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The Fountainhead is a 1943 novel by Ayn Rand. It was Rand's first major literary success and brought her fame and financial security. More than 6.5 million copies of the book have been sold worldwide. The Fountainhead' s protagonist, Howard Roark, is an individualistic young architect who chooses to struggle in obscurity rather than compromise his artistic and personal vision. The book follows his battle to practice what the public sees as modern architecture, which he believes to be superior, despite an establishment centered on traditionworship. How others in the novel relate to Roark demonstrates Rand's various archetypes of human character, all of which are variants between Roark, the author's ideal man of independent-mindedness and integrity, and what she described as the "second-handers." The complex relationships between Roark and the various kinds of individuals who assist or hinder his progress, or both, allow the novel to be at once a romantic drama and a philosophical work. Roark is Rand's embodiment of the human spirit, and his struggle represents the triumph of individualism over collectivism. The manuscript was rejected by twelve publishers before a young editor, Archibald Ogden, at the Bobbs-Merrill Company risked his job to get it published. Despite mixed reviews from the contemporary media, the book gained a following by word of mouth and became a bestseller. The novel was made into a Hollywood film in 1949. Rand wrote the screenplay, and Gary Cooper played Roark.
1 Background 2 Publication history 3 Plot summary 4 Characters 4.1 Peter Keating 4.2 Ellsworth Toohey 4.3 Gail Wynand 4.4 Howard Roark 4.5 Dominique Francon 5 Main themes 5.1 Individualism 5.2 Architecture 6 Reception and legacy 6.1 Contemporary reception 6.2 Responses to the Rape Scene 6.3 Cultural influence 7 Adaptations 7.1 Illustrated version 7.2 Film version 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 Further reading 11.1 Publications 11.2 Foreign language translations 12 External links
Author Country Language Genre(s) Publisher
Early edition cover Ayn Rand United States English Philosophical novel Bobbs Merrill
Publication date 15 April 1943 Media type Print (Hardback & Paperback) 752 9780451191151
Rand began The Fountainhead (originally titled Second-Hand Lives) following the completion of her first novel, We the Living. While that earlier novel had been based partly on people and events from Rand's experiences, the new novel was to focus on the less-familiar world of architecture. Therefore, she did extensive research to develop plot and character ideas. This included reading numerous biographies and books about architecture, 
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"If this is not the book for you. In 1937 she took a break from it to write a novella called Anthem. and she edited the final manuscript to remove other allusions to him. has fallen from fame due to the fickle demands of society and his own caustic personality. and saying whatever he wants her to say. Ellsworth M. His work serves as an inspiration for Roark. One said it was a great book that would never sell. Roark chooses to leave the school.org/wiki/The_Fountainhead Page 2 of 9 . whose ideas had influenced her own intellectual development. Ogden responded by wiring to the head office. the other said it was trash but would sell well. the two engage in a battle of wills that culminates in a rough sexual encounter that Dominique describes later in the story as "rape". to avoid being "considered a 'one-theme' author". then I am not the editor for you. Toohey sets out to destroy Roark through a smear campaign he spearheads. which creates a public outcry." His strong stand got a contract for Rand in December 1941. which had published We the Living. Plot summary In the spring of 1922. He put her in touch with the Bobbs-Merrill Company. Knopf canceled her contract. he too moves to New York. liked the book. Keating has developed an interest in Francon's beautiful. Rather than indulge in traditional flirtation. There is an immediate attraction between them.  As her royalties from earlier projects ran out. breaking his engagement with Toohey's niece Catherine. He goes to New York City to work for Henry Cameron. has graduated with high honors. However."  It reached number six on The New York Times bestseller list in August 1945. Richard Mealand. A 25th anniversary edition was issued by New American Library in 1971. Knopf signed a contract to publish the book. who once was architecture's modernist hero. The quotes were not placed in the published novel. Macmillan Publishing. first working as a volunteer in the presidential campaign of Wendell Willkie. After leaving Cameron's employ. Dominique defends Roark. a popular but vacuous fellow student. author of a popular architecture column in the Banner . but when Rand was only a quarter done with manuscript by October 1940. a disgraced architect whom Roark admires. Roark is notified that a client is ready for him to start on a new building. over two years after its