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CONTENTS 1. Introduction 2. Scope and Objectives 3. Precast Concrete Components and Systems in ABC 3.1 Precast Concrete Bridge System 3.2 Geotechnical Consideration 3.3 Precast Concrete Deck Panels 3.3.1 Precast Deck Panels 3.3.2 Panel-to-Panel Connections 3.3.3 Panel-to-Girder Connections 3.3.4 NCHRP 12-65 System 3.3.5 Applicability of Precast Deck Panel in ABC 3.4 Superstructure 3.4.1 Precast Concrete Girders Types of Girders Techniques to Increase Span Length On-Going Researches Applicability of Precast Beams in ABC 3.4.2 Spliced Girders Types of Girders Construction Detail Construction Issues Connection Detail Application of Spliced Girder in Seismic Regions 3.4.3 Precast Segmental Box Girders Structural Concepts Construction Issues Seismic Consideration 3.5 Substructure 3.5.1 Precast Bent Cap 3.5.2 Integral Piers 3.5.3 Precast Segmental Columns 3.5.4 Connection Details 4. Seismic Design Principle 4.1 Design Principles 4.2 Capacity-Based Approach 4.3 Force-Based Approach



4.4 Base Isolation 5. Seismic Analysis and Design Procedures 5.1 PCI Girder Bridge 5.2 Spliced Girder Bridge 5.3 Segmental Box Girder Bridge 6. Seismic Design Requirements 7. Experimental Studies 8. Bridge Information System 9. Summary APPENDICES A. Literature Review B. Precast Concrete Segmental Columns C. Analysis Tools D. Experimental Data E. Design Guidelines and Commentary



1. INTRODUCTION Accelerated Bridge Construction (ABC) scheme is an agenda to realize the idea of Get In, Get Out, and Stay Out. This monograph discusses seismic analysis and design of bridges built following accelerated bridge construction schemes.
Some of the considerations for accelerated construction are: Improved work zone safety. Minimizing traffic disruption during bridge construction. Maintaining and/or improving construction quality. Reducing the life cycle costs and environmental impacts.



2. SCOPE AND OBJECTIVES The objective of the present study is to propose seismic design guidelines that can be used for bridge systems consist of pre-fabricated components in accelerated bridge construction. The area of interest corresponds to the intersection of three different aspects as in Figure 2-1. Implementation of ABC includes various aspects in planning, designing, construction, financing, and scheduling. The adoption of pre-fabricated components and systems has been known a good example of ABC, but this does not mean every project using pre-fabricated components is ABC. Based on the same reasoning, ABC can be acquired without using pre-fabricated components in high seismic regions, for example, by improving scheduling and financing procedures.



Seismi c

FIGURE 2-1 The Area of Interest For the past two decades, the benefits of combination of ABC with pre-fabricated construction have been shown in many cases (Shahawy 2003). Also pre-fabricated construction is envisioned as a tool to accomplish publics needs in the future (Bhide, Culmo et al. 2006). However, employing those developed techniques in the moderate and high seismic regions is delayed mainly because of uncertainties of behavior that those systems will experience under seismic loadings. In the development of ABC scheme, precast concrete components has been widely applied in deck, superstructure, and substructure (FHWA 2006). For steel members, the application evolves into fabricating large blocks of superstructure and placing with SPMT (Self-Propelled Modular Transporter) vehicle (Figure 2-2). The advantage of precast concrete systems over steel systems is the possibility of standardization of smaller components, which will reduce the initial cost of construction. So the present study focuses on precast concrete components not including those from steel and composite. Also substructure is generally made from concrete material, which is the main concern in the seismic design.



FIGURE 2-2. Wells Street Bridge Construction, Chicago In the application of precast concrete components, the proper connection between components is the most critical consideration. Under seismic loadings, the conventional connection methods and detail may not be enough to transmit excessive moment and shear forces. Also bridge systems consist of precast components and connections may be experience different inelastic or nonlinear behavior that is not expected in conventional cast-in-place construction. Recently, several studies, including NCHRP 12-74, focused on seismic behavior of pre-fabricated components and their connections. The present study not only collects information from related studies but also identifies and investigates issues that needs to be addressed in order to provide a big picture for reliable application of ABC techniques in high seismic regions. The main tasks include: Collecting information from other related research and projects Proposing appropriate seismic design philosophy and procedure Selecting bridge systems for in-depth investigation Performing trial seismic design for the bridge set Identifying critical seismic design issues and performing analytical and experimental investigations Providing seismic design methodologies and wording as a form of guidelines Proposing bridge information system to facilitate ABC with proposed seismic design methodologies

Currently, the appropriate way to plan and to implement ABC is to go through ACTT (Accelerated Construction Technology Transfer) workshop. The ACTT concept was originated by the Transportation Research Board (TRB) in conjunction with FHWA and the Technology Implementation Group (TIG) of the AASHTO (FHWA 2007). The ACTT program helps owner agencies achieve ABC goals by bringing national transportation experts to the planning stage. At the workshop, skill sets provide counsel on innovative ways to accelerate construction, reduce project costs, and minimize impacts. The following is the list of skill sets (FHWA 2005).



Innovative Contracting / Financing ROW / Utilities / Railroad Coordination Geotechnical / Materials / Accelerated Testing Traffic Engineering / Safety / Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) Structures Roadway / Geometric Design Long Life Pavements / Maintenance Construction Environment Public Relations

Innovative techniques in design and construction of structures are one of the important components to implement ABC, but they are not the only factors that should be considered. For example, conclusions from ACTT workshops indicated that the holistic approach to the entire project was needed to come up with the most appropriate way to realize ABC. Mostly, global organization and financing take more important roles in the planning state, unless structural consideration is critical for directing the project. A flowchart and determining factors for prefabricated ABC selection are proposed in one of recent studies (FHWA 2006). Figure 2-3 shows the decision making flowchart. The necessity of organized planning in ABC has been emphasized in its development. As the onsite construction time is reduced, the time and efforts for in-house works increases. The expected and possible construction problems should be addressed in advance. Also management of information and data from different sectors is one of the critical issues to implement planned operation smoothly. The present study, therefore, includes the discussion on bridge information system that can provide such operation and management of information.



FIGURE 2-3. Pre-fabricated ABC Decision Making Flowchart



3. PRECAST CONCRETE COMPONENTS AND SYSTEMS IN ABC Bridge construction utilizing precast components is one of the widely implemented techniques in accelerated bridge construction. Since its introduction in the 1950s, the number of applications of precast components has been increased. The recent development of precast concrete based bridge system for ABC comes up to many practical publications such as; Conferences on the same topic PCI, Guidelines for Accelerated Bridge Construction (PCI 2006) FHWA, Decision-Making Framework for Prefabricated Bridge Elements and Systems (PBES) (FHWA 2006)

The main focus is the applicability of these components and bridge systems in high- and moderate- seismic regions from the conventional and innovative seismic design point of view. The goal of most bridge projects taking advantage of precast concrete components is to build a bridge system that responds as close as conventional summary existing projects based on components used Recently, PCI addressed this issue more systematic way by summarizing issues as a format of guidelines (PCI 2006). Basic Philosophy of precast bridge structure??
A prefabricated system is designed using the same design approach as cast-in-place concrete structures. Designers should refer to the PCI Tolerance Manual MNL 135-00 for guidance on setting appropriate tolerances for each component. Designers should refer to the ACI 550.1R-01, Emulating Cast-in-Place Detailing in Precast Concrete Structures for specifications on emulation design. Round columns are difficult to fabricate. These will likely have to be poured vertically which may prove to be difficult in a precast plant. This will likely result in higher component prices Design Guidelines for the use of Full Depth Precast Deck Slabs used for new construction or for replacement of existing decks on bridges.

The following articles should be included (Bhide, Culmo et al. 2006) Texas report should be addressed for durability of post-tensioned substructure. Seismic design concern


3.1 Precast Concrete Bridge System In the present study, three precast concrete superstructures are considered based on the applicable span length. Short span: Precast Prestressed Beam (Texas Type) Medium span : Spliced Girders Long span : Box Girders (SFOB or Otay River Bridge)

Compared to the CIP construction, Precast concrete bridge systems can be categorized by the continuity of superstructures and continuity between superstructure and substructure. The dynamic response of simply supported spans is quite different from the continuous spans, and those of bridge system with integral piers are different from responses of bridge systems where superstructure is separated from the substructures. As cast-in-place construction, the determination of structural system for the seismic aspects is important, but there are additional restrictions that originated from precast construction. The technical difficulties for providing continuity in structures need to be identified when the structural system is determined. In the seismic design of bridges, the reliable fuse mechanism that limit strength demands of components takes a major role in the modern design philosophy. The location of fuse is limited to the location that permits easy inspection and rehabilitation after earthquake. The focused areas are pier columns to implement this fuse mechanism through plastic hinging behavior. Continuous girders provide Over the past few years, growing attention has been paid to the investigation, development and application of precast concrete bridge elements and systems to highway bridges. Traditional castin-place concrete bridge construction activity normally causes lane closures and traffic detour, thus causing the problem of traffic disruption. The cost of the traffic disruption to road users can be very high in busy urban areas. Precast concrete bridge elements and systems can offer a viable solution to the problem. It shifts most of construction activities into the precast factory. After adequate concrete strength is obtained, the precast products are then transported to the construction site. Thus, the on-site construction activities are greatly reduced. Reducing the onsite construction activities also means the work zone safety and the construction quality can be improved, because the working environment in a precast factory is safer and easier for the workers to perform their skills in terms of formwork, reinforcing ironwork, concreting, compacting and curing. Besides, the environmental impact can be reduced, since the demand on the land for construction purpose around the construction site is decreased.



There are disadvantages to use precast construction as well, such as the high initial cost and the concerns regarding the performance of the connection or joint which connects precast products to the structure. The high initial cost is largely attributed to the cost of transporting the products from the factory to the construction site and the hardware associated with the connections. The higher initial cost as opposed to conventional cast-in-place construction may become less important if the many benefits the precast production can bring are appropriately weighed. However, if a good behavior of the precast connection can not be ensured, it will surely prevent the engineers from using precast construction. As a result, the development of any new precast system will require the rigorous research on the design of the connections to ensure the connection can perform as expected.

3.2 Geotechnical Consideration

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3.3 Precast Concrete Deck Panel Systems The basic role of bridge deck system is to provide the smooth surface to traffic and to implement the designed geometry as a part of roadway. The bridge deck should be constructed to satisfy designed elevation, longitudinal slope, skew, cross slope, etc. Compared to cast-in-place construction that modification of geometry can be improvised at the site, the precast construction has limited construction tolerance. Additionally, AASHTO Specifications specify the following issues as the implicit philosophy for deck construction (AASHTO 2004). Jointless, continuous decks Deck systems to improve weather and corrosion-resisting effects of the whole bridge Reduce inspection efforts and maintenance costs Increase structural effectiveness and redundancy

In the development of prefabricated bridge elements and systems, various deck systems have been studied, implemented, and constructed. They include precast concrete stay-in-place panels, full-depth precast concrete panels, metal grid decks, and orthotropic steel (aluminum) decks. As metal grid decks, open grid floors, filled and partially filled grid decks, and unfilled grid decks composite with reinforced concrete slabs are examples included in AASHTO LRFD Specifications. The discussion in this section is limited to the full-depth precast deck panels that can be incorporated with other prefabricated bridge elements to be used in accelerated bridge construction schemes. Full-depth panels have been used since the early 1960s (Biswas, Osegueda et al. 1984). The first application of full-depth panels for composite construction was in 1973 (Biswas 1986). The historical background of their development can be found at (PCI 2003; Hieber, Wacker et al. 2005; Badie, Tadros et al. 2006). Figure 3-1 shows one of the developed full-depth precast deck panels at the University of Nebraska.

FIGURE 3-1. Typical Full-Depth Precast Deck Panel (PCI 2003)

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This composite action was accomplished by shear connection through shear studs or steel channels grouted into the pockets of the decks. Alternatively, steel channels may be welded on the top flange or bolted connections may be implemented. The deck elevations were adjusted by leveling bolts or shims. Also the grouting was used to construct haunches which were formed by dams with various materials. The followings are the typical construction procedures for fulldepth precast deck panel systems (Hieber, Wacker et al. 2005). Girders are cleaned and variations in the elevation are corrected with shims Panels are lifted and placed onto the girders Panels are leveled using leveling bolts or shims Transverse joints between panels are filled with grout and allowed to reach the required strength When longitudinal post-tensioning is included, tendons are fed through ducts in the panels and stressed Shear connectors are connected to the girders inside shear pocket openings in the panels The shear pockets, the haunch between the girders and panels, and post-tensioning ducts are filled with grout and allowed to cure If required, an overlay or wearing surface is applied

The grouting is used in panel-to-girder connection and panel-to-panel connection. As commonly required properties of the grout material, the followings can be listed. Relatively high strength (2000 to 4000 psi) at the early stage (1 to 24 hours) Small shrinkage deformation Bonded well with hardened concrete surfaces Low permeability for durability.

