pressure. respectively. zinc. 5 to 90 mg/L for zinc. the optimum dose was only evident when sand filtration was incorporated into the treatment. 3 to 90 mg/L for copper and 5 to 45 mg/L for iron.0. The concentrations of heavy metals in the synthetic wastewater range from 1 to 14 mg/L for lead. (Mignani. 1999) Al-Malack. the quality of the treated wastewater does not permit its reuse for feeding sensitive processes.8 M. the concentration of mineral salts does not exceed 20 g L-1 and the concentration of dyestuff 1. the suitable technological conditions were laccase at 3 U/ml. 2002) study the effluents are reconstituted with generally only one dye and the volume studied is low. and 6. a temperature of 30°C. Pang. Saravanan Tinghui (1983) investigate the Reverse osmosis membranes have a retention rate of 90% or more for most types of ionic compounds and produce a high quality of permeate.5 g L-1. 100. divalent ions or large monovalent ions. The results showed that Cu2+and Fe2+ ions obviously inhibited the catalytic performance of laccase under the studied concentration. Dominique Chartray. Erswell (1988) study the Nanofiltation membranes retain organic compounds of low molecular weight. the rate of oil removal was as high as 69%. pH at 6. Sheau Ping. Reverse osmosis permeates the removal of all mineral salts. Xin Fang. copper. When only laccase was added to the synthetic oily wastewater. Sadr Ghayeni (1998) investigate the auxiliaries remain in the retentant. and Fe2+ ions in wastewater on the rate of oil removal using laccase were investigated. and a reaction time of 6 h for the initial oil concentration of 120 mg/L.7 to 9. Individual Zn(II) and Cu(II) with concentrations below 90 mg/L and Fe(III) with concentrations below 45 mg/L were removed up to 99% by the precipitation method in the pH range of 8. Tjoon Tow.

mercerization and dyeing. Mg2+. In Array classification RO stage-I. for the AL/CH combination.7 kgs/cm2. 2X5:1X5. Number of elements used in RO stage-I.00 pm continuously 14 days.76 16 Time 1.72 340 271 0. respectively.00 am X1 7. Some results show a coagulant dosage (alum) up to 24. X3 three times per day from knitted fabric dyeing effluent parameters.40 4120 50 3 2040 37 16 1552 4 0. Tamil Nadu. 2.00 pm X2 7. SO4 2-. Cl¯ . reject flow 3. RO feed flow 30. and total phosphorus reached 87%. Effluent samples were collected and tested as per American Public Health Association (APHA) in knitted fabric dyeing industry for following parameters such as pH. The full-scale test was performed in two parallel. For total phosphorus.Textile Effluent Treatment with Reverse Osmosis Membrane using Anova Model 9 treatment of waters favours the use of renewable resources such as natural biopolymers. laboratory testing (jar tests) was achieved with chitosan as a coagulant aid. five numbers of Winch dyeing machine are used for knitted fabric dyeing with different capacities. 14. stage-II. however.77 371 292 0. COD. In order to better understand the peculiarities of using a product of natural origin in municipal wastewater treatment. HCO3¯ . Ca2+. TDS.00 pm and 5.52 4108 46 3 2022 32 15 1487 5 0.66 4066 44 2 1998 34 914 1519 5 0. Na+.1.00 pm X3 7. permeate flow 27. BOD. Removals for COD. NH4+. Table 1: Knitted fabric dyeing collection of data’s for input parameters Time 9.86 19 Knitted Fabric Dyeing Parameters pH TDS COD BOD ClCa2+ Mg2+ Na+ K+ NH4+ HCO3 SO42NO3SiO2 Table – 1 shows the data’s collected X1. These results are similar to those obtained for COD and SS with the AL/SP combination. K+. Perundurai. SS..8% lower with chitosan as the usual coagulant aid.86 362 286 086 18 Time 5.0 m3/hr. X2. 48.0 m3/hr and RO recovery 90. identical systems treating the same wastewater under the same conditions. Collection of data’s 3 times per day that is 9. located at SIPCOT. Research Method This work carried out Sakthi Knitting private Limited. Erode. used TFC 8040 XR 375 and RO stage-II. The one using a combination of alum with a synthetic polymer (AL/SP) was compared with the other which used alum and chitosan (AL/CH). the results show that removals were higher with the AL/SP combination because of a higher coagulant dosage. 1. 5X6:3X6 and RO stage-II. The total quantity of fabric processed in knitted fabric dyeing 1500 – 2000 kgs/day and the volume of effluent generated is of the order of 500 – 600 m³/day. TFC 8040 SW 335 membranes. 2. bleaching. as well as fullscale testing in a medium size physical-chemical wastewater treatment plant.0 m3/hr.00%. Using KOCH Software In KOCH software membrane is ‘ROPRO’ RO stage-I. . Pressure required in RO stage-1.00 am. Manufacturing in Knitting fabric dyeing including eight numbers of soft flow reactors dyeing machine (batch process).6 kgs/cm2. 11. stage-II. India. 15 and total 63 elements. including scouring. NO3¯ and SiO2. 95% and 93%.