initial publication.The Fountainhead . Despite this. which shuns him and praises Keating. Dominique turns her entire spirit over to Keating. Rand also initially planned to introduce each chapter with a quote from philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche. Rand fired her agent and decided to handle submissions herself. In 1993. her boss there. That same year she also became actively involved in politics. agreeing with him. decided to reject the book. but he has trouble finding clients and eventually closes his office rather than compromise his ideals to win business from clients who want more conventional buildings. and Rand's agent began to criticize the novel. While Rand was working as a script reader for Paramount Pictures. Ogden's boss. he encounters Dominique. Archibald Ogden. a yellow press-style newspaper. Publication history Although she was a previously published novelist and had a successful Broadway play. Twelve other publishers had rejected the book. Chambers. Toohey manipulates Stoddard into suing Roark for general incompetence and fraud. every prominent architect in New York (including Keating) testifies that Roark's style is unorthodox and illegitimate. Bobbs-Merrill president D. but as Mimi Reisel Gladstein described it. Roark briefly opens his own practice. At the trial. she eventually decided that Nietzsche's ideas were too different from her own. Peter Keating. A recently hired editor. rejected the book after Rand insisted that they must provide more publicity for her new novel than they did for the first one. Rand's work on The Fountainhead was repeatedly interrupted.Wikipedia. architecture student Howard Roark is expelled from the Stanton Institute of Technology for refusing to abide by its outdated traditions. and he leaves without Dominique even knowing his name. Toohey. who works as a columnist for The New York Banner . but two internal reviewers gave conflicting opinions about it. she began to see more political meaning in the novel's ideas about individualism. Dominique pays Keating a visit and makes him a one-time offer of her hand in marriage. then attempting to form a group for conservative intellectuals. Initial sales were slow. sales "grew by word-of-mouth. and quickly ingratiates himself with senior partner Guy Francon. In 1938. the free encyclopedia 2/15/11 8:27 AM and working as an unpaid typist in the office of architect Ely Jacques Kahn. Meanwhile. Rand's intention was to write a novel that was less overtly political than We the Living. That evening.  As she developed the story.  Rand's agent began submitting the book to other publishers. is an outspoken socialist. whereas Keating's ability to flatter and please brings him quick success (despite his lack of originality) and earns him a partnership in the firm. Roark incorporates into it a naked statue of Dominique. As the first step. but their projects rarely receive recognition.wikipedia. who is covertly rising to power by shaping public opinion through his column and his circle of influential associates. a 50th anniversary edition from Bobbs-Merrill added an afterword by Rand's heir. By 2008 the novel had sold over 6. Leonard Peikoff. When Rand finally found a publisher. and it had been translated into several languages. He takes a job at a Connecticut granite quarry owned by Francon. offered to introduce her to his publishing contacts. Roark and Cameron create inspired work. Given full freedom to design it as he sees fit. Toohey convinces a weak-minded businessman named Hopton Stoddard to hire Roark as the designer for a temple dedicated to the human spirit.L. Roark continues to attract a small but steady stream of clients who see the value in his work. the novel was only one-third complete. While Roark is working in the quarry. temperamental and idealistic daughter Dominique. Dominique believes that greatness such as Roark's should never be offered to a public unable to appreciate it. http://en. she began doing freelance work as a script reader for movie studios. Rand had difficulty finding a publisher for The Fountainhead.5 million copies in English.  Several other publishers rejected the book. The Fountainhead was published in May 1943. takes a job at the prestigious architectural firm of Francon & Heyer. She fights Roark and persuades his potential clients to hire Keating instead. but Stoddard wins the case and Roark loses his business again. Despite an effort by some professors to defend Roark and a subsequent offer to continue at Stanton from the dean. including a new introduction by Rand. She also completed a stage adaptation of We the Living that ran briefly in early 1940. Cameron. hosting the dinners he wants. Keating accepts. developing a popularity that asserted itself slowly on the best-seller lists. Shortly after their encounter. and they are married that evening. who has retreated to her family's estate in the same town as the quarry. and decides that since she cannot have the world she wants (in which men like him are recognized for what they are) she will live completely and entirely in the world she has.