Issa et al. compares the performance of several commercial products (Issa and al 2003). In the discussion of the full-depth precast concrete deck panel systems, the focuses are on deck panels, panel-to-panel connections, and panel-to-girder connections. 3.3.1 Precast Deck Panels AASHTO LRFD Design Specifications (AASHTO 2004) specifies the depth of the slab, excluding any provision for grinding, grooving, and sacrificial surface, shall not be less than 7.0 in. Precast deck panels are approximately 8 inches thick and the width of them typically spans the full width. The design generally follows the conventional cast-in-place concrete deck design procedures. In the transverse direction, two layers of reinforcement are designed. The reinforcement can be either pre-tensioning steel or mild steel reinforcement. The pre-tensioning can produce thinner panels with better crack control, which can reduce damages during transportation and erection (Yamane, Tadros et al. 1998).

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When post-tensioning is introduced in the longitudinal direction, the minimum average effective prestress shall not be less than 250 psi. The longitudinal post-tensioning is a good solution for providing flexural continuity. The post-tensioning ducts should be located at the center of the slab cross-section. Block-outs should be provided in the joints to permit the splicing of posttensioning ducts. Panels should be placed on the girders without mortar or adhesives to permit their movement relative to the girders during prestressing. Congestion problems can occur as a result of mild steel, prestressing steel, block-out formwork, and post-tensioning ducts. The transverse joint and the block-outs shall be specified to be filled with a nonshrink grout having a minimum compressive strength of 5.0 ksi at 24 hours. Block-outs shall be provided in the slab around the shear connectors and shall be filled with the same grout upon completion of post-tensioning. 3.3.2 Panel-to-Panel Connections The panels can be connected in transverse direction and in longitudinal direction. When the width of panel is narrower than the width of the bridge, longitudinal connections are needed. Longitudinal connections are frequently used for the staged construction, which soma parts of the old deck should be maintained for traffic during the construction of the other part of the deck. Also, the exterior part of the deck can be constructed in cast-in-place concrete whereas the interior parts are constructed with precast deck panels. For this case, longitudinal connections are required. For both connections, the reinforcement splice or connection detail and grouting detail are the major issues to transfer forces between panels and panel to CIP concrete. Transverse connections should transfer shear and moment from live load. Most of the joints used have been female-to-female shear key type connections. The shear keys were generally provided in the transverse connections between adjacent panels. The shear keys were designed to make the panels to behave as a continuous structure so that the vertical movements and traffic induced forces can be resisted by the whole deck systems not by the individual panels. There are two typical connection details used in the transverse directions: the non-grouted match-cast shear key and grouted female-to-female joints. Figure 3-2 shows one of the match-cast examples. The match cast connections, however, were found that to be difficult to provide perfectly matching connections because of the construction tolerance and required elevations of the decks. Male-to-female shear key connections are found to have poor performance (Kropp, Milinski et al. 1975).

FIGURE 3-2. Non-Grouted Match-Case Shear Key

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The grouted female-to-female connections have been more common details in the transverse connections of panels. Figure 3-3 shows some of detail used in the bridges. The bottom of the openings can be detailed by polyethylene backer rods or wood forming. The bond between the grout and the shear key surface has been found to be important, in particular, when there is no longitudinal post-tensioning between panels. The surface can be roughened by several methods.

FIGURE 3-3 Grouted Female-to-Female connections In the full-depth precast concrete panels, splicing the longitudinal reinforcement at the transverse joints is one of designers challenges. The followings are major reasons for these difficulties (Badie, Tadros et al. 2006) The panels are relatively narrow, 8 to 10 ft. Therefore, a wide concrete closure joint (2 to 3 ft) is needed if the longitudinal reinforcement splices were to be lapped. This would require forming under the panels and extended period of time for curing. The longitudinal reinforcement is spliced at the transverse grouted-joint between panels that is considered the weakest link in the system. Therefore, great care has to be taken in detailing the splice connection to maintain the construction feasibility and avoid leakage at the joint during the service life of the deck. Splicing the longitudinal reinforcement requires a high level of quality control during fabrication to guarantee that the spliced bars will match within a small tolerance. Splicing the longitudinal reinforcement requires creating pockets and/or modifying the side form of the panels, which increase the fabrication cost.

For some simply-supported bridges, the longitudinal reinforcement may be intentionally discontinued. At the positive moment sections, the longitudinal reinforcement does not actively

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involve in the design calculation, except for the creep and shrinkage controls. When the longitudinal reinforcement is utilized, the following methods have been implemented. Lap splice A wide concrete closure is expected, however, the conventional methods of design and construction can be utilized (Figure 3-4).

FIGURE 3-4. Lap Splice Connection of Longitudinal Reinforcement Spiral Confinement This detail has been developed to reduce the lap splice length. The spiral confinement provides lateral stressed to the concrete in the spliced area so that the development stress between rebar can be highly maintained (Figure 3-5).

FIGURE 3-5 Spiral Confinement Longitudinal Reinforcement Splice Post-Tensioning Post-tensioning in the longitudinal direction pushes the stress at the joints into compression under service condition. The chances of developing cracks at the joints decrease. Longitudinal post-tensioning is typically provided after the transverse panel-to-panel joints are grouted and cured, but before the deck-to-girder connections are constructed. For simply-supported spans, a minimum prestress level in 150 to 200 psi is required to keep the joints in compression under
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service loads. For continuous spans, a minimum prestress level in 300 to 450 psi is needed for the same purpose (Issa, Idriss et al. 1995). AASHTO requires a minimum of 250 psi prestress throughout the joint. Practically, high strength threaded rods or strands can be used for posttensioning (Figure 3-6 and 3-7).

FIGURE 3-6 Post-tensioning provided by high strength threaded rods

FIGURE 3-7 Post-tensioning provided by Strands (the Skyline Drive Bridge in Omaha, Nebraska) 3.3.3 Panel-to-Girder Connections Early applications were not designed for composite action. These simple connections clamped the panels to the beams with a bolt and plate system. This ensured only that the panels would not be dislodged from the beams during subsequent construction operations. More recently, connections have been designed to transfer horizontal shear between the beams and slabs to make use of the efficiency of composite action. In most cases, a pocket is cast in the precast

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panel during fabrication. In some instances, the locations of these pockets are coordinated with those of shear connectors attached to the beams. For steel girders, grouped shear studs are used for composite action. For concrete girders, the stirrups protruding from the girder web are generally used, but dowels can be replaced with stirrups. Followings are the types of connection used. Shear Pocket Connections This connection emulates a cast-in-place slab-to-girder connection. Full composite action can be developed without the need for an excessive number of connectors.

FIGURE Shear Pocket Connection (Issa, Idriss et al. 1995) Bolted Connections The ducts for bolts are cast into the panels, and they align with the holes in the flanges of the steel girders. After the gap between the girder flange and panel has been grouted, bolts are connected through ducts.

FIGURE Bolted Connection (Issa, Idriss et al. 1995) Tie-down Connections This connection consists of mechanical clamps to attach panels to the girders. This connection does not provide full composite action, and experiences poor performance during earthquakes.
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FIGURE Tie-Down Connection (Issa, Idriss et al. 1995) Other connections In some studies, combined connections were introduced. As one of examples, headless studs are proposed with tie-down devices (Yamane, Tadros et al. 1998).

FIGURE Combined Connection (Yamane, Tadros et al. 1998) Currently, the maximum permitted longitudinal spacing of studs is 24 inches (AASHTO 2004). For precast deck panels, it can be uneconomical when many numbers of pockets are required to make composite action. So extending this spacing needs to come up with economical panels. As one of the examples that utilize larger stud spacing, US Interstate 39/90, Door Greek Project used 48 in. spacing of clustered studs. 3.3.4 NCHRP 12-65 System In NCHRP 12-65 study, researchers studies new types of full-depth precast deck panel systems (Badie, Tadros et al. 2006). The proposed systems have the following characteristics.

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Longitudinal post-tensioning is not needed No needs for proprietary products The precast panels can be fabricated off the construction site or at a precast yard The grouted areas are minimized and kept hidden as possible No overlay is required

Two types of precast deck panels were studied. One has the transverse pretension with two layers of reinforcement rebar. The other panel does not include any pre- and post-tensioning systems and the design follows the Empirical Design Method. Both panels have only single layer of longitudinal rebar which is located in the mid section. The panels studied are 44 ft wide, 8 ft long, and 8 inches thick. Figure shows the sectional view of panels.

(a) Panel with Pre-tensioning

(b) Panel with Reinforcement rebar only FIGURE NCHRP 12-65 Panels In longitudinal direction, the splice length for reinforcement rebar is reduced by using Hollow Structural Steel (HSS) tubes. Research proposed two longitudinal connection details. The first detail requires threading a No.6 reinforcing bar, which extends about 7in. outside the panel to be installed, into the old panel, which results in a 6 in. bar embedment length.

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The second detail allows vertical installation of the new panels, where a NO.6 bar is embedded 11 in. in the HSS tube, in each of the mating joints. After a new panel is installed, a 24 in. No.6 long splice bar is dropped through a vertical slot, which results in an 11 in. splice length.

Panel-to-Girder Connection For precast concrete girders, a new connection detail is provided where clusters of three double head 1 in. studs are used. Also the clusters are spaced at 48 in., which is much wider than the current AASHTO Specification. Additional reinforcement was shown to be needed in the web of the girder to help reach the stud capacity and distribute the concentrated stud stresses.

FIGURE Grouped Stud connection to Concrete Girder Panel-to-Steel Girder Connection

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A new connection detail is proposed, where clusters of eight 1 in. studs at 48 in. spacing are used. HSS tubes or individual closed ties were shown to be effective in confining the grout surrounding the studs.

FIGURE Proposed Connection Detail between panel and Steel Girder. 3.3.5 Applicability of Precast Deck Panel in ABC Full-depth precast slabs provide the potential for significant time-savings over cast-in-place construction. They can be used on various geometric girder configurations, including skewed and curved girders. Table 3-1 summarizes the applications of precast deck panel for comparison. However, several disadvantages of full-depth precast deck have been discussed as followings: This system generally requires large amount of time-consuming grouting works Splice of longitudinal reinforcement needs complicated operation with significant time for construction Post-tensioning in the longitudinal direction may introduce congested reinforcement detail in the panel and complication at the site If additional cast-in-place concrete overlay is required, the whole construction schedule cannot save much time compared to the conventional construction method

The above problems were addressed in the NCHRP 12-65 research. The proposed systems from this study are efficient to be used in the ABC scheme. In the following study on seismic design
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of precast deck panel systems, therefore, panel geometry and connection details of this system will be adopted. The seismic study of precast deck panel will include such issues as the capability of developing diaphragm action in the deck and effects from vertical accelerations (Hieber, Wacker et al. 2005). TABLE 3-1. Applications of Full-Depth Precast Deck Panel (Badie, Tadros et al. 2006)
Bridge I-80 overpass in Oakland (replace outside lane only) I-84-Conn. Route 8 inter. (vertical 7% grade) Bloomington Bridge (pony truss) Woodrow Wilson Memorial Bridge Suspension bridge over Rondout Creek State California Connecticut Indiana Maryland Panel 14'-2" wide 61/2"~7" thick 26'-8" wide 8' long 8" thick 4' wide 46'-7" wide 10'-12" long 8" thick NY 9' wide 24' long 6"~7" thick Bridge over the Delaware River Bridge over Cattarougus Creek Batchellerville Bridge QEW-Welland River Bridge NY, Penn NY NY Ontario 7" thick 7" thick 8" thick 43'-6" long 7'-11" wide Dalton Highway Bridge Alaska 8 7/8" thick 27'-5 3/8" wide 4'-10" long 7" thick 7" thick 6.9"~9.8" thick 7500mm wide 1485mm long 5'-4" wide 16'-4" ~ 38'4" long 15" ~ 18" thick 7.9" thick 35' wide single stud/pocket single threaded/pocket stud studs leveling bolts studs epoxy shear keys P-to-G Connection shear pocket 4 studs/pocket leveling bolts shear pocket leveling bolts tie-down clips studs hold-down bolts stud bolts P-to-P Connection

PT-T PT-L (150 psi) grouted ocket PT-L (90 psi) PT-T PT-L PT-T V-shaped M-F shear keys

welded steel PL (long.) NO PT-T PT-L (435 psi at the int. pier) PT-T (2 layers) F shear keys NO PT-L Discont. Long rebar NO PT-L & PT-T NO PT-T & PT-L F-F shear keys PT-L

