THE GENIUS OF ANDREA MANTEGNA Source: The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, New Series, Vol. 67, No.

2, THE GENIUS OF ANDREA MANTEGNA (FALL 2009), pp. 4-64 Published by: The Metropolitan Museum of Art Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/40588545 . Accessed: 15/09/2013 09:15
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THE GENIUS OF ANDREA MANTEGNA
Andrea eldest son, 15,1506, September Mantegna's sent off a missive to the marchese of Francesco, Francesco himself for Mantua, Gonzaga,excusing nothaving written sooner. The reason, he explained, wasthat thepreceding at sevenin theevening, hisfather, the Sunday, 's great courtpainter Andrea Gonzaga Mantegna (fig.1),had "Andbefore died. theendcame," wrote Francesco withwellhonedsycophancy, "witha marvelous of he presence mind, asked after and lamented absence your Excellency greatly your in Gubbiovisiting marchese wasaway hissister, theduch[the essofUrbino], andnotbelieving that he wasaboutto die,he to commend him to you and to enjoinedus two brothers to takeup withhimsomething that is entreat yourlordship to us: ... thatyourlordship, to important always generous those who truly serve willnotforget theservice ofsuch you, a man,rendered forfifty and that to and us, years, grieving of all honor will show and favor and deprived good,you your in all and causes." just support equitable Francesco for favors. As was,ofcourse, Mantegna pleading wellhe might, sincehisfather hadleft serious debts that had somehow to be settled. In doingso,he wasfollowing thelead forAndreaMantegna had served three givenby his father, of rulers and Ludovico, Federico, generations Gonzaga - andthey Francesco hadnotonlysupported himwitha stinumerous financial difpendbuthad alsoseenhimthrough ficulties. There was,however, an added complication. The - unlike Francesco's brother Ludovico preceding year younger Francesco a courtier rather thana painter (thoughby all - haddisgraced accounts Francesco wasa mediocrity) himself ofthemarchese's serone ofthemosttrusted byhumiliating the most vantsand,"underthe coverof religion, although manin theworld," had uttered calumnies irreligious against others and evenbadmouthed the marchese. Though in his seventies and no longerin good health, old Mantegna had swallowed hisfamous and Francesco Gonpride approached Isabella on behalf ofhisson, and d'Esté, zagas wife, "weeping forbreath and so crestfallen thathe seemedmore gasping deadthan alive." Takenabackat hiscondition and desirous at all coststo havehimcomplete theworkhe had in handfor herprivate Isabella declared herself to helpthis study, ready
1.Funerary monument ofAndrea with bronze Mantegna, portrait bust on a porphyry disk in a frame ofIstrian stone. H. ofbust 18V2 in.(47 cm), diam. ofroundel in.(70 cm).ChapelofSaint 27V2 theBaptist, ofSant'Andrea, Church Mantua John

2. ChapelofSaint theBaptist (Andrea John Mantegna's funerary of Church Mantua Sant'Andrea, chapel),

man of "incomparable virtueand highest merit." But the marchese instructed hiswife that shecouldtellMantegna that "we wishalways to honorhisvirtue, butwe do notwishhis sonto haveeither theoffice as [we granted him]or ourfavor he is unworthy ofit." How Mantegna resolved this matter is notaltoultimately butitwasonlyone oftheissues that clear, gether preoccupied him in the years on his leadingup to his death.Foremost mind wasthematter ofraising 200 ducats to endowanddecoratea funerary in the chapelto whichhe had gained rights in Mantua(fig. Churchof Sant'Andrea 2). Mantegna clearly attached an importance to thechapelthat wentwellbeyond theprayers forhis soul thatwouldbe said at the altar. The a landmark ofRenaissance architecture andthemost church, in the city, had been designed in emulation of magnificent classical Roman models Alberti. byLeon Battista (Mantegna, who must haveknown Alberti had designed an engravwell, to commemorate in 1472.) the foundation of the church ing The Church ofSant'Andrea housed a precious relic ofChrist s bloodsaidto havebeengathered attheCrucifixion whenthe Roman soldier sidewithhislance.In Longinus pierced Jesus' had managed to secure ofthefirst 1504Mantegna patronage the obligation chapel on the northside,but thisentailed