after which Wynand and Dominique are married.The Fountainhead . decadent forces of Communism and Socialism.org/wiki/The_Fountainhead Page 3 of 9 . Although Keating does have a conscience. but Wynand finally finds the courage to follow his convictions and orders his newspapers to defend him. shows the Wynand Building well on its way to completion. Keating does possess some creative and intellectual abilities. and knows it". and doesn't know it". who lives for himself and his own creativity. in a more subtle and complicated way. Keating celebrates the achievement of a partnership in Francon's office. Toohey is an unabashed collectivist and Rand's personification of evil (when speaking freely.while Roark goes off to work as a manual worker in a granite quarry. he only feels this way in hindsight.of Roark (4th section) and of Keating (1st section): Roark is expelled from the Stanton Institute while Keating graduates as the star student.who becomes the foil for Roark.) The first and fourth sections are structured as two parallel and contrasting biographies . When Roark returns from a long yacht trip with Wynand. The jury finds him not guilty and Roark wins Dominique. His willingness to build what others wish leads him to temporary success. and it is Wynand . who has finally grasped the nature of the "power" he thought he held.Wikipedia. but is everything that Roark is not. shuts down the Banner and asks Roark to design one last building for him. (Dominique Francon is presented as the perfect mistress for Roark. Roark is the man who was "as man should be". he finds that the Cortlandt design has been changed despite his agreement with Keating. so he asks for Roark's help in designing Cortlandt. the newspaper publishes a denunciation of Roark over Wynand's signature. The one sincere thing in Keating's life is his love for Catherine Halsey. But. who sets out to destroy others through guilt and altruism. He attends architecture school with Roark. consciously destroying greatness and valorizing the banal and trivial. fully expressing his ideas and vision while Keating feels nothing in the inauguration of the Cosmo-Slotnick Building. even Roark himself. which leads to his loss of the only thing he cherished right from his heart. The entire country condemns Roark. who rises from the poverty of his youth to a position of power and riches. The Banner's circulation drops and the workers go on strike. entering the site to meet Roark atop the steel framework. who writes a popular art criticism column. is Roark's antagonist. His lack of personal integrity assists his rise to fame and fortune. his mother." A brief epilogue eighteen months later. Ellsworth Toohey Ellsworth Monkton Toohey. Ellsworth Toohey. http://en. Gail Wynand is the "man who could have been". he initially refuses despite the fact that such an introduction would help his career. Peter Keating Peter Keating is also an aspiring architect. Wynand. but is stifled by his sycophantic pursuit of wealth over morals. is a quintessential example of his failure to stand up for his own convictions. and Roark and Wynand become close friends. Characters The novel is split into four sections: Keating. Roark seems doomed. with all the prominent architects of America gathered to welcome him . and doesn't allow his morals to influence current decision making. But Wynand uses his superlative talent not to create for himself.wikipedia. he pleads with Toohey for his influence to get the commission for the much-sought-after Cortlandt housing project. Wynand then buys Keating's silence and his divorce from Dominique. The home is built. Keating is "a man who never could be. is "the man who couldn't be. but doesn't know it". but. Keating's offer to elope with Catherine is his one chance to act on what he believes is his own desire. although Wynand does not know about Roark's past relationship with Dominique. and spends his time mainly on vicious office politics in order to sweep rival after rival out of his way. the free encyclopedia 2/15/11 8:27 AM To win Keating a prestigious architecture commission offered by Gail Wynand. Keating realizes he is a failure.who was kept offstage in the previous sections . which includes bullying and threatening to blackmail a sick old man and unintentionally causing his death. Roark feels wild exultation at seeing the Enright Building erected. Dominique agrees to sleep with Wynand. Wynand. The last scene follows Dominique (now Mrs. Roark).. who is portrayed as absolute evil. Wynand subsequently discovers that every building he likes was designed by Roark. Even by Roark's own admission. From the third section on. to contrast Toohey. The major characters exist as foils to Howard Roark who is Rand's image of the perfect man and. who helps him with some of his less inspired projects. indifferent to the opinions of others. to a lesser extent. He is subservient to the wills of others: Dominique Francon's father. but Wynand keeps printing with Dominique's help. Toohey. and Roark. Ellsworth Toohey's niece. who tempted Faust to destruction). the owner and editor-in-chief of the Banner . which is what leads to his demise. he lives solely off the support and condolence of others. Keating's career (and his life in general) takes a sharp downward turn. and oftentimes does genuinely feel bad after doing certain things he knows are immoral. Dominique arrives at that precise moment and offers to marry him for her own reasons. Keating goes to work in the big and prestigious office of Guy Francon. but to control others. Though she offers to introduce Keating to Toohey. which would help his career far more than a marriage with Catherine. At the trial. whose notion of success consists of flattery and manipulation. Roark goes to work in the rundown office of Henry Cameron in order to learn how to build . His biggest threat is the strength of the individual spirit enshrined in Howard Roark. so he enlists Roark to build a home for himself and Dominique. Over the course of the novel she must learn not to fear society and not to let its flaws undermine her integrity. Roark agrees to design it in exchange for complete anonymity and Keating's promise that it will be built exactly as designed. Peter Keating is "the man who couldn't be. "a big bromide" whose only good parts were secretly designed by Roark. presented as the complete antithesis of Roark. It is the only exception to his otherwise relentless and ruthless ambition. Roark asks Dominique to distract the night watchman and dynamites the building to prevent the subversion of his vision. His acceptance of Dominique's offer of marriage. His original inclination was to become an artist. but he rouses the courtroom with a speech about the value of ego and the need to remain true to oneself. Toohey represents the stifling. a skyscraper that will testify to the supremacy of man: "Build it as a monument to that spirit which is yours. He falsely styles himself as representative of the will of the masses.and could have been mine. he explicitly compares himself to Goethe's Mephisto. Now washed up and out of the public eye. the architectural establishment. Wynand is eventually faced with the choice of closing the paper or reversing his stance and agreeing to the union demands. and his acceptance of the offer and betrayal of Catherine ends the potential of romance between them. Keating knows that his most successful projects were aided by Roark. Rather than accept retirement. rather than pervert his ideas. in the spring of 1940. but his opportunistic mother pushes him toward architecture where he might have greater material success.a disciple rather than employee. He gives in..