Pedro Creek Bridge Kouwegok Slough Bridge

Alaska Alaska

studs leveling bolts studs leveling bolts

Castlewood Canyon Bridge


Dead Run Structure (curve, 3.37% long. Slope)


leveling bolts

PT-T & PT-L F shear keys

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9/17/2013 7'-7" long 7.7" thick 7'-10" wide 9" thick 15'-7" or 20'7" wide 8' long Skyline Drive Bridge (NUDECK, 25 skewed) A through truss bridge New Hampshire Nebraska 7"~10" thick 5.9" thick 7' long 8' long 3 3/4" ~ 5 3/4" thick I-287 Westchester (curved with 32 skewed) US59 Tied Arch Bridge a bridge in the country road (45 skewed) Route 7 over Route 50 Door Creek Bridge (30 skewed) NCHRP 12-41 NCHRP 12-65 TX Utah NY 9" thick 41'-9" wide 60' wide 7' long 8 " thick 38'-3" long 15'-11 3/4" wide 8" thick 7'-10" wide 4" thick threaded stud 9 studs plastic shim packs 3 studs/pocket leveling bolts leveling bolts PT-L (200psi) F shear keys PT-T & PT-L PT-T & PT-L (200psi) F shear keys 4 studs/pocket

Bridge-4 on Route 75


3 studs/pocket leveling bolts studs & steel channel leveling bolts

PT-L F shear keys PT-L bolted conn. In Long. Direction PT-T & PT-L V-shaped F shear keys F shear keys NO PT-L rebar at tran. Conn. PT-T & PT-L F shear keys PT-T & PT-L no shear keys

Lake Koocanusa Bridge


Virginia Wisconsin

3.4 Superstructure comparison with steel girders 3.4.1 Precast Concrete Girders Since its introduction in the 1950s, the precast concrete beams have been used mainly for shortand medium span bridge construction. However, the conceived span length limitation of 160 ft of precast concrete beams restricts their applications to various bridge projects requires longer spans. Recently, several techniques provides the possibility to extend the span length so that the competition with steel girders provides many design options with improved aesthetics and reduced construction cost. The longer span is not directly related to the accomplishment of accelerated bridge construction, but recent consideration of accelerated bridge construction takes

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advantage of prefabricated bridge members and systems where precast concrete beams will stand out by their successful applications in past bridge construction practice. Types of Girders For girders that can span more than 100 ft, AASHTO and other agencies have developed standard girder sections. The girder types listed in the present study are limited to AASHTO/PCI Standard, New England Bulb-Tees, and girders developed at Washington DOT. The crosssectional shapes can be categorized into box, I-Beam, Bulb-Tee, Tub, and deck bulb-tee sections. In the following figure, the span lengths of girder types are compared. For some girders, the possible span length is increased by using high-strength concrete.

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Span (ft) BII-36 BIII-36 BIV-36 BIII-48 BIV-48 BT-54 BT-63 AASHTO BT-72 I-Beam (III) I-Beam (IV) I-Beam (V) I-Beam (VI) Deck BT-35 Deck BT-53 Deck BT-65 NEBT1200 NEBT1400 PCI NEBT1600 NEBT1800 W50G W85G W74G WF42G WF50G WF58G WF74G W83G W95G WBT62G U54G4 U54G5 U54G6 U66G4 U66G5 Washington DOT U66G6 U78G4 U78G5 U78G6 UF60G4 UF60G5 UF60G6 UF72G4 UF72G5 U72G6 UF84G4 UF84G5 UF84G6 W41DG W53DG W65DG


100 7

110 7 7 7 7 7 ksi 7










12ksi 12 7 12 12 7 7 12 12

12 7

7 7 7 6 6ksi 6 6 8.5 8.5 8.5 8.5ksi 8.5 8.5 8.5 8.5 8.5 8.5 8.5 8.5 8.5 8.5 8.5 8.5 8.5 8.5 8.5 8.5 8.5 8.5 8.5 8.5 8.5 8.5 8.5 8.5 6 6ksi 6ksi 8 8ksi 8 8

FIGURE Comparison of Span Ranges of Precast Concrete Girders

For AASHTO Standard products, the sectional shapes of box beams, I-Beams, Bulb-Tees, and Deck bulb-tee are demonstrated in the following figure (PCI 2003).
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(a) Box Beams

(b) AASHTO-PCI Bulb-Tee

(c) AASHTO I-Beams

(d) Deck Bulb-Tee

The cross-sectional shape of New England Bulb-Tee (NEBT) is as follows (PCI 2003). Bardow et al.(Bardow, Seraderian et al. 1997) summarizes the historical background of their development.

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FIGURE Typical Cross Section of New England Bulb Tee Girders Girders in Washington DOT can be categorized into tub girders, I-Girders, and Bulb-Tees as shown in Figure (WSDOT 2006).

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FIGURE Precast Concrete Girder Types from Washington DOT One of the important issue for long girders is the transportation issue. States generally restrict oversize and overweighted vehicles on their roadway network. The allowable girder weights vary from 120 kips to 200 kips. As extreme cases, 209 ft long and 260 kip heavy NU 2800 girders were transported in British Colombia, and 14 precast girders, 170 ft long and 190 kip heavy for each, were transported in Washington State (Castrodale and White 2004). However, the size and weight limitation on the roadway network from the fabrication site to the construction site are generally limited. Techniques to Increase Span Length In the research report of NCHRP 12-59, Extending Span Ranges of Precast Prestressed Concrete Girders, available techniques for extending spans are summarized (Castrodale and White 2004) They are categorized into four groups such as: Material-related options Design enhancements Methods utilizing post-tensioning Spliced girder construction Among them, the followings are restated here for further discussion. High-Strength Concrete. Application of High Strength Concrete (HSC) helps to extend span length by providing higher compressive and tensile stress limits at long-term and at transfer stages. As summarized in the table for several girder sections, the concrete strength varies from

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5000 psi to 12000 psi. Specifically, beams made with HSC exhibit the following structural benefits (PCI 2003): Permit the use of high levels of prestress and therefore a greater capacity to carry gravity loads. HSC allows the use of (1) fewer beans lines for the same width of bridge (2) longer spans for the same beam depth and spacing and (3) shallower beams for a given span For the same level of initial prestress, reduced axial shortening and short-term and longterm deflections For the same level of initial prestress, reduced creep and shrinkage result in lower prestress losses, which can be beneficial for reducing the required number of strands. Higher tensile strength results in a slight reduction in the required prestressing force if the tensile stress limit controls the design. Strand transfer and development lengths are reduced Increased Strand Size. The use of a larger strand at the same strand spacing improves the efficiency of pre-tensioned girders. The application of 0.6 inch-diameter strands provides longer span compared to the 0.5 inch diameter strands in the same section. Designers are rapidly implementing the use of 0.6-in.-dia strands. This will improve the efficiency of all beam shapes because each 0.6-in-dia. Strand provides 40 percent more pretension force for only a 20 percent increase in diameter. The AASHTO specifications allow the same center-to-center spacing for 0.6-in.-dia strand as for 0.5-in-dia strand. Modification of Standard Girder Section. This option includes increasing size of some part of the girder such as the depth of the bottom flange, the total depth of the girder, and the width of the top flange. The latter can be adopted to reduce deck forming, improve lateral stability of the girder, and increase section properties. Modification of Strand Pattern. This includes reducing strand spacing, bundling strands at drape points, and debonding strands to improve the performance. Methods using Post-Tensioning. Post-tensioning can be used in girders combined with pretensioning and/or in the deck over internal piers. Also staged post-tensioning can be scheduled to introduce compressive stress at the deck. In order to implement post-tensioning, the fabrication and construction become more complicated because of post-tensioning work, grouting, and additional reinforcing works with anchorage blocks. Two conclusions can be made regarding effective utilization of beams with high strength concrete (PCI 2003): The effective ness of HSC is largely dependent on the number of strands that the bottom flange can hold. The more strands contained in the bottom flange, the farther the beam can span and the greater the capacity to resist positive moment. It is recognized that designers do not always have a large number of choices of available beam sections. Nonetheless a beam that provides for the greater number of strands in the bottom flange is preferred when using HSC. Allowable stresses are increased when using HSC. If these limiting stresses cannot be fully utilized with 0.5-in.-dia strands, then 0.6-in.-dia strands should be used. The tensile

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strength of 0.6-in.-dia strands is nearly 40 percent greater than the capacity of 0.5-in.-dia strands. Higher concrete compressive strength at transfer allows a beam to contain more strands and increases the capability of the beam to resist design loads. To achieve the largest span for a given beam size, designers should use concrete with the compressive strength needed to resist the effect of the maximum number of strands that can be accommodated in the bottom flange. In NCHRP12-59 study, the influence of each option to lengthening bridge span length is compared based on comparative design of a simply supported span (Castrodale and White 2004). The elevation view and cross-sectional view of the bridge are as follows:

FIGURE Design Comparison For this given configuration, several options are used in the design of girder based on PCI BT-72 girder section. The following table summarizes the design variation.

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In this comparative design study, the resulting conclusions are: The greatest increase in maximum span length was obtained by casting the deck with the girder (case 13) and by adding post-tensioning to a pre-tensioned girder (case 15), with increases in maximum spans of 33.1 and 24.6 percent, respectively. The next most effective strategy for increasing the maximum span length was the combination of increased strand size with high-strength concrete (Case 12), with an increase in the maximum span of 16.9 percent. A significant finding was the increase shown in Case 12, where two strategies were combined to produce a much higher increase in maximum span than either strategy alone. In the comparative design among PCI BY-72, NEBT 1800, and AASHTO Type VI, it is also shown that the combination of high-strength concrete with 0.6-inch diameter strands is a effective method to increase the span length regardless of girder types. As discussed, providing continuity of precast concrete girders over the internal piers is one of the applicable methods to increase span length. Abstractly, two groups of techniques can be considered; post-tensioning and nonprestressed reinforcement. When post-tensioning is utilized, the precast girders are pre-tensioned only for the dead-load applied before continuity of girders is developed, and the added post-tensioning resists the other part of dead load and live load. One of the examples is shown in Figure (PCI 2003). Also the continuity can be provided by longitudinal nonprestressed reinforcement in the deck over the internal piers as demonstrated in Figure (PCI 2003). The similar design approach may be used for bridges adopting precast full-depth deck panels. The precast panels are post-tensioned over the piers or projecting reinforcement are spliced to provide negative moment capacity at the section.

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FIGURE Continuity Developed with Post-Tensioning

FIGURE Continuity Developed with Conventional Deck Reinforcement

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FIGURE Methods to Establish Continuity for Precast Deck Panels On-Going Researches One of the recent areas of research is the allowable design release stress limits for pretensioned concrete girders. The reasons for limiting stresses in the current provisions are to prevent cracking and excessive deflection or camber (Castro, Kreger et al. 2004). Additionally, the extreme fiber compressive stress limit is an indirect design check to prevent concrete crushing by the applied prestressing forces. The following is the current provisions for limiting stresses at prestressing transfer.

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Along with the primary purpose of estimating realistic stress limits for the related studies, the increased stress limits may help to increase span length of the precast concrete girders. Pang and Russell (Pang 1996) investigated the change of compressive strength of concrete cylinders subjected to sustained loads. Specimens were made from the high-early strength concrete mix and steam-cured. After curing, three different levels, 0.60 fci, 0.70 fci, and 0.80 fci, of sustained compressive stressed are applied. Compressive strength of the specimens do not show any detrimental effects due to sustained loads. Huo and Tadros (Huo and Tadros 1997) studied the allowable compressive strength of precast concrete beams, and compared results from linear and nonlinear analyses. In the linear analysis, the compressive stress limits are controlled, f < fci, whereas the strain limitation is controlled in the nonlinear analysis, < 0.003. This study showed the inherent conservatism of the linear analysis. For example, the member designed to have fci in linear method reaches only 0.90 fci, when the nonlinear analysis is used. As one of conclusions, the possibility of using 0.75 fci was proposed. In the following study on strength design of pretensioned flexural concrete members, Noppakunwijai et al. (Noppakunwijai, Tadros et al. 2001) investigated the appropriateness of strength design approach instead of allowable stress design at prestressing transfer. The strength reduction factors for the nominal axial capacity and the flexural capacity were proposed as 0.7. Also the corresponding loads factors were proposed as in Table.

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This study indicated the required concrete compressive strength differs with the different sectional shapes. For example, the required compressive strength for the PCI double-tee sections is larger than those for the NU inverted-tee sections. However, those values are always larger than 0.60 fci. In the experimental investigation, it was also shown that there are no adverse effects in measured camber and concrete strains with the elevated compressive strength which is measured 0.79 fci and 0.84 fci. This study was concluded with emphasizes on the possibility of substitution of the compressive stress limit requirement with the strength design approach at transfer. In order to understand the impact of elevated concrete stresses in pretensioned concrete beams at prestress transfer, analytical and experimental studies were conducted for the girder sections used in Texas DOT (Castro, Kreger et al. 2004). This study confirms some major conclusions derived from (Noppakunwijai, Tadros et al. 2001) including the limitation of allowable stress design approach, but addresses the possible problem to increase the tensile stress limit by
' observing cracks designed for 7.1 f ci . In this study, the beams were designed based on

nonlinear analysis, which result in higher compressive stress at transfer. The compressive stresses were equal to or higher than 0.75 fc In the analytical and experimental investigation, the camber in short-term and long-term did not show any sign of failure. As one of conclusions, therefore, it is pointed that pretensioned concrete beams can be subjected to elevated compressive stress levels at prestress release as long as long-term camber response is adequately predicted and values are accepted to the engineer. Also it was shown that the allowable stress design method typically overestimates extreme fiber compressive stresses at transfer.