380 membranes. 11. shows the Rosa software membrane for Reverse Osmosis (RO) stage I and II.99 m3/hr and RO recovery 90. TFC = Thin Flim Composite membrane XR = Extra Rejection SW = Sea Water 375 = Membrane Active Area 375 feet square 335 = Membrane Active Area 335 feet square Table 3: RO feed and KOCH software permeate parameters value for knitted fabric dyeing RO Feed (In put) 7. Where. SW = Sea Water BW = Brackish Water FR = Fine Rejection .10 Table 2: S.20 kgs/cm2.62 ----51.0 0.05 8. shows the Reverse Osmosis feed and KOCH software membrane permeate parameters.22 0. 14. stage-II.0 m3/hr.00 Theoretical value for RO Permeate KOCH Software (Out put) 4. Table 4: S. SW 30 HR .No 01. 2X5:1X5.16 0. Using ROSA Software In ROSA software membrane is ‘FILMTEC’ RO stage-I. In Array classification RO stage-I.30 kgs/cm2. used BW 30 – 365 FR and RO stage-II.40 S.06 36.10 m3/hr.80 17. 2. Pressure required in RO stage-1.03%. Ramesh Kumar and K. RO feed flow 30. 48.92 45 2 2010 35 15 1500 5. Saravanan Koch Software membrane data Parameters Membrane: RO Stage I RO Stage II ROPRO TFC 8040 XR 375 TFC 8040 SW 335 KOCH Software Table 2. permeate flow 27.2. 5X6:3X6 and RO stage-II.03 0. stage-II. 15 and total 63 elements. Number of elements used in RO stage-I.92 93.12 1. Rosa Software membrane data Parameters Membrane: RO Stage I RO Stage II FILMTEC BW 30 – 365 FR SW 30 HR – 380 ROSA Software Table 4.31 0.No 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 Parameters pH TDS COD BOD Cl¯ Ca Mg Na K NH4 HCO3 SO4 NO3 SiO2 Table 3. reject flow 2.15 0.09 0.No 01. Where. shows the Koch software membrane for Reverse Osmosis (RO) stage I and II. M.70 4039.70 350 280 0.

0 0.80 17.70 4039.00 Experimentalvalue for RO Permeate (Out put) 5.13 0.07 11.22 17.3.0 0.21 0.12 0. shows the Reverse Osmosis feed and ROSA software membrane permeate parameters.44 202.90 11 S.70 4039. 2.45 0.92 45 2 2010 35 15 1500 5.Textile Effluent Treatment with Reverse Osmosis Membrane using Anova Model HR = High Rejection 365 = Membrane Active Area 365 feet square 380 = Membrane Active Area 380 feet square Table 5: RO feed and ROSA software permeate parameters value for knitted fabric dyeing RO Feed (In put) 7. Using Experimental Method Koch and Rosa software membrane used RO feed parameters same values use in Experimental RO feed. shows the RO feed and experimental permeate value for knitted fabric dyeing .40 10.87 0.47 ----172.70 350 280 0.69 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 pH TDS COD BOD Cl¯ Ca Mg Na K NH4 HCO3 SO4 NO3 SiO2 Table 6.No RO feed and Experimental permeate value of RO for knitted fabric dyeing Parameters RO Feed (In put) 7.80 17.96 0.No 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 Parameters pH TDS COD BOD Cl¯ Ca Mg Na K NH4 HCO3 SO4 NO3 SiO2 Table 5.38 121.16 2.30 0.70 350 280 0.36 0.00 0.28 324.92 45 2 2010 35 15 1500 5.71 --81.59 0.32 1.11 61. Table 6: S.10 0.36 0.00 Theoretical value for RO Permeate KOCH Software (Out put) 5.