He is eventually arrested and brought to trial for dynamiting a building he designed. get it destroyed and Roark discredited. She begins thinking that the world did not deserve her sincerity and intellect." he knows exactly why he corrupts Peter Keating. in your own way. Dominique Francon Dominique Francon is the heroine of The Fountainhead. Indeed.is a master schemer and manipulator who. just by having seen Roark's buildings. Toohey's early career parallels that of Joseph Stalin. However. a flaw which eventually leads to his loss of the love and friendship he truly cherished not from mind but heart. It no longer matters what might happen or what others think. Roark. the use of the ideal of altruism to destroy personal integrity. Dominique no longer cares what anyone thinks or does. Eventually. who had also trained for the priesthood in his young age . loving.who "never sees men. for the first time. and living in which she finds happiness. the use of humor and tolerance to destroy all standards. Lewis Mumford was also an initial inspiration. Hearst had his own dream house constructed in California. and transform it into an "institute for subnormal children". Despite these parallels. and her intelligence. that in which she sets the standards by which all will live in regards to any http://en. I can see it in your buildings". She initially believes that greatness. the free encyclopedia 2/15/11 8:27 AM Aiming at a society that shall be "an average drawn upon zeroes." Dominique is the daughter of Guy Francon. Furthermore. By the end of the novel.though Toohey's methods are much more subtle than those of the Soviet dictator.  The descriptions of the character also have much in common with her earlier writings influenced by the murderer William Edward Hickman. and the shrines are razed. Toohey has a good idea what kind of temple Roark would construct . can devise a gambit and predict many moves in advance. She is a thorn in the flesh of her father and causes him much distress for her works criticizing the architectural profession's mediocrity. not mitigated by others. Roark is an aspiring architect who firmly believes that a person must be a "prime mover" to achieve pure art. both real and fictional moguls sold out their empires. Peter Keating is employed by her father. Toohey sets Hopton Stoddard to hire Roark for the construction of his temple . Rather. As described in his biography.) Men will not work for money. no matter how good or bad the recognition may be. but for prestige. Toohey's methods throughout the book suggest that such a regime might be able to retain the forms of democracy. Howard Roark As the protagonist and hero in the book. much like Wynand.org/wiki/The_Fountainhead Page 4 of 9 . Having no true genius. multi-party elections and a free press. She lives her life for herself and no one else. In that. through self-defeating behavior. the approval of their fellows . but abandoned religion after discovering Socialism and considering that it better served his purposes. his success is dependent upon his ability to manipulate public opinion. as opposed to councils or committees of individuals which lead to compromise and mediocrity and a "watering down" of a prime mover's completed vision. It is widely believed that Rand modeled the character of Howard Roark after Frank Lloyd Wright. you are a profoundly religious man. because the happiness she finds cannot be taken away from her. but public polls") Toohey makes no mention of any overt dictatorship or coercive apparatus. This is put forward in one of his most memorable quotes: "Don’t set out to raze all shrines—you’ll frighten men. and no longer cares whether the world is worthy of her expression. with actual power held by Toohey-like "informal advisers". Roark rises from an unknown architect who was kicked out of school for "drawing outside of the lines". a highly successful but creatively inhibited architect. While Wynand shares many of the character qualities of Roark. He represents the triumph of individualism over the slow stagnation of collectivism." Rand used her memory of the British democratic socialist Harold Laski to help her imagine what he would do in a given situation. She has a new world now that is hers alone. is doomed to fail and will be destroyed by the 'collectivist' masses around them. the use of sacrifice to enslave. because the people around her did not measure up to her standards. It is only through Roark that her love of adversity and autonomy meets a worthy equal. Having seen Roark's buildings. Her new world. Finally. Ch. only forces" (Book II. Roark goes on to design many landmark buildings. it is the act of creating. but whose design was compromised by other