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9/17/2013 Applicability of Precast Beams in ABC For the application in accelerated bridge construction scheme, the deck bulb-tee type precast concrete girders have been studied because the construction of girders and deck can be done without cast-in-place concrete works. The girders are connected longitudinally by grout-filled shear keys, mechanical fasteners, and/or transverse post-tensioning. For example, type type of superstructure was studied as a prefabricated precast concrete bridge system for the state of Alabama (Fouad, Rizk et al. 2006) as in the following figure.

FIGURE. UAB Precast Bridge System However, its use in heavy traffic areas has been cautioned because of the durability issues at the longitudinal joints (Hieber, Wacker et al. 2005). Cracking, over the longitudinal joints between girders, has been identified in the overlay on many bridges of this type (El-Remaily, Tadros et al. 1996; Badie, Kamel et al. 1999). The longitudinal joints should be designed for out-of-plane shear caused by wheel loads and inplane tension due to shrinkage of the slab (Stanton and Mattock 1986). So the design needs to consider not only shear keys but also possible mechanical connection to carry tensile stresses across the joints. The following is the standard mechanical connection configuration used by Washington State DOT.

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FIGURE. Standard Mechanical Connection Detail in Washington State Deck bulb-tee superstructure can be a viable option for accelerated bridge construction. The main advantage of this system is that girders also serve as deck. However, the poor performance of longitudinal joints limits its use for low traffic areas. In order to improve the riding quality of the bridge, the partial-depth precast deck system can be considered in the application. 3.4.2 Spliced Girders Spliced girders are a type of precast prestressed concrete girders, which spans over 160 ft by utilizing post-tensioning to the precast prestressed girder segments. Precast pretensioned beam segments are usually post-tensioned together at or near the project site and lifted as one piece onto final supports. In most cases, however, the precast segments are erected on temporary towers to span the full distance between supports. Then the segments are post-tensioned together, they lift off the temporary falsework and span between their permanent pier and abutment supports (PCI 2003). The following figure shows spliced girders used in simply-supported and continuous spans (Castrodale and White 2004). Castrodale and White (Castrodale and White 2004) summarized spliced girder bridges with their comparable cost-information.

(a) Simply-Supported Span

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(b) 2-Span Continuous Girder

(c) Three-Span Continuous Girder FIGURE Examples of Spliced Girders Spliced girders have several similarities with segmental box girders, and two constructions share the basic idea of making the entire span with smaller precast segments combined by posttensioning and grouting. In spliced girder construction, however, segments are much longer, connections between girder segments are generally cast-in-placed, and I-shape, bulb-tee, and Ubeams are preferred than closed box shapes (Castrodale and White 2004). It was recommended that the AASHTO LRFD Specifications should be revised to address the spliced girder clearly and appropriately not to confuse designers with segmental box girder construction. Types of Girders The beam segments used in a spliced girder can be pretensioned to resist self-weight. The typical spliced girder cross-sectional shapes are I-beam, open top trapezoidal box beams, and box beams. Sometimes, the combination of them, hybrid section, may be taken. The most popular shape is the I-beams because of their moderate self-weight, ease of fabrication, and ready availability (PCI 2003). In the following table, girders used for a spliced girder configuration in Washington State DOT (WSDOT 2006) and Nebraska (Tadros, Girgis et al. 2003) are summarized.

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TABLE. Types of Spliced Girders Sections

Span (ft) WF74PTG W83PTG W95PTG U66PTG4 Washington U66PTG5 DOT U66PTG6 U78PTG4 U78PTG5 U78PTG6 NU1100 NU1350 Nebraska NU1600 NU1800 NU2000 Agency
160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 330 340

9 ksi 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 8 ksi 8 8 8 8

The following figure shows the cross sectional shapes of precast post-tensioned spliced girders in Washington State. It is assumed that these types of girders are used with pier segments of which depth increases at internal pier section as shown in the previous figure.

FIGURE. Spliced Girders in Washington State For Nebraska University (NU) girders in the table, the possible span length is based on the researched configuration called haunch block system. In this system, the same section is used along the entire span length, but the haunch block is introduced at internal pier section. The following figure shows the concept of haunch block system.

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FIGURE. Haunch Block System in Nebraska As the trend continues toward continuous superstructures, the need becomes evident for optimum I-beam sections. The I-beam geometry should perform well in both the positive and negative moment regions. This is clearly a different goal from shapes that were developed specifically for simple spans. Simple-span beams generally have inadequate sections for negative moment resistance and have webs too thin for post-tensioning ducts. A minimum web width to accommodate the post-tensioning tendon ducts and shear reinforcement is required (PCI 2003). Construction Detail By the way of connecting segments at the site, two methods can be classified: splicing on the ground and in-place. As the main advantage of the splicing on the ground method, the major falsework is not necessary. This saves the cost of the falsework, and increases quality of the girder, because workers can easily access any part of the girder. However, this method requires large areas of fabrication next to the site. Generally, it is not easy to find or to prepare such space without much increase of cost, splicing in-place method has advantage on this aspect. Additionally, in-place splicing method does not require large capacity of transportation and lifting equipment. In-place splicing does require falsework to support segments temporatily during the operation of camber control and post-tensioning. So the axial stiffness of the

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falsework needs to be high enough to support the camber operation done by shimming or skrew jacking between the girders and falsework. Construction Sequence of Single spans The following figure shows one of the possible construction sequences of single span spliced girder (Castrodale and White 2004). Single span girders are made of two or more segments.

FIGURE Construction Sequence Stage 1. The temporary and permanent supports are constructed. Stage 2. The segments are placed on supports and braced.

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Stage 3. The deck slab is constructed. The splice joints are cast, tendons inserted in ducts and post-tensioning introduced, which complete the assembly of the girder. Before the splice joints are cast, the end elevations of the segments need to be carefully positioned to allow for calculated long-term deflection. This also impacts the aesthetic appearance of the profile due to camber in the beam. These elevations also determine the amount of concrete needed for the haunches. When the post-tensioning is applied, the full span, spliced beam cambers upwards and lifts up away from the temporary towers. The beam reactions that were being carried by the temporary towers are now carried by the spliced girders, so they must be considered in the analysis. Stage 4. Placing additional components and eliminate the temporary supports.

Construction Sequence of Multi Spans For continuous spans, the following figure shows one of the construction methods.

FIGURE. Construction Sequence.

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Stage 1. Construction of temporary and permanent supports, and placement of girder segments on supports. The pier segment is installed on the pier and adjacent towers and a connection is made to the pier. Ideally the pier connection should be one that allows for horizontal displacement of the beam at the time of post-tensioning. However, a fully integral joint can be utilized as long as the supports at the abutment allow for horizontal movement during post-tensioning operations. Placement of the first end segment creates moments in the pier segment and overturning effects on the tower and pier that must be evaluated. When an end segment is erected on the second span, the temporary overturning effect is eliminated. Stage 2. The splices are cast. Stage 3. A part of tendons are post-tensioned. Stage 4. The deck slab is constructed. Stage 5. The rest of tendons are post-tensioned, which introduces compressive stress on the deck. After the concrete in the splice has achieved the specified compressive strength and the post-tensioning tendons are stressed, the tower reactions must be applied as loads to the continuous two-span system as the beam lifted from the towers. Stage 6. Additional parts are constructed.

Vertical Splicing for Continuous Spans (Tadros, Girgis et al. 2003) For continuous spans, large negative moments and large shear forces at the negative moment sections are supported by haunched girder section of which web depth is increased (following figure (a)). Or the standard shaped girders can be combined with a separate precast haunch block as in figure (b).

(a) Haunched Pier Segment

(b) Vertial Splicing of Pier Segment

FIGURE. Comparison of Pier Segments The configuration of this girder system can be found in the previous figure. The connection between haunched block and I-girder is provided by 8 inch spaced shear connection. As shown in Figure ??, treaded rods from the bottom of the girder and from the top of the haunched block are arranged to provide shear transfer between two blocks. This space will be filled with a flowable concrete finally.

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FIGURE Connection Detail of Vertically Spliced Girder The advantages of this system can be summarized as: Lengthening the spanning length. Also increase the span-to-depth ratio for the cirder It is possible to completely eliminate the falsework, which results in lower cost. From aesthetic point of view, the improved span-to-depth ratio allows more pleasing appearance and clearance below the girder. Construction Issues System Optimization For continuous spans, the critical section is usually located at internal regions due to high moments and shear forces. In order to accommodate these large forces, the sections are generally deepened as discussed in the previous section. These heavier segments need more careful design, transportation, erection, and construction planning. The designers can utilize other options such as (PCI 2003): Placement of a cast-in-place bottom slab Gradual widening of a member toward the support Using higher concrete strength Adding compression reinforcement in the bottom flange The use of a hybrid system The use of a composite steel plate in the bottom of the bottom flange Minimum Web Width Web width should be as small as possible to optimize cross-section shape and minimize weight. Yet it should be large enough to accommodate a post-tensioning duct, auxiliary reinforcement and minimum cover for corrosion protection. LRFD Article states that the duct cannot be larger than 40 percent of the web width. This requirement has been traditionally used to size webs for internal ducts in segmental bridge construction. Historically, this requirement has not existed and has not been observed for segmental I-beams. When the NU I-Beam was developed
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in the early 1990s, a 6.9-in. web was selected to provide approximately 1-in. cover on each side plus two #5 vertical bars plus a 3.75-in dia. Pos-tensioning duct.

FIGURE Web Configuration for NU I-Beam The Washington DOT chose a web width of 7.87 in. for their new series of beams. The 4.33-in. duct can accommodate commercially available post-tensioning systems of up to (19) 0.6-in.-dia. Strands per tendon, or (29) -in.-dia. Strands per tendon.

FIGURE Web Configuration for Washington State I-Beam Most of the segmental I-beam bridges built using post-tensioning over the past four decades have not met the limit of duct diameter and web width. However, there has been no problems in the application to spliced girders (PCI 2003). Design and Fabrication Details Wet-cast splice are the standard practice in the beam splices. The ends of the beams at splices should formed shear keys, if required. Ducts for post-tensioning should be made of semi-rigid
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galvanized metal, high density polyethylene or polypropylene. They must be adequately supported within the beam during casting to maintain alignment and minimize friction losses. Grouting of Post-tensioning Ducts Grouting is mainly used to prevent corrosion of the post-tensioning tendons. Compared to corrosion issues of pre-stressing steel, the post-tensioning tendons are more vulnerable from the following point of view: Strands are exposed within ducts for several days prior to grouting. Ducts are grouted after the tendons are stressed, but the quality of grouting cannot be determined along the whole length of the tendon. Anchorages are encased after grouting, but may be subject to infiltration by water.

Even though there have been several occasions of corrosion, it is discussed that this is not the widespread problem and showed a very low frequency of occurrence (Castrodale and White 2004). As the causes of these problems, including those from the precast segmental box construction, were identified as; poor design details; low-quality materials; and improper grouting procedures combined with inadequate inspection practices. The recent developments in the Post-Tensioning Institute (PTI 2001), the American Segmental Bridge Institute (ASBI 2000), and several DOTs address this issue from various points. Deck Removal When the deck is in place when the beams are post-tensioned, it becomes an integral part of the resistance system. Removal of the deck for replacement may temporarily overstress the bare beam. This would require an elaborate analysis and possibly a complicated temporary support scheme until the new deck is in place. However, if properly analyzed and the economics are verified, there is no reason this approach should not be considered. Some states have avoided this issue by requiring designers to apply the post-tensioning in its entirety before the deck is placed (Nebraska 2001). An additional benefit of this single-stage post-tensioning is simplified scheduling and coordination of construction. However, there are significant benefits to multistage post-tensioning in terms of structural efficiency, compared with single-state posttensioning. A convenient option is to divide the post-tensioning into thirds: two-thirds applied to the bare beam and one-third applied to the composite section. This is demonstrated in the example of section 11.8. There are a number of benefits to this division. The deck is subject to compression that controls transverse cracking and extends its first life before it might need replacement. It may be desirable to apply all of the post-tensioning after the deck becomes part of the composite section. This case would be similar to the conditions of a segmental box beam system where the top flange is an integral part of the cross-section when the post-tensioning tendons are stressed. This solution in the US and abroad has proven to provide a deck surface of excellent durability, perhaps not requiring any provisions for deck removal and replacement. Post-tensioning Anchorages

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Post-tensioning anchorages require the use of end blocks, which are thickened webs for a short length at the anchorages. End blocks can increase production costs of beams considerably due to the need for special forms and forming anchorages during production. According to the LRFD Article, the end block length should be at least equal to the beam depth and its width at least equal to the smaller of the widths of the two flanges. The following figure shows one example of the end block. The anchorage zone is typically detailed using an end block that is the same width as the bottom flange and extends for a distance from the end of the beam of at least one beam height before a tapered section returns the cross-section to the width of the web.