. Ramesh Kumar and K. TSS = ∑x +∑x + ∑x 2 1 2 2 2 3 − T2 N STEP ..12 2. + − N N N N   2 2 2 2   N STEP – 6: To find SSE..4: To find SSC.5. SSE = TSS – SSC – SSR STEP – 7: Using Anova table STEP -8: Results: SSC = (∑ x1 ) 2 + (∑ x2 ) 2 + (∑ x3 ) 2 T 2 − N1 N . Algorithm STEP -1: Data processing STEP – 2: Using Anova method STEP – 3: To find TSS.4. Saravanan Figure 1: Flow chart of knitted fabric dyeing effluent treatment Knitted Fabric Effluent Collection data Using ANOVA Method Yes Low / Accepted Using KOCH Software Membrane Yes Low / Accepted Using ROSA software Membrane No High / Not Accepted 2. N1 N1 STEP – 5: To find SSR.  (∑ y1 ) 2 (∑ y2 ) 2 (∑ y3 ) 2 (∑ y14 ) 2  T 2 SSR =  + + +. Flow Chart M..

82% 98.45 91.07 11.31 97.26% 95.22 68.70 350 280 0.03 99.69 RO Reduction % 29.47% 172.00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 pH TDS COD BOD Cl¯ Ca2+ Mg2+ Na+ K+ NH4+ HCO3¯ SO42NO3¯ SiO2 Table 8 represent the combine values of all the three parameters.00 0.03% 02.85% 0.Textile Effluent Treatment with Reverse Osmosis Membrane using Anova Model Table 7: 13 Analysis of variance design of experimental for rejection measurement for knitted fabric dyeing effluent Sum of squares 49.76 .90 94.75% 0.59 26.40 95.32 2.57% 8.96% ----------------51.96 0.10% 5.15 99.13 0.62 97.90% 95. Theoretical value of Rosa software in RO feed.298.25% 0.00% ROSA SOFTWARE FILMTEC BW 30 – 365 FR SW 30 HR – 380 5 X 6: 3 X 6 2 X 5: 1 X 5 48 Elements 15 Elements 63 Elements 20 Hrs 90.32% 0. Table 8: Comparison in RO feed.97% 98.20% --95.375 TFC 8040 .00 8407.98 Degree of Freedom 2 13 26 41 Means Square 24.63% 10.11 61.94% Theoretical data for RO Permeate KOCH Software ROSA Software RO RO RO RO Reduction Reduction Permeate Permeate % % 4.43% 0.70% S. of Elements used: RO Stage I RO Stage II Total No.22 97.30 96.98 . permeate and RO reduction %. 3.945 83.68% 17.16 96.0 0.21 0.12 91.51% 0.92 36. permeate reduction % of Experimental value and Theoretical value in Knitted fabric dyeing 600 KLD capacity Experimental data for RO Permeate RO Permeate 5.99% 96.46% 36.35% 94.38 97.10 91.75% 95. permeate and RO reduction %.70 4039.01 ----- Factor Between Column Between Rows Residual Total There is difference between Koch.No Parameters Average RO Feed 7.15 Variance . Results and Discussions The total quantity of fabric processed in knitted fabric dyeing unit is 1500 – 2000 kgs/day and the volume of effluent generated is of the order of 500 – 600 m³/day.57% 0.64% 0.SW 335 5 X 6: 3 X 6 2 X 5: 1 X 5 48 Elements 15 Elements 63 Elements 20Hrs 90.16 2.80% 90.87 97.7751 705.40 97. that are experimental values of RO feed.47 91. permeate and RO reduction %.005 96.80 17.11 376.92 45 2 2010 35 15 1500 5.082 . 04. 03.06 99.2.80% 0.28 31.36 0.92% 0. 05. Rosa softwares and Anova values.42% 93. Comparison between Koch and Rosa Software in 600 KLD capacity for Knitted Fabric Dyeing Parameters Membrane: RO Stage I RO Stage II Array Classification: RO Stage I RO Stage II No.44 202.09 88.60% 0.36 0.97% 99.02% 1.5 646.68% 324. of working hours in RO Recovery KOCH SOFTWARE ROPRO TFC 8040 XR .00% 0. Table 9: S.32 1.0. Theoretical value of Koch software in RO feed. .No 01.05 92.12 97.71 --81.58% 121.169 ----F Ratio 3.