architects brought in to negate his vision of the project. and he builds up a formidable power structure without resorting to an outright seizure of power or establishing a secret police apparatus. She eventually joins Roark romantically. insight and observations are above his.and even before Roark ever heard of Stoddard and his temple. The adult Toohey . rather than the results of these successes. the landmark Hearst Castle. She learns to love and create freely and passionately. Mr. For example.The Fountainhead . like a chess master. taking the businesses public in order to keep the newspapers from going under. Roark prevails and is vindicated by the jury. Rand states in her introduction that none of her characters were based upon real people.  In the biography of Toohey. she must learn to join him in his perspective and purpose. Toohey's mission is to destroy excellence and promote altruism as the ultimate social ideal. 6) . Toohey already planned how he would attack the temple once built. but an attempt to guess the thought of his neighbor (. nor poison her hope in her own ideals. Toohey is able to give his proxy Stoddard the arguments which would induce Roark to undertake the job: "It doesn't matter if you don't believe in God. Bowing to none. and explains his methods to the ruined young man in a passage that is a pyrotechnical display of the fascist mind at its best and its worst. even when frankly describing the nightmare world which is his ultimate aim ("A world where the thought of each man will not be his own.not judgment.wikipedia. These strengths are also what she initially lets stifle her growth and make her life miserable. described by Rand as "the woman for a man like Howard Roark. Toohey had already in early childhood developed a talent for subtly manipulating his parents and elementary school class-mates in order to gain power over them. Dominique Francon eventually learns not to let a flawed society and misled zeitgeist inhibit her creative and emotional expression and drive. such as Roark's.and without having ever spoken to Roark. however. but before she can do this... Enshrine mediocrity. British socialist Harold Laski was one of Rand's primary inspirations for the character of Ellsworth Toohey. it is mentioned that in his younger age he aspired to become a clergyman.Wikipedia. She starts out punishing the world and herself for all the things about man which she despises. Hearst was also known as the father of the yellow journalism. Roark rails against convention. With a powerful speech condemning "second-handers" and declaring the superiority of prime movers. Gail Wynand Gail Wynand is a powerful newspaper mogul who rose from a destitute childhood in the ghettoes of New York City to control the city's print media. Rand describes Wynand as "a man who could have been. which Wynand is known for in The Fountainhead." It has been speculated that Wynand is partially based on real-life newspaper tycoon William Randolph Hearst since Hearst himself started by taking over his father's newspaper and spread from there.
" Rand sent DeCasseres a letter thanking him for explaining the book's individualistic themes when many other reviewers did not. properly understood. She chose architecture for the analogy it offered to her ideas. Main themes Individualism Rand indicated that the primary theme of The Fountainhead was "individualism vs. Keating practices in the historical eclectic and neo-classic mold. a residence he designed in the 1930s.the first of Roark's designs to be built . it "was one. but Rand dismissed many of them as either not understanding her message or as being from unimportant publications. a columnist for the New York Journal-American . mirroring the eclectic directions. credits these works with his final "conversion" from socialism to what he called "an older American philosophy" of libertarian and conservative ideas. a large fountain. later. and she asked that Wright design the sets for the movie based on the novel. Roark's individuality eulogizes modern architects as uncompromising and heroic. is a virtue. despite the fact that it was born in the 1930s. and that selfishness. It is about one man against the system. has referred to Howard Roark as his “first architectural mentor. appropriately. is worthy of her beautiful mind and heart because it belongs to her and no one else. the novel is also considered an important expression of Rand's entire philosophy. mirroring Modern architecture's trajectory from dissatisfaction with earlier design trends to emphasizing individual creativity..cantilevered over the edge of a cliff in a descriptive image reminiscent of Wright's famous Fallingwater in Pennsylvania. wrote of Roark