FIGURE Post-Tensioning End Block Anchorage zones are designed to accommodate anchorage hardware with its associated special reinforcement and to provide adequate space for the reinforcement needed to distribute the highly concentrated post-tensioning force. Detail guidance for the design of anchorage zones is given in the PTI publication, Anchorage Zone Design (2000). Some research has indicated that a much smaller anchorage zone may be adequate. A research project by Tadros and Khalifa (1998) (Tadros and Khalifa 1998) The new details have been adopted and used on several projects in Nebraska and other area such as project shown in Figure 11.7-3. A paper by Ma, et al (1999) (Ma, Saleh et al. 1999), Breen, et al (1994) (Breen, Burdet et al. 1994). Post-Tensioning Losses Because of post-tensioning used in spliced girders, additional issues become active mostly related to the post-tensioning and its losses such as (PCI 2003): Losses in post-tensioning tendons. Additional sources of prestress losses must be considered such as friction and anchor losses
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The interaction of losses between pre-tensioned strands and post-tensioned tendons Time-dependent analysis. This method of analysis should take into account the effects of creep and shrinkage of concrete and the relaxation of pre-stressing steel The effect of post-tensioning to continuous beams. The method of analysis should properly account for post-tensioning, including secondary moments The effect of post-tensioning ducts on shear capacity

The method to evaluate the post-tensioning including its losses can be found in (PCI 2003) and (Collins and Mitchell 1997). For the interactive pre-stressing losses between pre-tensioning and post-tensioning, detailed and approximate methods were proposed considering the use of highperformance concrete for girder fabrication (Tadros, Girgis et al. 2003). These methods were based on the related study on pre-stressing losses in high strength concrete precast concrete girders (Tadros, Al-Omaishi et al. 2003). The study focused the possible changes on material properties of high strength concrete used in precast concrete girder as follows: prediction of modulus of elasticity, shrinkage, and creep of concrete, especially as they relate to the high-strength concrete methods for estimating prestress losses that would account for the effects of differential creep and shrinkage between precast concrete girder and cast-in-place concrete deck and for relatively high prestress levels and low creep and shrinkage in high strength concrete as indicated in the following figure.

FIGURE Stress versus time in the strands in a pretensioned concrete girder (Tadros, AlOmaishi et al. 2003)

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9/17/2013 Connection Detail A wide variety of joint details have been used for splicing between beams. The following figure shows some of the beam splice configurations used for I-beams. Most precast concrete beam splices are cast-in-place as shown in Figure a, b, and c. Cast-in-place splices give the designer more construction tolerances. These details use a sap width of from 6 to 18 or even 24 in. The space is filled with high-early-strength concrete. Detail a is not recommended, even when the end of the beam is roughened, because the high vertical interface shear generally requires a more positive shear key system. Detail d is discouraged because of the difficulty in adequately matching two pretensioned beam ends, especially when the beams are of different lengths and with different pretensioning levels. Detail e is used with continuous post-tensioning but is sometimes used when the designer desires to have an expansion joint in the bridge.

FIGURE I-Beam Splice Configuration Cast-in-Place Splice Cast-in-place, post-tensioned splices are most commonly used because of their simplicity and their ability to accommodate fabrication and construction tolerances. The segments are erected on flasework, the ducts are coupled at the same time as the concrete for the splice, or the deck slab may be placed at the same time as the concrete for the splice, or the deck concrete may be placed after the splice and following the first stage of post-tensioning. The following figure shows details of a cast-in-place, post-tensioned splice.
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FIGURE Cast-in-Place Post-Tensioned Splice Stitched Splice Stitched splice is used for connecting two girders by post-tensioning at the end parts only. The following figure shows one of detail of this kind of details. In this type of cast-in-place splice, the precast, pretionsioned degments are post-tensioned across the splice using short tendon or threaded bars. It should be noted that precise alignment of the post-tensioning ducts is essential for the effectiveness of the post-tensioning. If proper alignment is not achieved, considerable frictional losses can result. In addition, because of the short length of the tendons, anchor seating losses could be unacceptably large. End blocks are required at the spliced ends of the beams in order to house the post-tensioning hardware and provide the end zone reinforcement to resist concentrated stresses due to the anchorages. This type of splice may be suitable for long bridges where continuous tendon post-tensioning over the full length produces excessive friction losses.

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FIGURE Stitched Splice Match Cast Splice Match-cast segments were used in early applications of spliced beam bridges to eliminate the time and expense of cast-in-place joints. They are seldom used today. Match-casting of I- or other beam sections has significant challenges. Beams that are pretensioned and cast on a longline system, as most are, have continuous pretensioning strands that must be cut before these products are removed from the form. That operation is usually facilitated by the use of headers that form the ends of beams. The space between headers is used to cut the strands. Emulated match-casting has been used where a machined steel header provides precisely formed concrete surfaces. The header is precision-made in a machine shop to exacting tolerances. Installed in the casting bed, it has stubs to accurately position the ends of the post-tensioning ducts and access ports to allow cutting the strands that have been threaded through it. Other necessary details to consider include: (1) the coupling of post-tensioning ducts. This requires the forming of small recesses around the duct where it meets the header. (2) sealing of the coupling zone against leakage of post-tensioning grout (3) camber in the pretensioned beams that causes the ends to rotate. The rotation must be accounted for during fit-up of the beams at the joints.

FIGURE Match Cast Splice Application of Spliced Girder in Seismic Regions The spliced girders provide better structural systems for seismic design aspect because they generally consist of continuous spans, and because an integral connection between superstructure and substructure is usually established (Castrodale and White 2004). This aspect will be discussed in the substructure section, in particular, integral pier section.

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3.4.3 Segmental Box Girders Segmental concrete box construction is a method to construct bridge by adding segments utilizing post-tensioning techniques. Segments can be fabricated in cast-in-place method or can be pre-fabricated. The post-tensioning can be internal or external. For internal cases, ducts are embedded in the box. For external cases, ducts are usually located inside of the box. Recently, external types are preferred for the convenience in construction and management. The ducts can be grouted or not. If they are not grouted, i.e. unbonded, special cares need for corrosion protection. These applications can be found in the stay cables in cable-stayed bridges. In the early development of segmental concrete box girder construction, cast-in-place segmental method was used in Germany whereas precast segmental method was developed in France. Eugne Freyssinet in France built precast segmental bridges over the Marne River in the 1940s as the original form of the following precast segmental box constructions (Sauvageot 2000). Precast segments construction were introduced in U.S. by Jean Muller and further developed by him and Eugene Figg. As the balanced cantilever method has been modified and revised, progressive and span-by-span construction methods were developed and used widely. The vision that Jean Muller had was to create an industrialized construction system to build any type of bridge with standard modules, assembled with post-tensioning, without any cast-in-place concrete. So he developed the concept of match-cast joints, which allows the transverse slicing of concrete box girders and the assembly of such slices the segments in the same order as they were produced, without any need for additional in situ concrete to complete the bridge deck (Sauvageot 2000). In 1978, through the design of the Long Key Bridge in Florida, internal posttensioning was replaced by external post-tensioning. A number of other concepts invented by Jean Muller allowed further development of the modular construction concept: span-by-span assembly method (Long Key Bridge), progressive placing (Linn Cove Bridge), precast segmental construction of the piers, D6 cable-stayed segments (Sunshine Skyway Bridge), delta frames (James River Bridge, C&D Canal Bridge), etc. The other historically important development and current trend of the precast segmental constructions, including segmental box columns, can be found in (Figg and Pate 2004). As was stressed by the authors, precast concrete construction is a representative example of accelerated bridge construction. Structural Concepts In precast segmental construction, the precast segments are fabricated in the precasting yard, where the good quality of products can be continuously maintained. Fabrication of segments usually starts with the foundation construction at the site so that the time-dependent characteristics such as shrinkage and creep will not affect significantly at the construction stage at the site. Also the speed of assembling segments is fast enough that backlog of segments is required. This method is, however, more suitable for large project because of significant amount of initial investment for precasting yard, molds, lifting equipment, transportation, and erection equipment. Segments

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The span-to-depth ratio can differ from the construction method (Sauvageot 2000). Span-by-span method 1:25 (1:20 more preferable) Balanced Cantilever method 1:18 (constant depth) and 1:40 (varying-depth) Single-cell box girders are preferred for efficient casting and fabrication. The following figure shows the typical sections of a varying-depth box girder.

FIGURE. Typical Cross Section of a Varying-Depth Box Girder (Span length : 93 m) Match-casting technique is one of key ideas that make the precast box girder construction be possible and applicable. The essential feature of match casting is that successive segments are cast against the adjoining segment in the correct relative orientation with each other starting from the first segment (Sauvageot 2000). The segments are subsequently erected in the same order, and hence no adjustments are necessary between segments during assembly. The joints are wither left dry or made of a very thin layer of epoxy resin. Post-tensioning proceeds as early as practicable, since there is no need for joints to be cured. The strength of epoxy is not considered in the shear capacity calculation. Shear keys are usually used to support shear forces in combination with longitudinal post-tensioning. The post-tensioning can be internal or external. The size and the number of tendons depend on the dimension of the box cross section. For cantilever construction, two groups of tendons are used: cantilever tendons and continuity tendons. Cantilever tendons are used to process the balanced cantilever erection, whereas continuity tendons are used after the span are made continuous. The following figure shows the typical example of internal post-tensioning layouts.

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FIGURE Typical Post-tensioning Layout for Internal Tendons Construction Issues Construction Methods In Balanced Cantilever methods, the erection of the segments starts from piers that has been constructed by cast-in-place or precast construction. The erection continues to the mid span from the each side in a balanced manner so not to introduce significant construction load to the piers. The final closure joints at the mid span connects cantilever from adjacent piers. The following figure shows the main concept of this construction method.

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FIGURE Balanced Cantilever Construction Method The progressive construction is derived from cantilever construction, where segments are placed in a successive cantilever fashion (Sauvageot 2000). The excessive high moments will be developed in this method, and temporary supports are needs to compensate these moments. As a example, the following figure shows the case where a temporary tower and stay-cable are used.

FIGURE. Frburge Viaduct, France The Linn Cove Viaduct on the Blue Ridge Parkway in North Carolina is an excellent example to show the advantage of this construction method. In span-by-span construction, segments are placed and adjusted on a steel erection girder spanning from pier to pier, then they are post-tensioned together in one operation. This construction is efficient for projects having many relatively short spans.
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Corrosion problems Whereas in the case of pre-tensioning conditions to ensure durability are relatively easily met, in the case of post-tensioning the problems are more complex. In pre-tensioned beams the prestressing steels are almost always straight and tensioned between thee anchorages in a prestressing bed. Passivation of the steel to resist corrosion is provided by concrete poured directly around the prestresing steel in factory-controlled conditions, thus ensuring that they are surrounded by well compacted durable concrete. By contrast the steel tendons in post-tensioned concrete are in bundles located in internal or external ducts whose profile must be carefully controlled during construction. When the structural members have been cast, the steel strands are threaded through the ducts and tensioned by means of jacks reacting against the concrete, which is compressed in the process. When the required stress level is achieved the stresses and deformations are locked within the steel and concrete by mechanical anchorages. The steel tendon is then usually protected by injecting the duct with cementitious grout which also provides protection at the anchorage. During this demanding operation it is difficult to ensure that ducts are filled with grout, and problems may occur. This difficulty, in combination with construction joints and the poorer quality control of in-situ construction result in the protection of the tendons being less well controlled than in pretensioned concrete. This has been the root cause of many other problems. (HA, SETRA et al. 1999) Seismic Consideration For seismic design and related considerations, the AASHTO Guide Specifications for Design and Construction of Segmental Concrete Bridges (AASHTO 1999) allows precast segmental construction without continuous reinforcement steel across the joints. But the following requirements are added: For Seismic Zones C and D, either cast-in-place or epoxy joints are required At least 50% of the prestress force should be provided by internal tendons The internal tendons alone should be able to carry 130% of the dead load

For other seismic design and detailing issues, design literature provided by the California Department of Transportation (CALTRANS), for cast-in-place concrete box girders, can be referred (Sauvageot 2000). Compared to the bearing supported piers, integral piers have provided better seismic design. The integral pier can also be implemented, in particular, when the balanced cantilever methods are used. Following the practices used for cast-in-place structures in CALTRANS, the integral pier in the following figure can be utilized.
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FIGURE. Integral Pier for Precast Concrete Box Girders (Sauvageot 2000) When the span-by-span construction is used, the bearing-supported type is usually applied. For transverse direction, shear keys may be needed to provide proper level of performance. The following figure shows the bearingsupported type of pier.

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FIGURE. Bearing-Supported Pier Also the continuity of spans is very crucial for the seismic design. For bridges built by the balanced cantilever methods, the span can be separated at the mid span or at the contra-flexural points. So the expansion joints were initially located at the mid span for easiness of construction. But creep effects makes the tip of cantilever go down, resulting in unacceptable performance in service. When the expansion joints are located at the contraflexural points, this makes the construction following balanced cantilever rule very difficult. In the recent applications, the joints located at mid span are stiffened by steel beams across the joint to provide continuity. The following figure shows one of the applications.