7 Kgs/cm² Experimental Selected Membrane Results ROPRO TFC 8040 XR .27% 4039 ppm 202.96 % 12. 14 Table 9 show the Koch and Rosa software membranes for knitted fabric dyeing compare the following parameters like. reject flow.6 Kgs/cm² 14.00 % 4039 ppm 324.03 % 06.000 to 30.00% 4039 ppm 93.14 Table 9: M.30 Kgs/cm² 02. 13. 07. 11 12 Table 10 shows the results also reveal that the Koch software membrane is recommended to treat the effluent from the knitted fabric dyeing.68 % 9. Parameters Membrane: RO Stage I RO Stage II Array Classification: RO Stage I RO Stage II No.000 Complicated Compare to Koch higher 30.33 KW 30 m³/hr 27 m³/hr 3 m³/hr 90. .80m³/hr 26. 01. 25. investment cost.00 % 10. 35. 05.000 to 40. 08. power consumption. RO feed flow.20 Kgs/cm² 14.26 KW 29. 04. 09. TDS reduction %. Ramesh Kumar and K. of working hours in RO Recovery Feed TDS Permeate TDS TDS Reduction % Average Membrane Flux Power Consumption in KW Flow Rate: RO Feed Flow RO Permeate Flow RO Reject Flow RO Recovery % Pressure: RO 1st Stage RO 2nd Stage KOCH Software Results ROPRO TFC 8040 XR .No.00 m³/hr 27. Saravanan Comparison between Koch and Rosa Software in 600 KLD capacity for Knitted Fabric Dyeing continued Feed TDS Permeate TDS TDS Reduction % Average Membrane Flux Power Consumption in Kw Membrane cost Handling of projection Investment Cost RO Feed Flow RO Permeate Flow RO Reject Flow RO Recovery % 4039 ppm 93.SW 335 5 X 6: 3 X 6 2 X 5: 1 X 5 48 Elements 15 Elements 63 Elements 20 Hrs 90. 11.62 ppm 97.00 % 11.90 m³/hr 90.27 % 11.12 KW Rs.90 m³/hr 2. 10. 09.52 LMH 32.375 TFC 8040 . 08.32 ppm 95. average membrane flux. both membrane cost.33 KW Rs.62 ppm 97. of Elements used: RO Stage I RO Stage II Total No.1 LMH 20.99 m³/hr 90.47 ppm 91.6 LMH 19. 07.6 LMH 19. permeate flow.SW 335 5 X 6: 3 X 6 2 X 5: 1 X 5 48 Elements 15 Elements 63 Elements 20Hrs 90. 06. Table 10: Comparison between Koch Software and Experimental Selected Membrane Results for 600 KLD in Knitted Fabric Dyeing S.000 Simple Less 30 m³/hr 27 m³/hr 3 m³/hr 90.10 m³/hr 2. 03. 12.375 TFC 8040 . 10.68 % 9.

. India. E. 439 – 445. “The treatment and reuse of wastewater in the textile industry by means of ozonation and electroflocculation”. Water Research.51 – 99. D. M.A. “Prediction of concentration polarization and flux behavior in reverse osmosis by numerical analysis”.1990. Salvi. 1993.K. [5] [6] [7] [8] . Conclusions In KOCH Software membrane. Water research.20 % The analysis of variances in knitted fabric effluent using Reverse Osmosis software membrane.). Journal of membrane science. 1965. Barker. Abari.43 – 97. .J. Brian. Bhattacharyya.T. Also the Anova mathematical model application results has minor variations as compared with the out put results of software membrane..94% o SiO2 97.46 – 99. J.68% where as in Rosa 91. Aptel. 295. 31. • From the experimental and theoretical results..L. References [1] [2] [3] [4] Amjad. Z (Ed.96 %. In Koch power consumption is 19.H.. Both software membranes comparatively the Koch software membrane is better results to treat the knitted fabric dyeing effluents. Chemical engineering production. Koch software shows better results as compared to Rosa software. 4..96. 239 – 249.68 % o Cl¯ 91. 2001.S. New York. Tamil Nadu.26% o SO42.. 35.B. F. 601 – 609. Water Res. P. • Acknowledgement The author would like to thanks M/S Sakthi Knitting private Limited. (2000). In Koch TDS reduction 97. G. Van Nostrand Reinhold. Erode. the following range of percentage reduction were observed as. Cost effective method of producing low salinity recycled water for industrial applications and indirect potable reuse. P. 2002.. Back. Chain. “Treatment of high strength acidic wastewater with completely mixed anaerobic filter”. o Higher TDS Reduction o Higher RO Recovery % o Power consumption is less o Investment cost is less as compare to ROSA software membrane. 231 – 262... R.40 – 98.57% o Mg2+ 97.32 – 98. Anderson. 1977. 48. Langenhoff.. Perundurai. and Stuckey. G. To successfully use RO membrane for the treatment of the knitted fabric dyeing effluents. Indian Engineering Chemical Fund. Treatment of textile dye effluent using a polyamidebased nonofiltration membrane. Journal of Environmental Engineering. .C. 11. Kermode.. Reverse Osmosis: Membrane Technology. 1997. Water chemistryand industrial applications.Textile Effluent Treatment with Reverse Osmosis Membrane using Anova Model 15 4. Al-Malack. “Solubel microbial products in ABR treating low – strength wastewater”. it can be seen that characteristics of effluent from RO feed and permeate water..M.C. Use of crossflow microfiltration in wastewater treatment. 41. .33 KW where as in Rosa 32.00% where as in Rosa 90.M.47 % o Ca2+ 97. N.I.A.. D. In Koch RO Recovery 90. 3064 – 3072. 126. Dewalle.03%. o TDS 91.12 KW. Ranieri.L. The above results reveal that the Koch software membrane is recommended to treat the effluent from the knitted fabric dyeing industry. “Concentration polarization in reverse osmosis desalination with variable flux and incomplete salt rejection”. Remigy.K. 567 – 572.. A.96 – 97.L. SIPCOT. Ciardelli.