as "an uncompromising individualist" and "one of the most inspiring characters in modern American literature. Rand was a great admirer of Wright's architecture. He follows and pays respect to old traditions.. not in politics but in men's souls. current at the turn of the twentieth century. collectivism. although it was written during World War II. and to architecture. and is shared on her terms alone. She also commissioned Wright to create a summer home for her. and willingness to adapt. As historian James Baker described it. and writers have credited its importance in shaping their political philosophy. http://en. because the happiness she finds cannot be taken away from her. that in which she sets the standards by which all will live in regards to any association with Dominique. Roark searches for truth and honesty and expresses them in his work.wikipedia.  A number of negative reviews focused on the length of the novel. Objectivism. Rand."  The year 1943 also saw the publication of The God of the Machine by Isabel Paterson and The Discovery of Freedom by Rose Wilder Lane. claimed that Roark's character was based on Wright. first. but it was never built.  Nader Vossoughian has written that "The Fountainhead. However. objectivist and uncompromising ideals. Rand and her husband also visited Taliesen at Wright's invitation. Peter Keating and Howard Roark are character foils." Benjamin DeCasseres. resemble those of Wright: a notable example being the "Heller House" . you will not be able to read this masterful book without thinking through some of the basic concepts of our time. a friend of Wright's. The Fountainhead has been cited by numerous architects as an important inspiration for their work. she avoided direct discussion of political issues. a claim both Rand and Wright denied." Reception and legacy Contemporary reception The Fountainhead received extremely mixed reviews when it was released. A common speculation is that Roark was inspired by American architect Frank Lloyd Wright. such as one that called it "a whale of a book" and another that said "anyone who is taken in by it deserves a stern lecture on paper-rationing. and. " The Fountainhead hardly mentions politics or economics. and it does not permit other matters to intrude. Frank O'Connor.The Fountainhead . front and center in the life of every architect who was a modern architect. founder of the San Francisco Institute of Architecture. such as Fallingwater. Wright himself wrote to Rand highly praising the novel. Wright's design featured. However.. That is.org/wiki/The_Fountainhead Page 5 of 9 .  Rand's descriptions of Roark's buildings were inspired by the work of Frank Lloyd Wright. Nor does it deal with world affairs. in part. beautifully and bitterly.Wikipedia. The most that may be suggested is that some of the descriptions of Roark's buildings.  The New York Times' review of the novel named Rand "a writer of great power" who writes "brilliantly. has shaped the public’s perception of the architectural profession more than perhaps any other text over this last half-century. Her new world."  Apart from scenes such as Roark's courtroom defense of the American concept of individual rights. in the book Goff on Goff .”  According to renowned architectural photographer Julius Shulman. He is uncompromising when changes are suggested.  There were other positive reviews. architect Bruce Goff. Architect Fred Stitt." Other negative reviews called the characters unsympathetic and Rand's style "offensively pedestrian. especially in the context of the ascent of Modern architecture.”  and noted architect Frederick Gibson has named the novel as his major inspiration. the free encyclopedia 2/15/11 8:27 AM longer matters what might happen or what others think. Lane and Paterson have been referred to as the founding mothers of the American libertarian movement with the publication of these works. for example.  Journalist John Chamberlain. Architecture Rand dedicated The Fountainhead to her husband. including its political implications. the "fountainhead" of creativity. Dominique's terms as well as those with the same individualistic." Yet. the price he asked for doing so exceeded the studio's budget." and it stated that she had "written a hymn in praise of the individual. it was Rand's work that "brought architecture into the public's focus for the first time. It provided an appropriate vehicle to concretize her beliefs that the individual is of supreme value. despite the many differences between them." and he believes that The Fountainhead was not only influential among 20th century architects.. He accommodates the changes suggested by others. even when the building's typology is a skyscraper.