FIGURE Joints at the Mid Span From the seismic design point of view, the mid span is more preferable position (Sauvageot 2000). The location of expansion hinges within a span and its characteristics, depends also on the stiffness of the substructure and the type of connection of the superstructure to the piers. The overall comparison on that is summarized in the following table.

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TABLE. Location of Expansion Hinges in Segmental Bridges (Sauvageot 2000)

A series of studies performed at UCSD addressed seismic design issues of precast box girders such as (Megally, Seible et al. 2002; Megally, Seible et al. 2003; Megally, Seible et al. 2003): The possibility of joint opening, in particular, combined with sliding between segments at the internal support regions where both high moments and high shear occur The rightfulness of the design rule of having at least 50% of internal tendons in AASHTO Guide Specifications and having mild steel reinforcement across segments in CALRANS practices In the experimental investigation, four different box girder sections were considered, varying the amount of internal/external post-tensioning and inclusion of continuous mild steel reinforcement across segments. The following figure shows these four different sections.

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FIGURE Cross Sections of Experimental Investigation The section was taken from the positive moment regions of the prototype bridge having 100 ft of three mid spans and 75 ft of end spans. Additional four specimens were prepared for internal pier regions which has the same cross sectional shape with heavier post-tension tendons. The conclusions from experimental and analytical investigations provide important information for design and analysis of precast box girder bridges. They include the followings: Opening of an epoxy-bonded joint occurs due to cracking of the concrete cover adjacent to the joint rather than opening of the epoxy bonded joint. The segment-to-segment joints can experience significant repeated openings and closings under reversed cyclic loading without failure even if there is no mild steel reinforcement across the joint. The mild steel reinforcement across segments at positive moment regions reduce the permanent deformations and joint openings. Also it increases energy dissipation capacity. Specimens containing internal tendons may fail by rupture of the tendons resulting in sudden failure mode. Specimen having 100% of external tendon showed better failure mode having gradual decrease of load carrying capacity. Ductility and displacement capacity can be substantially enhanced by use of 100% of external tendons. Also it decreases the permanent deformation and gap openings. Combination of internal and external tendons as in AASHTO Guide Specifications should be avoided. The contribution from the internal tendons was higher than the external ones, resulting in sudden failure mode governed by internal tendons only. At the high moment and high shear regions, vertical sliding between segments did not occur, even with wide joint openings and high shear forces. Flexural failure occurs first. The following figure shows the relationship between load and vertical displacement observed at the internal pier section.
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FIGURE Load vs. Vertical Displacement Relationship for High Moment and High Shear Specimens As direct results of these studies, the benefits of external tendons over internal tendons are recognized. Under seismic loading, internal and external tendons act quite differently. For internal tendons, the tendon can experience localized stress/strain due to cracking or gap opening. The external tendon can distribute such stress/strain along the tendons between supporting points such as anchorages and deviation blocks. The failure mode of specimens using internal tendons becomes the rupture of tendons due to concentrated stress/strain at the joints. Even though they can be contradicted with the current design practices, the following can be deduced from these studies. Use external tendons or internal tendons 100%, but do not mix them The mild steel reinforcement can be used across segments, but they do not affect the behavior significantly. Therefore, they can be omitted in the design. The epoxy-bonded segment connection works well. However, the dynamic analysis of segmental box girder bridge can be hard because of the gap opening/closing behavior. The finite element analysis as in UCSD studies is one method, but they may become too costly. Also if the failure is governed by local and global buckling, then the analysis results can be different from the real one. Recently, San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge East Bay Span and Otay River Bridge become two important applications of segmental box girder construction in California. The new San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge East Bay Span consists of four parts: (a) the Oakland landing or touchdown structures; (b) a segmental concrete box girder crossing called Skyway; (c) a selfanchored suspension (SAS) signature span; and (d) a series of multi-sell post-tensioned concrete box girder bridges providing the transition to the tunnel on Yerba Buena Island. The following figure shows the plan for this new span (Seible, Dazio et al. 2005).

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FIGURE. The New East Span of the San-Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge The Skyway consists of two parallel precast segmental box girder viaducts whaving a typical span of 160 m, grouped in frame units of three or four piers per frame, separated by expansion joints. The cast-in-place hollow rectangular reinforced concrete piers of the Skyway rely on confined corner elements for inelastic deformation capacity and on connecting structural walls for stiffness and strength. The piers in the Skyway are connected to superstructure monolithically. The Skyway was designed to develop plastic hinges at columns. In the longitudinal direction, plastic hinges may be developed at the top and the bottom of columns. In the transverse direction, only bottom of the column is the location that plastic hinge can occur. The following figures show the pier part and the expansion joint part of the Skyway under construction.

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FIGURE. Internal Pier Part of SFOB East Span

FIGURE. Expansion Joint Part of SFOB East Span The Otay River Bridge is a critical link in the South Bay Expressway in southern San Diego County (Soule and Tassin 2007). This bridge contains 12 spans, and the typical span length is 90.5 m. A twin box girders are constructed by the balanced cantilever method, and each box girder carries two traffic lanes. This bridge was designed in conformance with the Caltrans Seismic Design Criteria. The columns are hollow flared reinforced concrete, and each pair of columns is joined at the top by a cast-in-place beam or pier cap. Because of the bridge length, there are three expansion joints in order to accommodate displacements due to temperature and shrinkage. The expansion joint is located at the mid-span, and two steel beams are housed inside each concrete box girder. The beams are secured in internal diaphragms, and the supports are configured to allow transfer of moments and shears. The following figure shows the construction stage of this bridge.

FIGURE Otay River Bridge under Construction

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3.5 Substructure Generally, substructure includes abutments and piers. For abutments, the following figure shows a possible example of integral abutment (PCI 2006).

FIGURE. Assembly of Integral Abutment Prefabricated Components In the present discussion, however, only piers are considered. The possible configuration of concrete pre-fabricated pier structure is shown in the following figure. Therefore the following discussions address components such as precast bent cap and precast columns.

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FIGURE. Assembly of a Pier from Prefabricated Components 3.5.1 Precast Bent Cap In the development of precast bent cap, the Pierce Street Elevated project and the Red Fish Bay and Morris & Cummings Cut Bridges in Texas were the good opportunities to show its application to acquire economical accelerated bridge construction (Matsumoto, Waggoner et al. 2001). The following study and application focused the connection detailing that was reliable, cost-effective, and constructible. The following table shows several projects that used precast bent caps for accelerated construction, and majority of them is populated in regions of low or at most moderate seismicity in the US. In order to accelerate the construction schedule, utilizing precast columns and pier caps is one of the crucial factors (TRB 2003). Table. Accelerated Bridge Construction Project with Precast Bent Caps
State California Colorado New Mexico New York North Carolina Puerto Rico Tennessee Texas Texas Texas Texas Texas Texas Texas Texas Texas Location & name Richmond-San Rafael Bridge SH 66 Michell Gulch Mountain Valley Road over I-40, Tijeras Robert Moses Causeway Beaufort Morehead RR Trestle Baldority de Castro Avenue, San Juan Route 57 over Wolf River High Five Interchange US 75-IH635, Dallas County SH 36 over Lake Belton, Waco SH 66 / Lake Ray Hubbard Bridge, Dallas I-45 Pierce Elevated, Houston US 290 Ramp E-3, Austin SH 249/ Louetta Road Overpass, Houston SH 361 over Redfish Bay and Morris Cumings Cut US 290 Ramps G, and K, Austin US183 Austin 1999 2003 1999 2007 2004 2002 1997 1996 1994 1994 8 hours 1999 190 days 4 hours 11 months year completed 2004 2002 48 hours 45 days time of completion

Texas state Department of Transportation (TxDOT) is one of the leading agencies that advocates precast concrete pier cap system. TxDOT has adopted, improved and studied this system since the 1990s (Matsumoto, Waggoner et al. 2001; Wolf 2002). Texas has not only the largest

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population of this system but also the most advanced technique in this system (FHWA). From the nature of prefabrication, this system minimize traffic disruption; increase work-zone safety; reduces environmental impact; improves constructibility; and increases quality to come up with lower life-cycle costs (Freeby 2003). Considering the critical role of substructure to accelerate the construction schedule (TRB 2003), this precast concrete bent cap system provides a promising way to satisfy the current bridge construction motto, get in, get out and stay out. The success of this system in its applications has been made with the improvement of in-situ joint details between the bent cap and column(s). The two critical issues on joint details are constructability and durability. The joint should have simple and efficient details that can be easily built in the site. The complexity can overkill the benefit of this system. Matsumoto summarized pros and cons of three candidate connection details as (Matsumoto 2003): TABLE. Pros and Cons of Candidate Connection Details
Grouted Sleeve Coupler Pros Reliable behavior Grout Pockets Flexibility in shape and size Large tolerances Simple grouting operations Grouted Ducts/ Bolted Connection Minimal interference with cap reinforcement Acceptable tolerances Moderate difficulty in grouting operations Cap top anchorage


Tight field tolerances Higher level of skill Proprietary products

Potential congestion Large exposed top surface

Early application used grout pockets for its simplicity and convenience in construction. Redfish Bay and Morris & Cummings Cut Bridges (Nueces, TX) which is ended 1994 used grouted pocket detail to connect precast bent cap to precast prestressed trestle piles. The following figure shows details.

FIGURE. Grout Pocket in Redfish Bay and Morris & Cummings Cut Bridges

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In US290 Ramp G and K project at Travis county, precast inverted Tee Straddle Bent Cap is connected with two post-tensioned bars in each column and they are grouted (the following figure).

FIGURE. Precast Pier Cap in US290 Ramp G and K The Pierce Elevated Freeway Bridge Replacement (Houston) is one of the good examples that demonstrate the importance of precast pier cap in accelerated construction scheme. The 113 span bridge was replaced only for 95 days by utilizing precast bridge components efficiently. The precast pier cap was connected by four post-tensioned bars with existing concrete columns. The following figure shows the pier cap-column connections.

FIGURE. Precast Pier cap in the Pierce Elevated Freeway Bridge The experimental studies in the University of Texas at Austin provided detailed behavior of several connections used in Texas, which make it possible to use precast pier cap system in more systematic way in the following projects. In these studies, three candidate connection details, grout pocket, grout duct, and bolted connection were tested. Tests consisted of pullout tests, connection tests in laboratory, and large scale tests in the field conditions. The following figure shows each connection detail used in tests.

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FIGURE. Connection Detail in Experiments (Matsumoto, Waggoner et al. 2001) Two recent projects in Texas can be considered as the current state-of-the-art of precast bent cap systems. Lake Belton (Bell) bridge was considered as the direct application of study in the University of Texas on the one hand, and as design challenges for high-moment-demand cap-tocolumn connections on the other hand (Hyzak 2003). Figure 5 is an illustration of this bridge after completion. The connection detail followed grout duct detail where 16 #11 bars are used between hammer precast pier cap and cast-in-place column as in Figure 6.

FIGURE. Lake Belton Bridge

FIGURE. Connection Ducts and Bars in Lake Belton Bridge

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As other example, Lake Ray Hubbard Bridge (Rockwall) used the very similar connection detail as used in Lake Benton Bridge. In Lake Ray Hubbard Bridge 6 #11 bars were used for the connection, and 4 inch diameter corrugated galvanized steel ducts were used in the precast pier cap (Hyzak 2002). The following figures show the connection part of this bridge and its detail.

FIGURE. Connection in Lake Ray Hubbard Bridge

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FIGURE. Connection Detail in Lake Ray Hubbard Bridge Also there are examples that use precast pier cap with precast segmental columns. Dallas High Five in Figure 9 and Louetta Road Overpass (Harris) in Figure 10 are two of them. In particular, Louetta Road Overpass used high performance concrete and hollow column segments. The joints were epoxy-bonded and the columns are post-tensioned together vertically after all segments were in place.

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FIGURE 9. Dallas High Five

FIGURE 10. Louetta Road Overpass The precast pier cap system in Texas has shown its applicability to fulfill the accelerated bridge construction concept from several successful projects. However, its application to seismic region requires additional considerations that havent addressed before. Following the capacity design concept, the plastic hinges are expected to develop at the column bottom and/or the column top, where longitudinal rebars are usually disconnected in the grout duct connection detail. The reduced number of connecting bars is generally embedded in this part to connect the precast pier cap. Therefore, the confinement effects in the column-pier cap joint will be much reduced compared with conventional seismic joint detail. Also positioning splice in the plastic hinge region needs to be prevented. This discussion leads to the following detail (Figure 11) used in

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Getty People-Mover Guideway project in California (Josten, Painter et al. 1995) and proposed by Dr. Matsumoto as a candidate connection detail.

FIGURE 11. Connection Detail in Getty People-Mover Guideway The precast bent cap design and the ductility requirements of the joints between precast bent cap and columns were based on CALTRANS Bridge Design Specifications. The 16 longitudinal reinforcing bars from the column lined up with corrugated sleeves cast into the precast bent cap. After erection and alignment of the bent cap, the sleeves were grouted. The joint detail will be discussed later. This structure survived the Northridge earthquake in 1994. Another construction project using precast components in the bent cap is the Richmond-San Rafael Bridge Rehabilitation project in which a precast bent cap shell was used (FHWA 2004). In this rehabilitation project, new piles were installed outside the travel lanes of the existing bridge. Then precast prestressed bent cap shells were installed on the piles followed by concrete pouring and prestressing of the caps. The benefit of prestressing in the pier cap with the possibility of using precast components has been investigated (Priestley, Seible et al. 1996; Sritharan, Priestley et al. 1999). In the proposed force transfer mechanism at reinforced concrete joint, forces are transferred as is shown in the following figure.

FIGURE. External Strut Force Transfer Mechanism

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Considering the clamping action developed at node X in the figure, approximately 50% of column tension force can be transferred. When post-tensioning is introduced at the cap beam, a broader compression strut can be developed so that only nominal reinforcement is needed at the joint. This change is depicted at the following figures.

FIGURE The Change of Compression Field with Post-tensioning The experimental investigation of cap beam and joint indicated that post-tensioning significaltly enhanced cyclic behavior of partially prestressed and fully prestressed joints. Additionally, posttensioning provided less joint cracking, reduction of joint deformation, and reduction of a tension failure. The possibility of precast cap beams was also demonstrated in the study. The following figures show partially prestressed and fully prestressed joints used in the experiments.

FIGURE Partially and Fully Prestressed Cap Beam Joint

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3.5.2 Integral Piers In integral piers, girders are directly connected into the pier cap so that bearings are not used. Integral piers provide moment connection in the longitudinal direction under seismic loadings. Based on the responses to a questionnaire, Wassef et al. summarized the current practice of integral pier cap systems in (Wassef, Davis et al. 2004): (1) The main reason for using integral pier caps in the past has been to increase under-clearance and to avoid placing the pier caps at a sharp skew (94% of the cases). Enhancing seismic performance was cited in 33% of the cases; (2) Most integral pier caps (76%) are supported on single-column piers, 8% are supported on multi-column piers; (3) Most integral pier caps (90%) are made of concrete. The remaining pier caps are made of steel; and (4) The difficulties faced during construction of integral pier cap bridges included the congestion of reinforcement at the columns-to-pier-cap joint and the need for a substantial temporary shoring system. The configuration of integral piers is closely related with the type of superstructure. Integral piers have been used with conventional steel girders and prestressed concrete girders. However, their application in high seismic regions has not been active, even though their benefits in seismic responses. Studies have been performed to utilize the integral piers in high seismic regions such as Washington state (Hieber, Wacker et al. 2005). The proposed integral pier systems have two configurations: Cast-in-place emulation precast column and hybrid precast column. Cast-in-place emulation precast column contains only longitudinal reinforcing bars that extend from the top and bottom of the precast column. Hybrid columns, whereas, have connections between the precast concrete columns and cap-beam are achieved with mild steel deformed bars grouted or cast into ducts or openings, as well as unbonded prestressing strand. This system allows the proportion of mild reinforcing steel and unbonded prestressing tendon to be selected on the basis of the required response, either providing an increased re-centering ability or additional energy dissipation to limit maximum displacements.

FIGURE Cast-in-place Emulation Precast Pier System

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FIGURE. Hybrid Precast Concrete Pier System In two proposed systems, the columns are precasted. The detail of columns will be discussed in the next section. The CIP emulation system is expected to behave the same as ones from conventional CIP construction. So the plastic hinges at the top/bottom of the column are expected under seismic loadings. However, for the hybrid system where post-tensioning is utilized, the gap opening/closing behavior at the top/bottom of the column is expected depicted in the following figure.

FIGURE Expected Gap Opening/Closing Behavior of Hybrid System The so-called CIP emulation pier system can provide monolithic moment-resisting connections at the top and bottom of the column as Washington DOT requires. One of the recent applications of this pier system is shown in the following figure (Khaleghi 2005).

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FIGURE Precast Column on Spread Footing for a Prestressed Girder When precast bend cap is used, the following figure shows one of the proposed systems. The lower part of the bend cap is precast concrete component, and the cast-in-place concrete is used for the construction of diaphragm. This idea makes it possible to acquire monolithic pier system that the conventional seismic design concept can be applied with minor modification.

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FIGURE Precast Seismic Resisting Pier System For studying the applicability of spliced girders in seismic regions, Holombo et al. studied the behavior of integral pier part (Holombo, Priestley et al. 2000). In their study, two types of girders were considered: precast bulb tee girder and precast bathtub girders. The precast girders were integrated with cast-in-place bent cap and concrete column at the pier. Conceptually, the seismic design of integral bent cap system was done in four steps (Holombo, Priestley et al. 2000): (1) the column reinforcement is designed to resist the maximum plastic moment at overstrength at the bottom and the top of the column based on measured material strengths, (2) Stirrups in the bent cap-column joint region are designed to resist joint shear forces, (3) the column moments are extrapolated from the column-bent cap interface to the centerline of the superstructure. This moment was resisted by the bent cap through torsional mechanisms, (4) reinforcement in the superstructure was designed to resist column plastic moments distributed from the bent cap. Due to the torsional flexibility of the bent cap, the superstructure did not resist the column plastic moments uniformly along the width. The following figure shows the experiment specimens for cyclic loading tests.

FIGURE Cyclic Loading Test Specimens of Spliced Girders The results of analytical and experimental investigation showed that the plastic hinges were formed in the columns leaving the bent cap and superstructure essentially elastic under simulated seismic displacement cycles from experiments. Also it was pointed out that post-tensioning in the bent cap makes for a simpler and less congested joint detail.

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Patty et al. studied an integral pier structure combining steel superstructure with cast-in-place bent cap and concrete columns (Patty, Seible et al. 2001). The plastic hinge is designed to be located at the bottom of the column, maintaining the bent cap, girders and the interface between the bent cap and girders as the capacity protected components. This experimental work concerned the detail behavior of the bent cap as the capacity protected component. The following figure shows the prototype of bridge used in the experiment.

FIGURE Prototype Bridge used in Experiments In the experiments, stiffeners increased the maximum torsional capacity of the bent caps by approximately 20% in comparison with the unstiffened bents. A post-tensioned bent gave the most desirable performance in the elastic range due to its minimal cracking in comparison with the conventionally reinforced bent cap. The failure mechanism of all tests was in the form of a shear friction failure. This study showed that the concept of capacity design used for reinforced concrete bridges in seismic regions can also be applied to a steel plate girder superstructure bridge integrally connected to a single column concrete substructure with a concrete bent cap. Also NCHRP 12-54 investigated the use of steel girders supported on, and connected integrally to, steel box-beam pier caps (Wassef, Davis et al. 2004). The following figure shows the steel bent cap with concrete column used in the study.

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FIGURE Integral Steel Box-Beam Pier Caps The integral connection between the column and the pier cap was accomplished by extending the column longitudinal reinforcement through holes in the bottom flange of the pier cap into the pier cap compartment directly above the column. The compartment was filled with concrete which transfers the load from the pier cap to the column reinforcement. Two specimens were used: deeper girders and shallower girders. The deeper girders allowed the full development of the column longitudinal bars within the depth of the pier cap. For the shallower depth of the girders in the second specimen, the mechanical connections were provided. The failure of deeper girders was caused by the fracture of column longitudinal bars. The buckling was believed to have been caused by loss of confinement because of interaction effects between the steel cap beam and concrete column. For shallower girders, the failure is caused by the loss of anchorage in the connection region and fractured the mechanical connections. 3.5.3 Precast Segmental Columns There are two types of precast columns that are studied. One is the whole column that is discussed in the previous section in Washington State. The other is precast segmental columns, which is discussed in the present section. The implementation of precise segmental columns has been localized in low seismic regions as shown in the following figure, such as the state of Texas and Florida.

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1 13 12 3 14 4

PGA (% g)

10 11 9


Seismic hazard maps of conterminous U.S. (10% probability of exceedance in 50 years)

1. I-287 Cross Westchester Expressway Viaduct (NY) 2. C&D canal bridge (DE) 3. Varina-Enon Bridge (VA) 4. Linn Cove Viaduct (NC) 5. Seven mile bridge (FL) 6. Sunshine skyway (FL) 7. Mid-bay bridge (FL) 8. John T. Collinson Bridge (FL) 9. Louetta Road Overpass (TX) 10. Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport People Mover (TX) 11. U.S. Highway 183 Elevated (TX) 12. U.S. Highway 70 at Vail Pass (CO) 13. Victory bridge (NJ) 14. Colorado river bridge (NV)

FIGURE Distribution of segmental piers in the U.S. Some well-known examples include Seven Mile Bridge, Sunshine Skyway Bridge, Mid-Bay Bridge, John T. Collinson Bridge, in Florida and Louetta Road Overpass, U.S. Highway 183 Elevated, in Texas. There are also others in other states, such as Linn Cove Viaduct in North Carolina, C&D Canal Bridge in Delaware, Varina-Enon Bridge in Virginia, U.S. Highway 70 at Vail Pass in Colorado (Muller and Barker 1985; Billington, Barnes et al. 1999; Figg and Pate 2004), and more recently, Victory Bridge in New Jersey (ASBI 2004; NJDOT 2005) and Colorado River Bridge of Hoover Dam Bypass in Nevada (ASBI 2006). Photos of these bridges are shown in following figures. In regions of high seismicity, in particular, in the state of California, there has not been any application of segmental pier construction (FHWA 2006). One important reason to this is the limited knowledge on the seismic behavior of segmental piers, in particular, the seismic performance of the many segment joints in a segmental pier. Thus, this research will first examine the seismic performance of existing segmental piers and develop new segmental piers for seismic regions with emphasis on the detailing of segment joints.

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(a) Vail pass, CO, 1978.

(b) Seven mile bridge, FL, 1982.

Pier segments

(c) Linn Cove viaduct, NC, 1983. Figure 1.1.2. Photos of bridges using segmental precast piers

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Pier segments

(a) US 183 elevated in Austin, TX, 1997.

Pier Assembling

(b) Louetta Road Overpass, TX, 1998.

Pier Assembling

(c) Victory bridge, NJ, 2005. Figure 1.1.3. Photos of bridges using segmental precast piers

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Imagination of completed bridge

Pier segments

(a) Colorado river bridge - Hoover dam bypass (under construction), NV.

(b) John T. Collinson Bridge, FL.

(c) C&D canal bridge, DE.

(d) Sunshine skyway, FL.

(e) I-287 Cross Westchester Expressway Viaduct, NY.

(f) Varina-Enon Bridge, VA.

(g) Dallas/Fort Worth Airport, TX.

Figure 1.1.4. Photos of bridges using segmental precast piers

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Recently, some researches on seismic behavior of precast segmental pier columns have been carried out in the U.S. as well as other countries. Some studies emphasized the use of bonded prestressing tendons to enhance the durability and the lateral strength of the column as opposed to unbonded systems. Three examples of bonded systems are presented herein. Lin and Mo (Lin and Mo 2000) studied the cyclic behavior of segmental concrete columns with two rectangular hollow column segments. The bottom segment was cast in place with the foundation while the top segment precast and post-tensioned with the bottom segment. The hysteretic behaviors of the tested columns under cyclic loading have similar energy dissipation capability as that of a conventional column detailed for seismic regions. The energy dissipation in terms of equivalent viscous damping ratio for a conventional column detailed for seismic regions is normally around 20~25%. The tested columns have good hysteretic energy dissipation is mainly due to the fact that the construction joint was away from the plastic hinge region and strengthened by the post-tensioning tendons. Thus, the joint basically had little effect on the plastic behavior of the columns. In addition to the friction force, shear at the segment joint was transferred by reinforced concrete shear key or plain concrete shear key combined with fiberreinforced polymer (FRP) or steel jacket. No shear slip failure was observed during the testing. Mo et al. later studied another construction method, where the base column segment is precast with steel reinforcement protruded from the column base, having 90 degree bent design. After the concrete of the base column segment developed enough strength, the base column segment was then cast together with the foundation. This type of construction method also resulted in a hysteretic behavior similar to that of a conventional pier column. Arai et al. (Arai, Hishiki et al. 2000) investigated the cyclic behavior of a segmental pier column composed of four precast hollow rectangular column segments post-tensioned together. Steel tubes, which were continuous across the segment joints for enhanced shear transfer, were introduced in the prestressing tendon ducts. The proposed system exhibited relatively small residual displacement, high ductility and poor hysteretic energy dissipation capacity as opposed to conventional monolithic columns. Chang et al. (Chang, Loh et al. 2002) conducted large scale experimental studies on precast prestressed segmental columns with lateral cyclic loading. Each specimen consisted of a total of 10 rectangular hollow segments, as shown in the following figure. Each segment was 1 meter in height, as shown in the figure. The test results showed that the specimen with longitudinal steel reinforcement discontinuous at the segment joints, which is a typical feature of existing segmental columns in the U.S., exhibited a behavior with high ductility, low residual displacement upon unloading and low energy dissipation with a maximum equivalent viscous damping ratio of around 4~5%. The addition of longitudinal reinforcement crossing the segment joints can significantly increase the hysteretic energy dissipation, although the gap openings at the joints were still pronounced. The maximum equivalent viscous damping ratio can be increased up to around 13%. It is noted that, in Changs study, bonded tendons were used for segmental columns with longitudinal reinforcement crossing the segment joints.

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(a) Column specimen and test setup (b) Column segments Figure 1.2.1. Segmental column specimens (Chang, Loh et al. 2002) In addition to the bonded systems, some other researchers advocated the use of unbonded prestressing tendons to reduce the possibility of the yielding of the tendons, thus preserving the necessary clamping force after strong seismic event. Hewes et al. (Hewes and Priestley 2002) studied the cyclic behavior of segmental columns with unbonded tendons and the hinge segment encased in a steel jacket to enhance the ductility. The column segment is with circular solid section with a center hole for prestressing tendons. The following figure shows specimens tested.

FIGURE Precast Concrete Segmental Column

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The residual displacement of the column was minimal at the end of the tests. The observed equivalent damping ratios had an average value around 5-7%. It is noted that the shear was entirely transferred by friction at the segment joints and it was found that relative shear slip between column segments was not a problem. Chou et al. (Chou and Chen 2006) tested two unbonded segmental columns with all the segments encased in steel jackets under lateral cyclic loading. Yielding devices were attached to the bottom segment of specimen two for supplemental energy dissipation. As a results, the equivalent viscous damping was increased from around 6.5% to 9% before the fracture of the devices at 4% drift. Aiming at providing attractive and rapidly constructed substructure systems for short- and moderate-span bridges, Billington et al. proposed precast pier systems (Billington, Barnes et al. 1999) as shown in the following figure.

FIGURE Precast Segmental Pier System This system heads toward standardization of precast substructure systems. It is recognized that upon initial adoption of this approach the cost of a bridge using a precast system will be higher. Therefore, the substructure system must be developed with forms and details that can easily be standardized. With wide reuse, standardization will bring costs down over time and make a precast substructure system economically competitive with cast-in-place substructure systems for many bridge projects. The proposed system use both bonded and unbonded reinforcement. Unbonded vertical posttensioning is used to minimize residual displacements, and bonded mild reinforcement is used to provide energy dissipation capacity and to control cracking. The main advantage of the proposed system is that the proportion of unbonded posttensioning to mild reinforcement can be adjusted according to the emphasis placed on the control of maximum displacement (damping through mild steel) versus the control of residual displacement (posttensioning). Later revised system was proposed that can be utilized for seismic protection purpose (Billington and Yoon 2004). This new system examined the use of ductile fiberreinforced cement-based composite (DFRCC) in the hinge segment of segmental unbonded columns with lateral cyclic loading. Small scale tests were conducted and large-scale specimens
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were later fabricated and tested. It was found that the plastic hinge segment made of DFRCC exhibited finer, well-distributed cracking as opposed to those made of ordinary concrete. It was also observed that generally the specimens failed due to localized crack or excessive gap opening at the joint. The residual displacements of the specimens at the end of the tests were generally small. Yamashita et al. (Yamashita and Sanders 2006) conducted the shake table tests of segmental columns with rectangular hollow sections and unbonded post-tensioning tendons. The testing results showed that the column has little residual displacement. It is noted that the column failed due to the failure of the anchorage plates for prestressing steels. 3.5.4 Connection Details With plastic hinges formed at the top and/or bottom of the columns, nonductile failures in the bent cap should be prevented. In particular, the force transfer at the column and bent cap connection requires special attention as was observed in the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. Two distinct design methods are provided in NCHRP12-49, which are termed as implicit and explicit detailed approaches. The possibility of using transverse prestressing at the bent cap is also proposed to reduce required reinforcing steel. The AASHTO LRFD combined reinforced/prestressed concrete design provisions would appear to accommodate such approaches already. The reinforcement detailing for joint force transfer requires vertical, horizontal, and hoop reinforcement in the connection regions (NCHRP 2001). A similar discussion can be found in the Caltrans SDC (2004). As a result of damage to the cap beam-tocolumn integral connections, several bridges experienced significant damage in the Loma Prieta Earthquake (EERI 1990; Priestley, Seible et al. 1996). The splicing of longitudinal column reinforcing steel is another important issue in the present study, because a precast bent cap may need such splicing. AASHTO specifies that lap splices in longitudinal reinforcement shall be used only within the center half of column height. The spacing of the transverse reinforcement over the length of the splice shall not exceed one-quarter of the minimum member dimension. Also, full-welded or full-mechanical connection splices may be used, provided that not more than alternate bars in each layer of longitudinal reinforcement are spliced at a section, and the distance between splices of adjacent bars is greater than 450mm measured along the longitudinal axis of the column. Foundation to Columns The pier columns are connected to the pile cap as either pinned or moment connections. Pinned connection is only possible if the top of the column has moment connection with superstructure. As an advantage of pinned connection between the column and the pile cap, foundation forces are reduced compared to the moment connection. When two configurations are compared in Figure 3.*, the axial forces would be the same (Priestley, Seible et al. 1996). The moment and shear force of the pinned connection are less than those of the moment connection. For moment connection, it is possible to develop significant uplift at the left pile, which introduces large axial force at the right pile. In the moments and shear force diagram, positive moments increase at the

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right side of the column whereas large negative moments occur at the left side of the column. Also shear forces are larger, in particular at the column position. As a type of connections between precast column and foundation, a special type of temporarily support is proposed (Hieber, Wacker et al. 2005). The support at the bottom of the precast concrete column is embedded by cast-in-place concrete to provide the connection as is provided by conventional construction. The following figures show these connections for columns with mild steel only and for columns with combination of mild steel and prestressing.

FIGURE Footing-to-Column Connection for Reinforced Concrete Column

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FIGURE Footing-to-Column Connection for Hybrid Column Column to Bent Cap Detailed design requirements for bent caps and their connections to columns can be found in the Caltrans Seismic Design Criteria and NCHRP12-49 (MCEER/ATC 2003), in which capacity design concepts are adopted. Following capacity design principles, the structural response is dominated by inelastic flexural yielding of carefully detailed plastic hinges in columns. The detail requires significant amounts of closely spaced and well-anchored transverse reinforcement to enable high compression strains to be developed within the core concrete after spalling of the cover concrete (Priestley and MacRae 1996). In order to ensure the ductile flexural behavior, nonductile deformation modes should be inhibited. The typical nonductile failure mechanisms include shear failure and bond failure. For such nonductile failure mechanisms, an adequate margin of strength should be defined above that achieved by the designated ductile failure meachanism. This is the basis of capacity design. It is also possible to use precast concrete component only part of the bent cap. The bottom part of precast bent cap is used to support girders with precast column, and the upper part, which is acting as diaphragm, is constructed in cast-in-place concrete (Hieber, Wacker et al. 2005). As

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one of the proposed connection, the following figure show the configuration when prestressing tendon is used in precast concrete column.

FIGURE Column and Bent cap connection The longitudinal rebar of the column is inserted in the sleeve in the precast bent column (bottom part). Then sleeves are grouted to introduce firm connection. The upper part of the bent cap will be made as cast-in-place concrete after girders and installed. This type of connection is similar to those of Getty Museum and proposed by Matumoto.

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The followings should be included (Buckle, Yen et al. 2006) Hybrid moment frame in buildings have been designed based on the Displacement Based method for acquiring better displacement control in design. Because the R value for the pre fabricated structures not emulating cast-in-place construction, i.e. gap closing/opening, it is hard to apply the conventional force based method in seismic design. Therefore, the new Guideline based on displacement based approach us more suitable for design of precast structures of which different dynamic behavior can be expected. Displacement based design method for hybrid column (Wacker, Hieber et al. 2005). The current Washington State Department of Transportation Bridge Design Manual requires force-based analysis for all ordinary structures. The displacement-based method may be used for major bridge projects in regions of high seismicity (Khaleghi 2005) 4.1 Design Principles Performance-Based Design concept is adopted as a basic principle of seismic design of precast accelerated bridge construction. Compare performance based approach in NCHRP 12-49, Caltrans, and others in papers 4.2 Capacity-Based Approach In a capacity-based design, performance is controlled by elements that act as fuses, limiting the amount of force along the load path. Capacity protected elements should be design so that their

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failure cannot occur. Also the shear failure of fuse elements and capacity protected elements should be avoided. In design, two capacity targets are force capacity and displacement capacity. Acquiring well-behaved fuse elements is very important. Ductile columns, and others can be discussed. Check out how this approach can be fitted into precast accelerated bridge construction. 4.3 Force-Based Approach Compare force based approach in NCHRP12-49 and AASHTO 4.4 Design Procedures Design procedures are the procedure to determine members to resist such demands including detailing to support intended behavior under seismic events. 4.4.1 Conceptual Design Multicolumn bents with integral bent caps should be designed with a pinned connection between the columns and the foundations. Otherwise the foundations will be very large or the bent must be supported on piles to resist the column plastic moment A bridge with 2-meter-diameter columns, 2% longitudinal reinforcement, and fixed connections to the foundations usually cannot be designed with spread footings Large-diameter ductile elements like columns or piles should be reduced in size neat fixed connectors. It is difficult to design an effective fixed connection for the plastic moment of large-diameter bridge members Slab bridges should be supported on pile extensions with a pinned connection. Otherwise the thin slab cannot resist the piles overstrength moment. A standard bridge should be designed so as to have a fundamental period of 1-2 sec. in both the longitudinal and transverse directions. period is smaller : too much force period is longer : too much displacement To control the period on shorter bridges, the bents must be made to be more flexible in the longitudinal direction and stiffer in the transverse direction. During the past earthquakes, expansion joints have been responsible for numerous cases of damage or collapse. Bridge designs with end-diaphragm abutments without expansion joints however, the abutments can move into and away fro the embarkment When transverse joints are used. Ample seat width is essential Big seats are required primary to prevent unseating, and restrainers are backups Bridges with large skew angles have performed poorly during earthquake. Bridge design, with skew angles greater than 30 degree are not desirable. Capacity-protected elements such as the bent caps and superstructure may be more vulnerable and may yield before the columns on highly skewed bridges

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Bridge damage occurs to highly curved superstructure and eccentrically loaded structures such as interchanges. avoid small-radius curves without expansion joint outrigger bents should be avoided or design with pinned connections to prevent the large moments Superstructures with massive dead loads are a disadvantage and should be avoided Balanced mass and stiffness balanced bridges have demonstrated good performance, because less susceptible to outof-plane rotations and out-of-plane frame displacements the ratio of the stiffness of any two bents in a frame and of any two columns in a bent should be 0.5-2.0 The ratio of the stiffness of adjacent bents in a frame and adjacent columns in a bent should be 0.75 1.5 the ratio of the periods of adjacent frame in the longitudinal and transverse directions should be 0.7-1.4 to reduce the possibility of unseating or of pounding between frames. Short bents have a small displacement capacity and need to be isolated or make them have equivalent property RC Pier walls have large transverse plastic moments and shears. The adjacent elements cannot be capacity-designed. SO use multi-columns with sacrificial infill walls or use the foundation or bearing to be the ductile elements.

4.4.2 Element Design 4.4.3 Detailing

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The basic ideas of the seismic design of precast concrete bridge system can be classified into two approaches; Applying the seismic design philosophy and procedures for cast-in-place monolithic concrete structure based on the assumption that the precast concrete system emulates the behavior of monolithic concrete system Developing a new seismic design concept and procedure for precast concrete bridges based on different but preferable dynamic behavior of precast concrete system

Most bridge configurations utilizing precast concrete components result in the system that the same seismic design concept can be applied, which is the first case. Also the most available precast concrete based ABC concepts are based on the first concept. This is well-established such as (PCI 2006); In general, the design and details of precast concrete components for seismic forces should be consistent with cast-in-place concrete construction. However, there are bridge configurations that the current seismic design concepts cannot be applied reasonably, for example, the segmental columns. The gaps of the segmental columns will open before the development of plastic hinges at the column. Also in order to prevent gapopenings, the column needs to be designed as elastic, which may not result in preferable design. For those configurations, it is necessary to develop new seismic design concept in order to address these new dynamic behavior such as gap-openings.

Seismic analysis is for obtaining force and displacement demands for given excitations or spectra. 5.1 Seismic Analysis Methods linear dynamic analysis nonlinear dynamic analysis : push-over analysis 5.1.1 Linear Analysis 5.1.2 Nonlinear Analysis Nonlinear Time-History Analysis What kind of solver is available? What kind of software is used and developed? solver : the Hilbert-Hughes-Taylor, Newmark integration algorithm

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9/17/2013 Pushover Analysis Adaptive Pushover analysis (Papanikolaou 2005) 5.2 Seismic Design of Connections Deck Panel to deck panel Deck to girder Girder to girder (spliced girders) Girder to bent cap (integral pier) Bent cap segment (segmented) Bent cap to column Column Segments Column to Foundation

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