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Measures of Central Tendency: Categories or scores that describe what is average or typical of the distribution Mode=category or score with

the highest frequency of percentage in distribution Largest # or proportion of cases fall in mode/ not necessarily category with the majority Used for nominal variables and is the only measure that can be used with nominal MEAN y x x= N 1. x = mean 2. = frequency 3. y = value of each variable 4. N= # of observations Most widely used and best known measure of central tendency (average) and is typically used to describe interval ratio variable (age/income/education) Only for IR level because involves addition and division (only level that provides #s that can be added or divided) Mean for frequency table 1. Multiply freq by value for each row 2. Add up totals for each row 3. Divide by total freq for the table Unlike mode or median, incorporates all scores in distribution. If subtract mean from each score and add up all differences, it will always =0 Every score figures into mean so is sensitive to extreme scores (disproportionately affected by outliers) Median is not and mode so mean shouldnt be used in these cases Add up all the scores together and then divide by the # of scores

MEDIAN When N is ODD N+1/2 When N is EVEN N+1/2 tells the two numbers the median is between Take value +value/2= median

Score that divides distribution into 2 equal parts so that half is above and half is below Represents the EXACT middle of distribution Can only be used with ordinal or interval ration variables (scores can be at least rank ordered) Can be used to compare groups

Special case of a percentile score at or below which a specific percentage of distribution falls Response associated with middle case *Remember must order categories or scores first (lowest to highest or highest to lowest) ** If data is ordinal, theres no need to average 2 middle scores isnt appropriate because it simply falls between two middle values. Q1 Must first find position of value at 25th percentile Multiply N by .25 which gives the values the 25th percentile is between value 1 + value 2/ 2= Q1

Q3 Same but multiply by .75 instead of .25 IQR Subtract Q1 from Q3 VARIANCE Average of squared deviations from the mean

sy=
2

(y - y)2 N -1

STANDARD DEVIATION

(y - y)2 N -1
STANDARD (z) SCORES The # of Standard deviations that a given raw score is above or below the mean Y -Y Z= Sy Finding area between mean and positive Z score 1. Looking for a range from the mean to a value 2. Convert value to a Z score (value minus the mean and divided by the standard deviation) 3. Look up Z score in the chart (Column A) 4. Convert the proportion (.000) to a percentage= 0%

Finding the area between the mean and a negative Z score


1. Looking for a range from the mean to a value 2. Covert to a Z score (which turns out negative)

3. The is symmetrical on both sides so a negative area doesnt exist so use the positive of the Z score in the standard normal table in column A 4. Convert proportion to a percentage

Finding the area between 2 Z scores on the same side of the mean
1. 2. 3. 4. Looking for value between two numbers (percentage between value A and value B) Find Z scores for both values Look up in Z score table To find the area between two value that are above the mean SUBTRACT the smaller number from the larger number 5. This is percentage between these two values

Finding the area between 2 Z scores on the opposite side of the mean
1. Looking for value between two numbers (percentage between value A and value B) 2. Find Z scores for both values 3. Look up in Z score table 4. Look up areas between these 2 Z scores and the mean 5. Add the two areas together 6. Convert to a percentage Finding the area above a positive Z score OR below a negative Z score 1. Looking for percentage between high values and low values 2. Convert value 1 to a z score and look up in column C 3. Convert value 2 to a z score and look up in column C

Finding a z score bounding an area above it 1. Looking for raw score that bounds the top X% of distribution 2. Make X% into a proportion 3. Look for the percentage converted to a proportion (decimal) in column C 4. Then take value in Column A 5. This is the z score 6. Convert z score to a raw score 7. X + z score (standard deviation)=raw score 8. Raw score= area that bounds upper X% of distribution Finding a z score bounding an area below it 1. Looking for lower percentage of distribution=X% 2. Convert percentage to a proportion (decimal) .X 3. Look in column C of z score table for .X 4. Then take value from column A which is the z score (negative because on left side) 5. Convert Z score to raw score

6. Mean + a score times standard deviation Finding percentile rank of score higher than the mean 1. Raw score is X and can to calculate the percentile 2. Convert raw score to z score 3. Find area beyond Z (column C) 4. Subtract area from 1.00-value from column C 5. Result = proportion of scores less than X 6. Finding percentile rank of score lower than the mean 1. Raw score= X which is less than mean 2. Convert to z score 3. Find area beyond z (column C) 4. Multiply by 100 to get a percentile Finding raw score of percentile higher than 50 1. We need the Xth percentile so where is the cutoff 2. Find area associated with percentile= x/100=.x 3. SUBTRACT area from 1.00 to find area above and beyond percentile rank 1.00-x 4. Convert z score to a raw score

Finding raw score of percentile lower than 50 1. What about the Xth percentile below the mean 2. Find area BELOW the percentile X/100 3. Find the z score associated with this area (column C) BUT REMEMBER that this is a negative Z score since it is less than the mean so Sy is negative -.X 4. Convert z score to raw score