" which she suggested is largely subliminal sexual metaphor. Atlas Shrugged . Rand agreed. it has received relatively little ongoing critical attention. Against Our Will." and cites that reading The Fountainhead as an undergraduate was his first encounter with the philosophy. some consider The Fountainhead to be Rand's best novel. 1945. Jimmy Wales. Andrew Bernstein wrote that although there is much "confusion" about it. Film version Main article: The Fountainhead (film) In 1949. Rand was approached by King Features Syndicate about having a condensed. although analyses of both the literary and philosophical aspects of the novel by a dozen academics and scholars have been collected in Essays on Ayn Rand's The Fountainhead (2006).  Adaptations Illustrated version In 1945. which was used with minimal alterations. and Kent Smith as Peter Keating. She called Rand "a traitor to her own sex". Ephron writes that she decided upon re-reading that "it is better read when one is young enough to miss the point. "our problem is to find those topics that arise clearly with The Fountainhead and yet do not force us to read it simply through the eyes of Atlas Shrugged . Journalist Nora Ephron has written that she had loved the novel when she was 18 but admits that she "missed the point. for portraying women as wanting "humiliation at the hands of a superior man".  Rand denied that what happened in the scene was actually rape. Susan Brownmiller. philosopher Douglas Den Uyl described The Fountainhead as relatively neglected compared to her later novel.The Fountainhead ."  Wikipedia co-founder.  Barbara Grizzuti Harrison suggested women who enjoy such "masochistic fantasies" are "damaged" and have low self-esteem. denounced what she called "Rand's philosophy of rape". Susan Love Brown said the scene presents Rand's view of sex as "as an act of sadomasochism and of feminine subordination and passivity". an appeal that led historian James Baker to describe it as "more important than its detractors think. illustrated version of the novel published for syndication in newspapers. there is always someone influenced by The Fountainhead." However. edited by Professor Robert Mayhew." the one to which he "returns. and said.  Both Bernstein and McElroy saw the interpretations of feminists such as Brownmiller as being based in a false understanding of sexuality. she "disliked the movie from beginning to end. the free encyclopedia 2/15/11 8:27 AM Responses to the Rape Scene One of the most controversial elements of the book is the "rape scene" between Roark and Dominique. including movies. [ citation needed] The name and motto of the Fountainhead Café. although not as important as Rand fans imagine. Warner Brothers released a film based on the book. were influenced by the novel. Raymond Massey as Gail Wynand. Although Rand wrote the screenplay. a typical expression of the novel's continuing and often deeply personal impact on many readers can be seen in Oscar-winning actor Michael Caine. acting and other elements.wikipedia. he also writes that when he asks his students which books matter to them. has described himself as “Objectivist to the core." A Village Voice columnist has called it "blatantly tendentious" and described it as containing "heavy-breathing hero worship. starring Gary Cooper as Howard Roark."  Comedian Dennis Miller has identified Howard Roark as his "favorite character in literature."  In contrast. Rand said. the descriptions in the novel provide "conclusive" evidence that "Dominique feels an overwhelming attraction to Roark" and "desires desperately to sleep with" him. Despite its popularity.  While Rand scholar Mimi Reisel Gladstein found elements to admire in Rand's female protagonists. a New York City coffeehouse. would be "a dreadful crime. such as philosopher Mark Kingwell."  The book has a particular appeal to young people. who named his daughter "Dominique" for the heroine of The Fountainhead. The 30-part series began on December 24. A true rape. In an essay specifically explaining this scene. in her 1975 work on sexual assault."  Allan Bloom has referred to the novel as being "hardly literature. who described The Fountainhead as "Rand's best work—which is not to say it is good." Defenders of the novel have agreed with this interpretation." one having a "sub-Nietzschean assertiveness [that] excites somewhat eccentric youngsters to a new way of life." Among critics who have addressed it. http://en.org/wiki/The_Fountainhead Page 6 of 9 . and who reports that the novel is a "favorite. and ran in over 35 newspapers. which were provided by Frank Godwin. she said that readers who have "a raised consciousness about the nature of rape" would disapprove of Rand's "romanticized rapes". and has been referenced in a variety of popular entertainments.Wikipedia. television series and other novels. provided that she could oversee the editing and approve the proposed illustrations of her characters. one cannot help thinking it is a very silly book. but also enjoyed the experience. referring to it as "rape by engraved invitation" because Dominique wanted and "invited" the act. Cultural influence The Fountainhead has continued to have strong sales throughout the last century into the current one. Patricia Neal as Dominique Francon. Feminist critics have attacked the scene as representative of an anti-feminist viewpoint in Rand's works that makes women subservient to men. Otherwise. Individualist feminist Wendy McElroy said that while Dominique is "thoroughly taken". there is nonetheless "clear indication that Dominique not only consented". The film was directed by King Vidor." complaining about its editing. Assessing the novel's legacy for The Legal Studies Forum.
Michael. In Mayhew 2006. The Atlas Society. 26. e.Wikipedia. 32. p. The Atlas Society.asp) .atlassociety. 39.org/publications/thefreeman/article. 54–66 ^ Branden 1986.asp. 289 ^ Harrison. 114–117 ^ Stitt. 2010. Fred. http://www. 12. Regnery. 2003)" (http://www. 19.g. 57 ^ Essays on Ayn Rand's The Fountainhead by Robert Mayhew ^ Burns 2009. 17. p. 2. 8. 631 Page 7 of 9 27. p. p. 1985. Regnery. "Ayn Rand: The Woman Who Would Not Be President". 7." 100 Voices: an Oral History of Ayn Rand . 33. 42 ^ need citation here ^ Baker 1987.org/wiki/The_Fountainhead . p. 52 ^ Burns 2009. ISBN 0-671-22062-4. ^ Burns 2009. 22 ^ Brownmiller.asp?aid=3345) . Isabel Paterson. 16. 37. Life Without Buildings. 54–56 ^ Burns 2009. ^ Gladstein 2009.The Fountainhead . 80. 31. Milgram.org/frank-lloyd-wright-and-ayn-rand-0) . 86 ^ Den Uyl 1999. http://fee. Retrieved November 23. pp. p. the free encyclopedia 2/15/11 8:27 AM See also Architecture Capitalism Ethical egoism Individualism Libertarianism Objectivism Rational egoism Romantic realism Notes 1. 13. In Gladstein & Sciabarra 1999. 28. p.com/archives/000028. Scott. 24. "Rose Wilder Lane. in Mayhew 2006.wikipedia. 122 ^ a b Pruette 1943 ^ Berliner. Retrieved November 23. 22. 2010.atlassociety. "The Fountainhead from Notebook to Novel".. p. p.html..html. McGraw-Hill. p. "Ayn Rand’s “Heroic” Modernism: Interview with Art and Architectural Historian Merrill Schleier" (http://agglutinations. "Julius Shulman. "Wright and Rand" (http://www. 18. 1982. Michael S. ^ a b Burns 2009. ^ McConnell. 5. pp. 63–65 ^ Brown. Peter.. 3. 20.org/site/PageServer?pagename=about_ayn_rand_aynrand_timeline) . Nader. Jim (May 1996). 2010. 117–119 ^ Powell. Branden 1986. 15. Retrieved November 23. pp. 10. "Architecture Blogs Take on The Fountainhead" (http://lifewithoutbuildings. 13–17 ^ Britting 2004. 75 ^ Gladstein 1999. Retrieved 2009-10-18. 84-85. 4.aynrand. Barbara Grizzuti. 74–75 ^ Gladstein 1999. 21. 170–171 ^ Gladstein 1999. 11. ^ ""Artists And Art Works Inspired By Ayn Rand"(June 15.worldofatlasshrugged. 25. ^ Vossoughian. New York: Simon and Schuster. p. p. "Howard Roark and Frank Lloyd Wright". 40.com/tas/links. http://lifewithoutbuildings. Retrieved 2010-11-10. in Mayhew 2006. Designing With Systems Series. http://www. 35. 9. pp. see also. pp. ^ John Chamberlain. 2010. Designing Buildings That Work . 77–82 ^ Rand 1995. 136. New American Library. http://en. agglutinations. 87. 69 ^ Burns 2009.aynrand.net/2009/05/architecture-blogs-take-on-the-fountainhead. A Life with the Printed Word . John Chamberlain. pp.org/publications/the-freeman/article.org/site/PageServer?pagename=about_ayn_rand_aynrand_timeline. ^ Burns 2009. 29. p. 36. 23. ^ a b c Berliner.org/frank-lloyd-wright-and-ayn-rand-0. p.asp?aid=3345. p. Reprinted in Gladstein & Sciabarra 1999. "The Fountainhead Reviews". p. dedication. 34. p. 11 ^ Burns 2009.com/tas/links. Susan (1975). 14. p. Susan Love. p.html) . Shoshana. 51 ^ see.com/archives/000028.com/. 155 ^ Burns 2009. pp. "Psyching Out Ayn Rand". 1982. pp. 68 ^ Burns 2009. 38. 6. http://www. ^ Reidy. http://agglutinations. 27–28 ^ Rand 1995. In Gladstein & Sciabarra 1999. 30. 171 ^ Branden 1986. 41 ^ Gladstein 1999. 43 ^ Burns 2009. 12 ^ "Timeline of Ayn Rand's Life and Career" (http://www.html) . A Life with the Printed Word . p.worldofatlasshrugged.net/2009/05/architecture-blogs-take-on-thefountainhead.136. Ayn Rand Institute. p. pp. Retrieved October 31. 2010. pp. pp. p. and Ayn Rand: Three Women Who Inspired the Modern Libertarian Movement" (http://fee.
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