. 2006. chitosan and a synthetic polymer”. Amy. P. P. Water reclamation from municipal wastewater using combined microfiltration – reverse osmosis. Desalination 124. Membrane Technology. C. M. Membrane technology for dyehouse effluent treatment. Minke. 279. A.. J. 2000. 242. Nanofiltration of textile wastewater for water reuse.K. Separation science and Technology. 1983. Vol. Machenbach. E. 65 – 80.. Fane.. 1999. 2004. 2002... 1988.V. V..P.R. Ramesh Kumar and K.V.. Industrial engineering chemical production research division. “Comparing microfiltration – reverse osmosis and soil – aquifer treatment for indirect potable reuse of water”. Tinghui. pp 219 – 229. D. Folkard. Fons Moi. Vol. Watters.. D.J. 45 (1). journal of membrane science. Teng. A. Fletcher. Freger.. Walter.. P. Li. Vol. Water Quality Research Journal of Canada. Van der Meer. 43 (2/3). I. Water quality research journal of Canada. [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] . Drewes. G. 178.. T. 299 .. Water Res. G.tudelft. Reinhard.. T. Saravanan Drewes. No. C. Omar. Mohd. Tjoon Tow. Wiley. A. 245.C.gezondheidstechniek. Vol. S. Senlar. Erswell. 11 – 20. 26.. Wei Liu. Gualdi. Brouchaert. 3. 2010. A computational fluids dynamics study of buoyancy effect in reverse osmosis. Sourirajan. “Research on the application of Laccase to the treatment of oily wastewater”.315.A. T. Fletcher. Neal. 2006. Biagtan. Journal of membrane science. Desalination 143. Bellona. A. 40. 175 – 181. P. 7 – 10. I. 1998. Water Science Technology.. Sanjeev Chaudhari. J. The reuse of reactive dyes liquors using charged ultrafiltration membrane technology. “Effect of membrane fouling on transport of organic contaminants in NF/RO membrane applications”. Chen. Effect of membrane materials and average pore size on reverse osmosis separation of dyes. 3612 – 3621. 1998.U. 2004.K. Pang. [accessed in 2006]. Rott. 1991. G.. 77 – 85. R.. Desalination 70. Schneider. “Laboratory evaluation of a water-treatment sequence using Moringa oleifera seed coagulant”. 1295 – 1313. Tang. Chen.J. Dominique Chartray. O. A. Tian. Desalination 116. Buckley. .. Hitendra Bhuptawat. Schwinge. G. Sheau Ping. Xin Fang. 1999.J. J. and Fox.R..F. 185 – 193. D. 22. Mignani.A. Roland Leduc. pp 91 – 98. Zhi Lin Li.B. Yun Miao.16 [9] [10] M. Journal of membrane science. 44 (2):pp 174 – 182. Daniel Babineau. S.E. Overview of wastewater treatment and recycling in the textile processing industry. Wiley.Xu. 287 – 292. “Separation of concentratedorganic/inorganic salt mixtures by nanofiltration”. 2009..F.E. Beatson. “Comparative study of two flocculants in the physical-chemical treatment of municipal wastewater. M. Innovative ultrafiltration for wastewater reuse. U. “Heavy metals removal by hydroxide precipitation and coagulation-flocculation methods from aqueous solutions”. 2007. journal of membrane science. International Journal of Mathematical modeling of NF and RO. preliminary performance data and microbiological aspects of system operation.G. Arnot. Water quality research journal of Canada. C.. Matsuura. 2009. Spiral wound modules and spacers review and analysis.E.C..E. 157 – 167.G.. D.. J. Ultrafiltration of a textile plant effluent. Sadr Ghayeni. .3 pp. Teng. 129 – 153. in http://www.htm. 165 – 175. 37 – 144. R. Kim.. Fane. Nosenzo. 37. He Sheng.. Howell. 2003.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful