This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
1. Triangle
Area of triangle =
1
2
x base x height
Area of an equilateral triangle =
3
4
2
( ) side
If the length of the sides of a triangle are a, b
and c and if the semiperimeter s =
( ) a b c + +
2
then,
Area of the triangle
= s s a s b s c ( ) ( )( ) ÷ ÷ ÷
2. Parallelogram
Area =base x height
3. Rectangle
Area =Length x Breadth
Perimeter =Sum of all sides
= 2 (Length +Breadth)
4. Square
Let `a' be the side of square
Diagonal = 2 a
Area =a
2
= ( )
1
2
2
diagonal
Perimeter = 4a
5. Trapezium
Area =
1
2
(sum of parallel sides) x
(distance between them)
6. Rhombus
Area =
1
2
(Product of the diagonals)
7. Circle
Let r be the radius of the circle
Area of a circle =
t t r or
2
22
7
314 , . =
Circumference of a circle =
2tr
Length of an Arc =
2
360
t u r
Area of a sector =
t u r
2
360
The unit of area is square metre
Volume & area of Solid Structures.
1. Cuboid
Let l, b, and h are respectively the length,
breadth and height of a cuboid
Volume of a cuboid =lbh
Longest diagonal of a cuboid
=
l b h
2 2 2
+ +
Total surface area = 2(lb+bh+lh)
Area of a room =(length x breadth)
Area of 4 walls of a room
= 2 (l+b) height
2. Cube
Let `a' be the side of a cube
Volume of the cube = a
3
Longest diagonal = 3 x(a
Total surface area = 6a
2
Total length of all edges =12a.
3. Cylinder
Volume = tr h r
2
;  radius of the base
h  height
Base area = tr
2
BANK PROBATIONARY OFFICER
QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE
MENSURATION
Curved surface area = 2trh
Total surface area = 2 2
2
t t rh r +
4. Pyramid
Volume =
1
3
x (area of base) x height
5. Cone
If the radius of the base of a cone is r,
the height is h and the slant height is l then
l
2
= h
2
+ r
2
Volume =
1
3
2
tr h
Area of curved surface =trl
Total surface area =trl + tr
2
=tr(l +r)
6. Sphere
Volume =
4
3
3
tr ;
r radius of the sphere
Curved surface area = 4 tr
2
7. Hemisphere
Volume =
2
3
3
tr ;
Curved surface area = 2
2
tr
Total surface area = 3
2
tr
Volume of spherical shell =
4
3
3 3
t( ) R r ÷
Volume of a metal in a hollow pipe
= t( ) ; R r h R
2 2
÷  external radius
Total surface area of an open pipe
=
 
2
2 2
t Rh rh R r + + ÷ ( )
The unit of volume is cubic metre.
Solved Examples
1. Find the area of a right triangle whose
hypotenuse is 5 metres and base is 3 metres.
Ans: Altitude of the triangle
=
5 3 16 4
2 2
÷ = = m.
Area of the triangle
=
1
2
xbasexaltitude
=
1
2
3 4 6 x x sq m = . .
2. A lawn is in the form of a rectangle hav
ing its sides in the ratio 2:3. The area of the
lawn is
1
6
hectare. Find the length and breadth
of the lawn.
Ans: Let the length and bread be 3x and 2x
metres.
Then
6
1
6
10000
2
x =
x 10000
¬ = x
50
3
Length =
3
50
3
50 x m =
Breadth =
2
50
3
33
1
3
x m =
3. A rectangular grassy plot is 112 metres
by 78 metres. It has a gravel path 2.5 metres
wide all round it on the inside. Find the area of
the path and the cost of constructing it at 72
paise per 1000 sq.cm.
Ans: Area of path = Area of grassy plot 
Area of plot excluding the path
= (112 x 78  107 x 73) = 925 m
2
Cost on 1000 sq.cm. = 72 paise.
Total Cost
= Rs.
72
1000
925 100 100
100
6660 x
x x
Rs = . ,
2.5
78
112
2.5
÷
4. How many bricks will be required for a
wall 8m long, 6 m high and 22.5 cm thick if
each brick measures 25 cm by 11.25 cm by 6
cm?
Ans: Volume of wall =(800x600x22.5) cu.cm
Volume of brick =(25x11.25x6) cu.cm.
Number of bricks =
Volumeof thewall
Volumeof abrick
=
800 600 225
25 1125 6
6400
x x
x x
.
.
=
5. Half cubic metre of gold sheet is extended
by hammering so as to cover an area of 1 hect
are. Find the thickness of the gold sheet.
Ans: Volume of sheet =
1
2
cu.metre
=
1
2
x 100x100 x100 cu.cm
Area of sheet=1hectare
=10,000 sq. metre
= [10,000x100x100] sq.cm.
Thickness =
Volume
Area
=
1 100 100 100
2 10 000 100 100
x x x
x x x ,
=
1
200
cm = 0.005 cm.
6. A rectangular lawn 60 metres by 40
metres has two roads each 5 metres wide,
running in the middle of it, one parallel to length
and the other parallel to the breadth. Find the
cost of gravelling them at 60 paise per square
metre.
Ans: Area of the road ABCD=60x5=300 sq.m
Area of the road EFGH =40x5
= 200 sq.m.
Area of J KLM = 5x5 = 25 sq.m.
Area of the path of be gravelled
= (300+20025) = 475 sq.m.
=cost of gravelling the path.
= Rs.
60 475
100
285
x
Rs = .
Quicker Method
Area of the road =(width of the road) x (length
+breadth of the lawn  width of the road)
= 5(60 + 40  5) = 475 sq.m
Cost =
60 475
100
285
x
Rs = .
7. A rectangular courtyard 3.78 metres
long and 5.25 metres broad is to be paved
exactly with square tiles, all of the same size.
What is the largest size of such a tile? Also
find the number of tiles?
Ans: Largest size of tile
=H.C.F. of 378 cm and 525 cm=21 cm.
Area of courtyard = (378x525) sq.cm.
Number of tiles =
378 525
21 21
450
x
x
=
8. The diameter of the driving wheel of a
bus is 140 cm. How many revolutions per
minute must be the wheel make in order to
keep a speed of 66 km. per hour?
Ans: Distance covered by wheel in 1 minute
=
66 1000 100
60
x x ,
= 1,10,000 cms.
Circumference of wheel
=
2
22
7
70 440 x x cm = .
Number of revolutions in 1 minute
=
110 000
440
250
, ,
=
M L
J K
D
C
A
B
E H
F G
9. The length of a rectangle is increased by
60%. What per cent should the width be de
creased to maintain the same area?
Ans: Let the length of rectangle be increased
by x%. Then the decrease percentage of
breadth to maintain the same area
=x
100
100 +

\

.

x
In the above problem decrease percentage of
breadth = 60
100
100 60
37
1
2 +

\

.
 =
%
10. A cube of sides 3 cm. is melted and
smaller cubes of sides 1 cm. each are formed.
How many such cubes are possible?
Ans: Quicker method
Required Number
=
Original length of side
Newlength of side

\

.

3
=
3
1
27
3

\

.

=
11. Three cubes of metals whose edges are
3, 4 and 5 cm. respectively are melted and
formed into a single cube. If there is no loss of
metal in the process, find the side of the new
cube.
Ans: Quicker method
When many cubes integrate into one cube, the
side of the new cube is given by
side = sumof cubes of sides of all thecubes
3
Here, side
= 3 4 5 27 64 125 6
3 3 3 3 3
+ = = + + = cm
12. If the radius of a cylinder is doubled and
the height is halved, what is the ratio between
the new volume and previous volume?
Ans: Let the initial radius and height of the
cylinder be r cm and h cm respectively.
Then V r h
1
2
= t
V x r x
h
r h
2
2
2
2
2 = =
2
t t ( )
NewVolume
eviousvolume
r h
r h Pr
= =
2 2
1
2
2
t
t
Required ratio =2:1
PRACTICE TEST
1. The perimeter of a rectangle is 82 m. and
its length is 25m. The breadth of the rectangle
is:
1) 14 m. 2) 16m
3) 18 m. 4) 12 m.
2. The length of a plot of land is 4 times its
breadth. A play ground measuring 1200m
2
oc
cupies one third of the total area of the plot.
What is the length of the plot, in metres?
1) 90 2) 80
3) 60 4) 120
3. If the width of a rectangle is 2m. less
than its length and its perimeter is 32m., the
area of the rectangle is:
1) 224m
2
2) 108m
2
3) 99m
2
4) 63m
2
4. The sides of a rectangular park are in the
ratio 3:2 and its area is 3750m
2
. The cost of
fencing it at 50 paise per metre is:
1) Rs. 312.50 2) Rs. 375
3) Rs. 187.50 4) Rs. 125
5. The least number of equal square slabs
that can be fitted in a verandah 10.5m. long
and 3m wide is
1) 15 2) 14
3) 13 4) 12
6. Three equal cubes are placed adjacently
in a row. Find the ratio of the total surface
area of the new cuboid to that of the sum of
the surface area of the 3 cubes.
1) 7:9 2) 6:5
3) 7:8 4) 5:6
7. If the radii of the two sphere are in the
ratio 1:4, what will be the ratio of their vol
umes?
1) 1:8 2) 1:16
3) 1:24 4) 1:64
8. Six spherical copper balls of radius `r'
are melted and cast into a cylinderical rod of
the metal of same radius. The height of the
rod will be
1) 4r 2) 6r
3) 8r 4) 12r
9. A man walked 20 metres to cross a rect
angular field diagonally. If the length of the
field is 16 metres, what is the breadth of the
field?
1) 16 2) 4
3) 12 4) 8
10. If the ratios of areas of two squares is
9:1, the ratio of their perimeter is
1) 9:1 2) 3:4
3) 3:1 4) 1:3
11. If the area of a cirlce is equal to its cir
cumference, then diameter of the circle is:
1) 2cms. 2) 4cms.
3) 1 cm. 4) t cms
12. If the side of a sqaure is increased by
20%, the area of the square is increased by:
1) 40% 2) 35%
3) 44% 4) 20%
13. If the area of a circle is decreased by 36%
then radius of a circle decreases by
1) 20% 2) 18%
3) 36% 4) 64%
14. If the area of a square is increased by
96%, then the side of the square is increased
by
1) 96% 2) 48.5%
3) 40% 4) 49%
15. A rectangular hall 10m. long and 8m.
broad, is surrounded by a verandah 2 metres
wide. Find the area of the verandah.
1) 104m
2
2) 88m
2
3) 96m
2
4) 120m
2
16. The surface area of a cube is 600m
2
. The
length of its diagonal is:
1)
10
3
cm 2)
10
2
cm
3)
10 3
cm 4) 10 2 cm.
17. Two circular cylinders of equal volume
have heights in the ratio 1:2. The ratio of their
radii is:
1) 1:
2
2) 2 1 :
3) 1:4 4) 2:1
18. A copper sphere of radius 3cm. is beaten
and drawn into a wire of diameter 0.2cm. The
length of the wire is
1) 9m. 2) 12m.
3) 18m. 4) 36m.
19. The base of a prism is a triangle of sides
3m., 4m, and 5m. respectively. The height of
the prism is 10m. Then its volume is:
1) 60m
2
2) 75m
2
3) 42m
2
4) 83m
2
20. One cubic metre of aluminium sheet is
extended by hammering, so as to cover the
roof with an area 10,000 square metre. The
thickness of the sheet is:
1) 0.1cm. 2) 0.01m.
3) .01cm 4) 0.5cm
ANSWERS TO PRACTICE TEST
1. (2) 2. (4) 3. (4) 4. (4) 5. (2) 6. (a ) 7. (4) 8.(3)
9. (3) 10. (3) 11. (2) 12. (3) 13. (1) 14. (3) 15. (2) 16.(3)
17. (1) 18. (4) 19. (1) 20. (3)
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.