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compares Mantegna courtpainter ofAlexander theGreat. indicalater. special meaning attached to Mantegna. go to courtto sever their ties. His pretense as a teacher ofthelatest innovations in painting.to raise to endowanddecorate it. 3) and TheFamilies ofChrist (fig. Cardinal MarcoCornaro. byMantegna butin all likelihood he had calledupon theexpertise of the and bronzefounder Gian Marco Cavalli. Mantegna a prodigy. wereonlycarried out some ten tions. in to do forthepatrician Cornarofamily previously agreed with this turn of Francesco Venice.(The altarpiece andthemasterful planned therisenChrist thatthe Sienesepainter-sculptor Vecchietta in 1476for created thechapel he hadconstructed for hisown church of SantaMaria dellaScala have tombin thehospital butthechapelitself has not. and thatin any shefound ofcash. eye wholegeneration ofartists. tureundertaken forCornaro. outstripped artistic but he had a keen for talent and trained a abilities. and clever but otherwise second-rate prising painter by the nameof Francesco he did not hesitate to Squarcione. Casting Mantegna decided to sellto Isabella hisprizeRomanmarble bustofthe which he knewshecoveted. Few artists fameas relentlessly as Mantegna. phyry intentionally evokes Roman models." painter Mantegna had a firm senseofhisownworth. which. Forhispart.198. It was later to havebeenmodeled andcast believed himself. and when he felthe had learned was. hadbegunlifeas a tailor Squarcione and climbedthe social ladderin Padua by establishing a foryoungstudents who drewfrom an workshop-academy of plaster castsand drawings of ancient and modern array works ofart.1).She tookpossession event herself short of thebustonlya month before death. insisting. of generosity. the Introduction to theCult of is now in theNational at Romethat London. Unhappy enlisted theaid ofhisbrother. becometheir court painter. Mantegna's So it was aboveall to meetthe financial for obligations father's that their Francesco and Ludovico funerary chapel now turned to themarchese for to sell Mantegna permission some of the paintings thatwere stillin the studio.whichhe began cycleoffrescoes Ovetari in theChurch ofthe 1448in theChapelofAntonio In 1463 another Eremitani there. were chapel was notthefirst Renaissance artist to planhis Mantegna its but his is own funerary and chapel prepare decorations. against disk with a carved marble surround. Such was the high-handed diplomacy in question to bearwhenthework wasbyan artist of brought caliber. Also commanders. dominated mounted a porby thebronzebustthat.In an attempt themoney he he triedto renegotiate thepriceof a workhe had needed. military displayed theGonzaga in theartist pel arethearmorial bearings granted after he had agreed to movefrom Paduato Mantuato 1459. thelegendary humanists. Milan. who in turn askedthecelebrated later (and cardinal) poet-scholar Pietro Bemboto intercede withIsabella. 9). and pursued even fewer have managedto imprint theirpersonality so on Art the means which he indelibly posterity. Cornaro events. bearing composed by one of thecourt that toApelles.His locksarecrowned witha wreath in emulaoflaurels. empress was ill did not stopIsabellafrom to bargaining relentlessly reduce theprice. Mantegna's tianbrother-in-law.)He clearly viewedit survived. from Quite apart theillusionistic fresco decorations withbiblical scenes. as he too served a court ofprofessional or in thechacondottieri. classical to "themostsplendid manand incompaepigraphs rable Andrea ofPadua. He honored someofthose who belonged to theelite circle of friends he established in Paduabyincluding themas spectain hisfirst tors in (seefig. however. whathe couldfrom histeacher andadoptive an enterfather. far his real including perspective. glowers take as arrogance or disdainbut which Mantegnasurely intended as an expression of hissingular or strength of virtu. thevery fewto remain moreor lessintact and as he among bronze statue of it. tice. Stern-faced as a Roman Republican theartist at theviewer withwhatwe might senator. Bembo to help the marchesa securea picturethatshe promised wanted from Giovanni celebrated VeneBellini. years possibly byFrancesco Mantegna following tions left his father. Mantegna had had a portrait bustcastin bronze(fig. Also for the by funerary chapel.) tablet an inscription. sheagreed to paywhattheartist Ultimately that shewas doingso as an act demanded. Mantegna's aboutforother meansof raising cash. ThatMantegna Faustina. themarchese hadleft Ludovico alsoinformed that Mantegna two paintings to decoratethe chapel in the Church of TheBaptism Sant'Andrea. a monument for Belowthebust is a marble designed Isabella. talented goldsmith withwhomhe had established a working thirty relationship before and who stood as witness when to years rights the ratified. The comparison wasa of humanist but it assumed when trope praise.5 on Sun.49. provided by (he was theson of a master escapedhis humble beginnings in a townnorth ofPadua)to becomesomeone able carpenter to stand on equal footing withmenof culture and learning. his bothas a placewhere would be said for soul andas prayers a monument to a lifetime of achievement.thosequalities character andmoral worth so greatly appreciatedby both Isabellad'Esté and Francesco Gonzaga. These includeda versionof the well-known Dead Christ(see is in that the Pinacoteca di and thepicBrera. poet to the emperor in whose honorMantegna had Augustus. whomMantegna was to makearchaeological excursions and discuss ofcommon matters dedicated a collection of interest. thatioo ducats was excessive. t6 ] This content downloaded from 130. eccentric Felice with ingly antiquarian-humanist Feliciano. 15 Sep 2013 09:15:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . He Clearly. stringy tionofRomanpractice. Cybele Gallery. of in thechapel Christ andSaint the still (both John Baptist today): these wereinstalled ofthefrescoed decorauponcompletion in the event. the endearacquaintance. .moreover. 36) fig. probthe entrance wall is ablybased on cartoons by Mantegna. Petrarch had been (In 1341 famously crowned in in laureate Rome revival of the ancient poet pracandMantuawas of coursethebirthplace ofVirgil.

later. and it represented a realsacrifice to themarchese. distracted a timorous whomhe knewpersonally casts andwhom youth glanceat thesoldier-artist. the wife. without in itsfull. hopedeverything tegnaquickly in the and the following as he wasnota little The marchese reasvases. in themindwasindeli.Similarly. "It is. proud Raphael's painter in thebronze features found bustofmorethan a half duke of Urbino. Mantegna in that offrescoes artist What qualities in his artexplainthe extraordinary status 6. Isabellad'Esté. was we today about 1450-54. As a witty thefacedecorating a shieldheldby a even including.49. . where he moved in thespring hisfamily of 1460. 42the Baptist. Chapel(figs. Aleotti. Rather is the verb into than the court on the it inscribed was now bly ("sculpted" employed) paintings conferring prestige painter. project depicting seemsalways to have been on Mantegna's mind. February in Rome in 1488alsomeant Mantegna's sojourn postponChrist.theage ofcompetition so that theimageformed for theservices ofgreat artists."In 1488Mantegna Mantegna was sentto Rome to decorate a chapelforPope Innocent in the VIII in theBelvedere Vatican. assured hiscorrespondent. Mantegna enjoyed? appears poet Sannain hisown fiction. Such was Mantegna's fameand the prestige attached to a work him that his came to a owning by paintings play significant rolein Gonzagadiplomacy. thefifteenth He was notyettwenty butwas already very muchwantto see themfinished. Mantegnaabove all otherItalianpainters.5 on Sun. withfurrowed browat zarodescribed himas "theshrewdest and mostingenious of gazing participant theviewer below. was murdered tantpatron. foralthough are century."he general army. of "as Ovetari fresco sured areworthy andwe him.after of Francesco 's future all. (228 χ 175 cm). And indeed. what wouldour Neoplatonic Mantegna The imageofhimself that included imagebe oftheGonzagafamily? Michelangelo. Alsoin 1456he wasinvited to becomethecourtpainter to theGonzagain Mantua. glory in ourresidence. bythe poetUlisse having out thewayhismindandhandworked ingofthenewstatus an artist couldachieve. or great talent and genius. Mantua thisextraordinary a Roman 44).one ofthedefining cycles noting. they things. putatthevery ofnorthern whenFederico theoutstanding da Montefeltro.a off to theside. Distem3. . as a solitary Roman soldier About 1491theNeapolitan alone.The cycle young (figs. 4." The earliest Venetian humanist them No statement is morerevealencomium.The Baptism of thegreat fora series ofninelarge of ingcompletion project 89% χ 68% in. PierodellaFrancesca.5). We already the all artists. Santi related that By the date of thisfresco. conquest by troops cescoGonzaga sent a painting doesnotsurvive) to the (which of the French Louis la de Trémoïlle.themarchese ofFerrara. for it entailed the in artist's forgoing help planforhis weddingto Isabellad'Estéin ningthe celebrations 1490. works from we nonetheless in beingpraised yourhandand genius. yearbeganworkon the frescoes proudofthem. canvases on thetheme ofthetriumphs ofCaesar(seefigs. received in 1485: attention Ferrara. aside. 1449he hadpainted (nowlost) [in se restare istupifacto] [ ? ] This content downloaded from 130. who wasPiero 's most (his unquestionably painter Italy imporin 1453). Mantua(thiswould havebeen in 1482) visited onlycompetition. 15 Sep 2013 09:15:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Following separation Squarcione 1447.198. in thepoetry wouldemerge form of andhissuccessor. Writing Gonzaga in established an he would be done to take care of the canindependent practice Padua. A devotional for theduchess of picture Eleonora ofAragon. 17-24). recognize implacable. Churchof Sant'Andrea. too. yousay.7) isrevealing. they forhisaltoingegno. triumph in in his from Manfrom Rome he told Francesco that 1489.waspart of Gonzagadiplomacy.a concept "thatarereally aliveand true" of creativity that theartist who lentluster to hispatron.Mantegna center ofItalian art. of Leonello "he was a portrait struck dumb whenhe saw d'Esté. Certainly. special she was. Chapel of SaintJohn per on canvas. degli singled Mantegna opened in concert.also ranked century to Federicoda Montefeltro. GiulioRomano." Giovanni father and court Santi.themother Gonzaga in August1502. "one of themostbeautiful things Messer Andrea has everdone. following of Milan the French of Louis FranXII. andseven later he received the years commission for an for the venerable prestigious altarpiece Benedictine (see figs. Requestsfora workby hand were eitherdenied or expedited Mantegna's by the marchese as he sawfit. Thisaction.a abbeyof San Zeno inVerona in thehistory landmark ofart. In Nicolò Pizzolo.AndreaMantegna(1430/31-1506).

198. [ 8 ] This content downloaded from 130. competition. Eremitani.According Mantegna "a which he called wasinvention. highest word. itsmostimportant whathe considered thenlisted of He accorded prideof place to "disegno thefoundation draftshe of coursemeantnot simply By disegno painting. orparin thetypically humanist in this instance. Mantegna supreme to this. Santiwas quite specific reafand it is worth this earned position.speechart.an ability but the ability manship to had showneven as a youngman. excusable. attribute thebalancing Santi to to an artists He was alluding ornament. less is a strong compliment that atleast forit implied that couldbe paid an artist's work. had triumphed and painting. ofthe Church Padua. wouldbe identified whichartistic genius indicators.aroundwhichto structure visualideas. theaesthetics "exalted and alluded to wasMantegna's trait Santi The first in this at of that a brilliant case.) merely bybeingdescribed." to giveformto an idea. 15 Sep 2013 09:15:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . unbiased whichhiscontemporaries lensthrough by andvalues ofourown time.an artistic oriconographie a story orallegory conceive pro. forto do full credit whatthosequalities were. between painting poetry agone.(In his 1435 gram wasinvenwrote that so important Alberti on painting treatise tion thata well-conceived gavepleasure pictorial program evenwithout beingrepresented. before 1944 . hadbeen what to describe words werenotsufficient andmere that about the qualities achieved.5 on Sun. fact.5·Ovetari Chapel.4. by Mantegna Santi andmeasured." ability shining ." andhissingular s]pictures Stupefatto [Mantegna in the It was.49. firming him the must see with we of Renaissance painters paragon sawhim. genius" redundancy praise terms the redefined since is least.

1450-54.6. Photograph JamestheGreater. tegna Santi then mentions withthepen and Mantegna's mastery thetechnical means brush. Parrhasius. through drawing.and Plinyextolled: Apelles. of fresco in 1944 in the OvetariChapel. the comparison of a modernartist to Although oftheancient world was a commonality one ofthegreats of in it took on new the work Renaissance of criticism. mastery detail.198.5 on Sun. andhismastery ofperspecwithitsconcomitants and tive.49. Manhadbreathed newlife intoit. underof architecture. Detail of fig. beauty with all that was entailed in the of disalong representation or atmospheric Then therewas Mantances. diligence. andaretheglory ofart". to suggest his tegna's ability. arithmetic. What astonished Santi was found. Churchof the Eremitani. movement. AndreaMantegna. skillat representing themostastonishing and difficult forein effects that shortenings.The TrialofSaint ca. meaning becauseofthewayhisartincorporated Mantegna antiquarian references. painting aims overmostcloselyalliedand wheretheirdescriptive ifimagination Santiwentso faras to assert that had lapped. bywhichtheideasof theimagination aretransformed intoimages. Each of these standing qualitiescould be in other artists. He was of those Greek thinking painters surpassed whoseaccomplishments Zeuxis. that ManSanticlaimed ofantiquity notonlyequaledthelegends but mastery tegna's them.deceive theeye.6. then. Mantegna'sdepictionof himself as a Roman soldier wastheareawhere andpoetry were Invention. geometry. 15 Sep 2013 09:15:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . individually. resulting "stupefy people. Padua destroyed 7. perspective. As subcategories to Mantegna's technical brilliance Santi listed or of and ofcolor. withered and died overthe centuries sinceantiquity. Add to thisthat also created relief Mantegna sculpture [ 9 ] This content downloaded from 130. thattheywereunitedin Mantegna and brought to perfection.

or CameraPicta. divided piece halves.Churchof theEremitani.5) OvetariChapel. in theforetoday enjoy equalto that to thefront molding of Masaccio's and Pierodella Brancacci to enhancetheeffect thathisheadis about Chapelin Florence ground serving in San Francesco. compelling complexity. painting The so-calledCameradegliSposi. original The Ovetari Chapel ervaChasingthe Vices and Mars and fromtheGardenof Virtue Much themostclamorous in effect werethefrescoes Manbetween and in the Ovetari 1448 tegna painted 1457 Chapel oftheChurch oftheEremitani in Padua.In bothscenestheprimary of Mantegna and hispredestruction is to our appreciation incident thepointofdeparture forstaging a drama provides in All eminent the Renaissance. it is still one ofthehighpoints ofa visit to Mantua. speak.23). had been undertaken around a photographic to take him to his to his campaign Fortunately.the dramatic s career. 15 Sep 2013 09:15:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 8. hour's train ridefrom London(figs. area 18. just one centered on a defining His debutwas madeon sceneSaint theGreater is shownbeingled to hisexeproject. James . A special s oeuvrebelongs to thenine placein Mantegna canvases of the Triumphs but great ofCaesar. s frescoes Arezzo. Whata lossits Francesca to dropintotheviewer s space.10). In the adjacentscene one fifteenth-century had it survived (fig. in thechapel work arean Assumption areas important as theprincipals in establishing a quality of 8) and oftheVirgin (fig. railing notionally theSecond World would a fame faceofthepainted marble War.49.Detached ofwhomwasassigned scenes. he hadassumed control as complete the presiding master of northern Italianpainting. forgiveness. In this andgaveadviceon architecture. [ 10 ] This content downloaded from 130. 9). execution. theChurch ofSan Zeno inVerona anditis theconversion ofJosias that 1459for he choseas in Mantegna The mainpanelsof the altar.the thewallsof the OvetariChapel in Padua (figs.10).whilethethree itsbase. Christopher illustrating compelling whichhad been transferred to canvas becauseof their The Golden recounts how Saint poor Legend James pausedon inthe1880s from thechapel hisdeathmarch condition andhadbeenremoved to curea paralyzed manlying on thesideof an airraidin 1944. there 42-44). astonishing panelsfrom are divided between theLouvrein Parisand theMusée des Beaux-Arts inTours(figs.AndreaMantegna.17). risking. He boldly in are still the frame conceived thepicture field intotwo contrasting by Mantegna (fig. especially in s career can be read each ated above the head of the In viewer. tier. major pictorial projectsengaged s in a different Mantegna genius wayand producedstrikingly results. Each ofthese Venus. Padua (see also fig.30. focusof his composition chapter (fig. Mantegna imagined he between and The landmark incident after the has 1456 a altarpiece painted happening just apostle passed through marks thesecond Romanarch.11) cutionby Roman soldiers(fig.31)wasregarded bythose fortunate to seeitas thesingle most beautiful poraries enough roomin theworld. specific By thetimethedecofresco. theroad. ceiling andeventhough ithasbeencompromised its uneven conby dition anda somewhat overzealous restoration in the1980s. James dropped to the Allied knees to ask the saints this prior bombing. that has survived of his of in which the so to place extras.or predella. Assumption ofthe Virgin. Manstill a teenager. Itsillusionistic waswidely imitated.5 on Sun. 8. to thebombing ofthechurch thescribe who hadputthenoose during prior whereupon Josias.Andfinally ishiswork for Isabella d'Este's famed studiolo in 1495-97:Minbothin theLouvre.198. ca. 1456-57. Attheoutset. waspartofan équipeofpainters.22. each tegna. attached cycleof frescoes 11)he is beheaded. in the scenes from the lowest situdramatist.The predella panels tour de force ofrepresentation andredefine thepossibilities of narrative Alberti s much desired istoria. badly preserved still in their installation at Hampton an awe-inspiring Court. contem25-28. rations werecompleted. (seefig. thefictive that. that in 1474in theCastello di San Giorgio Mantegna completed in Mantua(figs. one memorable sequential Mantegna chapters. twoscenes thelife ofSaint verisimilitude. andyouhavea paradigm for extraordinary madehisappearance as a great cycleMantegna theuniversal artist.

characterizationoffigures. justabovetheheadofthe who had to turn his or her head backandforth to take viewer.49. likea great he preferred a movRather. 15 Sep 2013 09:15:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . engaging inallofItalian art. wasfortunate indeed compositions Mantegna that in Paduafora ten-year Donatello arrived in 1443. 1456-57. Ovetari Chapel. knee kickto the soldier's The turbaned man shouts: groin. at stay thetimehe was coming of age.inevitably.198.He gavehisfigure that volvoice. First in importance werethebronze deeply personal reliefs Donatellocarried out between 1446and 1449forthe churchof Sant'Antonio. symbolically bya triumtheonlookers withastonishment and disphalarch. understatement. AndreaMantegna. They cannothelp butadd to thesympathy we feelforhim. or Basilicadel Santo. exposing indifference. Justice swaying precariously in theair. filmmaker. reliefs areamongthemostinnovative. he precisely and Translocation ca.How muchthe worn soles of the shoes ofJosias. episodehasbeen included A soldier contrast to thebenevolent actionof thesaint. expansion digression. and complex. andto emphasize it the banner is ingeniously framed the of the foreshortby zigzag enedcornices ofthebuildings thestreet.(The dropping is so that thevanishdownward. Mantegna episodeagainst a milling crowd ofbystanders backintospace.Withtheir dramatic tone.(How Caravaggio wouldhaveenvied this Likea great novelist. Nor has Mantegnamisseda detail. In theleft framed half. lining Peopledrawn to their windows the commotion observe the by furtively scene.turned up to full ume. notonlycruelty butalso tenderness and. We canpoint to theartists andworks ofartthat influenced but in the end the vision. Thisbrilliant detail makes clearthat theconfrontationis abouta miscarriage ofjustice.Detached fresco. respond dainatJosias's setthis supplication. detail!) Mantegna draws us intothedrama a not of reduction ofdetail by process or concentration on a single the main characevent. The turbaned a longpole witha fluttering carries figure banner atitstop. pilgrimage in Padua (see fig. His attention to details of setting. high-pitched of and the architecture.5 on Sun. presents theprotagonists within theperpetual drama oflife itself. a lossofnarrative focus.) participant figure's tracted that in theright sideofthe byan altercation explodes This secondary as a composition. Mantegna's they provided merely of the for a and point departure catalyst highly original vision.one might havethought.Unquestionably. Church of 9. and he the viewer's to camera. the Eremitani. everyday To callthescene.tell us about the peripatetic remunerated lifeof a Renaissance scribe. here took a of Renaissance Mantegna up topos praiseby which a painting wassaidto be so excellent that itlacked only a voice. conspicuously and poorly exposedto view. thescales of and. But notfor a minute. complexlayering expressive range. isolating but of narrative and even He ters. andcreating a senseofplaceis really in a class byitself. withitssweeping cinematic is an views. Mantegna employed active in the One is attention disscene. uses hislanceto push backan infuriated who delivers a sharp man.12).The Martyrdom oftheBodyofSaint Christopher. Padua [ 11 ] This content downloaded from 130. in thewhole. The houses arenotthose ofancient Rome butofMan- s time:the Renaissance viewerwas clearly meantto tegna the episodeas an extension of his or her own experience world. ground plane slopedsharply or coincides more less with the of the viewers' ingpoint top a device to make the viewer an heads. thescenewassituated Remember. ing encouraged eye pan the sceneto takein all of the actionand the sweepof the set.

ca.5 on Sun.AndreaMantegna. 1454-57.in 1944 in the OvetariChapel. [ 12 ] This content downloaded from 130.Photographof fresco JamestheGreater destroyed Padua Churchof theEremitani.198. ίο.Saint Led toHis Martyrdom.49. 15 Sep 2013 09:15:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .

49. [ 13 ] This content downloaded from 130.ca. Padua Churchof the Eremitani. 15 Sep 2013 09:15:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .The Martyrdom ofSaint JamestheGreater. il.5 on Sun. AndreaMantegna.198.Photographof frescodestroyed in 1944 in the Ovetari Chapel. 1454-57.

1470/71).16% χ 26 V2 Album. striving in.22 V2 hisstudy of Donatello s reliefs artin whicha narrative morefrom themefrom Christian infinitely profited hagiography than he didfrom theteachings ofSquarcione. That Indeed.The Flagellation ofChrist. (57 χ 123 cm). 1400.jacopo Bellini (ca.3 cm).Padua oftheMiser'sHeart.73) [ η ] This content downloaded from 130.Donatello (ca. (41. responding for time an lo s bronze reliefs encountered the first to the at center for Mantegna edly protagonists stage. s presence in Padua the history of Renaissance said.72. Mantegna.198.British Museum. without becomesthe occasionforexploring the dramaof life.5 on Sun.5 χ 67. Metalpointon paper.graphed wouldhavebeendramatically different.Miracle χ 48% in. Bronze.0811.12. 15 Sep 2013 09:15:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .whereas Donatello Donatelloinvariably choreopreferred tightly In Donatel. withdensecrowds excitpainting compositions.London (1855. Basilica del Santo. . 1386-1466).49. FromtheJacopoBellini I3.1447-48.

A modelforthismoreambivalent and discursiveapproach to narrative was provided byJacopo painting Bellini.3 cm). for Ferrara. presented of an Albertian his private ruminations on the possibilities drawandinexhaustible invention ofthese istoria. even and an acute senseof irony.The Adoration ca.8 χ 53. (these dykes [ 15 ] This content downloaded from 130. slamming or image tree a In another off theedgeofa table.or merely . 1450-57. wood. 15 Sep 2013 09:15:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .5 on Sun. Mantegna ingin focus. spectators forMantegna who arefully The third catalyst engaged. a pieceoffruit rolling birdofwisMinerva's is this out hauntingly: owl stares small . richly often shown can seemplacidandlackabout. pulledthecamera andallowed theactors on hismuchdeeper to about stage go their business.Purchase. (37. squash picture s favorite one ofBorso resembles fence thewattle over hanging wereusedto wattle theparaduro heraldic devices. must havetaken ofhismarriage Mantegna advantage thumb Nicolosiain 1453to repeatedly to Jacopo's daughter between two marvelous now divided albums. drawing through Museumin Londonand theLouvrein Paris. Museum ofArt. headis beneath still.in whicha soldier (fig.Temperaand gold on canvas. merely milling sacrificed thenarnever By contrast.198.In theBritish themes treated bothnovel andtraditional those albums Bellini he withlittle for their use: regard practical rather. to a meredemonstration ofhismastery ofperspectivai rative those arealways usedto setoff andhispassive space.13) cannothelpbut impress. sequences on a violentmurder of showing in movieswhereinstead shut a door of to an cuts thecamera screen. of gravity a quality in TheMartyrdom than is this moreevident Nowhere ofSaint a shield theGreater holding 11). and architectural ornamented settings figures spective. paintedsurface 14oftheShepherds.49. visual entire the of gives encompassing fresco first out in Mantegna's What stands cycleis great wit. on a deep. Metropolitan since the of ruler the Borsod'Esté. back a morecompelling effect ofactuality.tunneling withtheir peremphasis compositions.a transgression a bird of the of justice dom night? on theOvetari It waswhilehe wasatwork Chapelfrescoes inthe the Adoration small the that of Shepherds Mantegna painted the to have seems He Museum painted 14).2) 14% χ 21 in.130. great was provided worldof Netherlandish by the microcosmic it and the impression withits descriptive mastery painting. James whose abovethesaint. Higher ofthose reminiscent hasbeensnapped ofthetree off.The Metropolitan AnonymousGift. 1932 (32.from transferred AndreaMantegna. world.The charm but the elaborate ings(see fig. facestands witha grimacing directly a branch thebladeofa guillotine. (fig.

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his tomb.atdawn. frescoing wallsofa chapelor a room A in re-creation words of a visual a palace. through experience. byAngelo Christ's politia dialogue literary polish agony against that Leonelloprized Decembrio about1450. from theMountofOlivesin theAgony in condescending ographical position: beneath theplacidskiesof theVal Padana. long greeted by angel shepherd Netherlandish of humanFerrara was a center with two barrels for the arrival a of on the other Second. in the Crucifixion. sleeping figure in theAldobrandini anditremained collection until ofJoseph that serves as a to the two brandini. 16). thefollowing exercise. and the orangetreeagainst whichSaint agedviewers to experience thesacred event as realbysetting in thesun. Guarino s description in as the Adoration the encourJust of Shepherds Mantegna forth new shoots. (fig.) in an agent The coarse-featured Manthe And there are the contrast of the ass). itwastaken to Rome bythepope'snephew Pietro Aldois typical ofhim.painted (figs. from and from the setting landscape Golgotha to thevery terms of seems to havebeenresponding whereChrist in theResurrection. In other an actual he wasdemon. Thereis the First. Mantegna in Bruges. waiting barge istthought aswellas enlightened artistic AttheEste oftheplants.scenes from Christ's Passion that madeup thepredella ofthe words. (it powers poetry light emanating Decembrio s ownbiasthat he wasattributing to Leonello). (fig. counterfeiting sitely wrought 23). from the greatNetherlandish are highlighted in gold. having s predecessor. expected who was writing a setpiece rather than sethe practiced evoked himself. in force in thethree We see it fully by Guarino. course. viewing varied he washardly thepoetofnature Mantegna details ofthemost from hismost avidpatrons andthemindsort. theother doffed hishat.theekphrasis . contemporary in 1800or 1801.one withhands ofthe Shepherds fortheEstecourt wouldbe important fortworeasons. no lessthan themeticulous details ofthelandand thegentle thecurving river tegna green planein thedistance. describing painting. hismastery of a classical Pisanello s art San Zeno altarpiece a few after the literary strating genre: 17-24). drain themarshes around thepicture is that details to artistic achieveFerrara). therelative merits ofpoetry court andpainting weredebated.theCrucifixion 22). have been to reflect his admiration for a with an on one bank and a man thought scape. shepherds rocky foreground s painting.andthedescription patronage. anditreminds us that wasjustas comfortMantegna tocompose ofdescrip. rapt Virgin placement sioneda number ofpictures.In one characteristic Guarino poem . wasburied Mantegna cemetery A prunedwillowputs of springtime.Indeed. smallpictures withdetails the thethird ofthepredella scenes Resurrection. in their newway. filled withdetails fruit. from sacred siteto journeying imaginations [ is ] This content downloaded from 130. "If in set the action varied flowers smile the remarkable delineation of and character as well springtime:you spring. 15 Sep 2013 09:15:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . foreground. theGarden. exercise wasthechallenge itposedtopainters to match one after the otherlikesuccessive of a continuous literary chapters from itsdescriptive It is not to learn De narrative. The picture is a tour 16).5 on Sun. try Composea mental descripofwaves on theseashore sounds or thepleasures of tionoftheaction or narrative sets before notbreaking Mantegna you. Thereis theox. Shepherds part pointedresponse topin his description of the deep view. at midday although exqui18). de force. Thereis theclassically 1598 garbed. It was brilliant to show surprising powers. as naturalistic theold brilliance returns detail andpaying attention to visual metmeadows. Mantegna's poeticinsight ζ on written in theGarden of Gethsemane an evelitteraria.49. type popular . keyfigure inreviving this form wasGuarino daVerona. Joseph glistening spring it in a landscape in therocky the of the from crevices and surface culled from so in the San Zeno scenes life. he too doubted thepotential to effects witha palepinkhorizon with the coralbrilliant.In anyevent. painting. No less marvelous is the attention he lavished tering Therecanbe little doubtthat Adoration in thebackground ofthecity of of Mantegna's ofthe on thedepiction Jerusalem in to this kind of was his the three viewed in each instance from a different scenes. painter Day purchased shepherds (fig. (curiously.that tive hasasitsputative the as he was the poem objective preferred.herethe air quivers andpuns(suchas theorange treethat hasregenerated aphors s workis filled birds. hisheadsurrounded including bycheruof Christ. joinedprayerfully. ThattheAdoration waspainted dress in activeposes:both about to kneel. incorporated giveprominence in Ferrara in sixteenth-century mentioned butin ment andalsoenhance theexpressive treatment ofthefigures documents. special withthe songsof and the hillsbloom.198. ofpainting ofnature. viewers to experience thedepicted in a events meandering ripples against gentle Although he encouraged thewayMantegna has thesubject ofthepicture is traditional. (fig. viewer. his halfbrother had commisBorso devotion of the and the foreshortened Leonello.an artist the ability of Pisanello favored To fully enter themindofMantegna's intended Renaissance praises by Leoeffects whether the nello to evokethe myriad of nature. who came poetic in 1429to tutor to Ferrara Leonello d'Estéandremained there The San Zeno Altarpiece until his deathin 1460. years the occasion.andthe ningsky(fig. an altarpiece withthe oftheChildlying on herhem.15) counterpoint theBritish and art dealer Alexander it who are in shown tattered. lush Plants leans bears similar to theVal Padana. contrasting of matchthe descriptive of colored from Christ within the cavern shelwas. everyday predella river the banks. painter bimwhosefeatures Deposition commissions he employed intent on hismouthful ofgrass omitted (Forthese Rogiervander Weyden. (fig. ing setting in thegreen to thetrees. The of this of Adoration the The scenes follow merely provided importance type Metropolitan's of Shepherds.ablepainting anditbecame a distinctive on a small suchas Leonellois saidto have scale." WhilePisanello withcarefully observed itself and thewattle It is thesortof engaged fence).

Temperaon wood. 1456-59.5 on Sun. χ 14 ft.The Virgin The threepredellascenesare copies paintedby Paolino Caliari.49. 15 ft. 'η.198. 9 in.and Child withSaints(the San Zeno altarpiece). Church of San Zeno.Verona.8 in.5 m). (4.8 χ 4. 15 Sep 2013 09:15:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . [ 19 ] This content downloaded from 130. AndreaMantegna.

ofpoetry over ButwhileMantegna painting. Arts deTours (71χ 94 cm).If in the sacred siteand moving and main of the San Zeno 17)the altarpiece (fig. Correr in Manhe had spent twoyears humanist education. ekphrasis provided in a very fashion thesuperiorfor humanists to assert specific pen overthe ity of the descriptive powersof the writers s s brush.28 χ 37 in. who also taught Mantegna Gonzagapatron. Psalms. Gregorio go He had had a was a man of great intellect. moreintimate and is conceivedto inspire thing Verisimiliof the Passion. oftheage.5 on Sun. share thedescriptive they paintings that thebrush is superior from theopposite position: proceed to thepen. pseudo-humanist ekphraframework to givean idea of theimaginative sis. indeed. enjoyeda privileged place in Literary accomplishment the an occasion Renaissance and society.on wood. reflection on the events personal . so often Itincorporates.composed intheGarden that informs thesceneofthe 18-21). 15 Sep 2013 09:15:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . dictum that havebeenin linewithHorace'sfamous painting is a kindofsilent poetry. everyby therealarchitecture a deeper.Andrea TheAgony Garden. Whatfollows is myown.49. Agony (figs. ing must thiscomplexity? Some of thecredit Whatexplains the to the man who commissioned altarpiece. Ludovico.Vittorino tuaas a pupilofthegreatest pedagogue s first da Feltre. and ofthewritings ofAugustine Urbino. as fifteenth-century do.MuséedesBeaux- from one dayto the next. i8. He wasan admirer of texts for and set forth a number Mantegna Jerome surely theindividual scenes: notnecesthat he hopedwouldinform ofliterary a detailed butrather a series refersarily program Thiswould encesthat consult for Mantegna might inspiration.pasekphrases the kindsof textsGregorio Corrermight have sagesfrom to Mantegna s attention. Correr.one of the driving tude paintconceptsof Renaissance achieves a new level of here complexity. Josephus' Jewish [ 20 ] This content downloaded from 130. These would haveranged brought Latin to SaintJerome's from the Old and New Testaments ofEusebius' of names edition Onomasticon (a dictionary place on theBookof in sacred andAugustine's history) Expositions with its detailed from Flavius War. the future rulerof and Federicoda Montefeltro. panelfrom Tempera Mantegna. Virgin panels in their her courtare made morepalpable by placement a classical that is described complemented meticulously pavilion in thepredella of theframe.198. 1456-59. inthe Predella theSan Zeno altarpiece. painter richness of theekphrasis.

18 [ 21 ] This content downloaded from 130. Detail (enlarged)of fig. 18 20.49.198.19-Detail (enlarged)ot hg.5 on Sun. 15 Sep 2013 09:15:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .

18 21. 15 Sep 2013 09:15:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .5 on Sun. This content downloaded from 130.Detailoffig.198.49.

of swirling hissilclouds.49. having foretold his fateto the disciples and havingsungwith the Kedronravine" thema Passover has"crossed Hymn. lipsparted speech. Yet a vine has somehowmanaged to forth amidst the dead branches of' flourish.D. ever so delicately he rocky outcrop. "My Father. golden light delicately illuminating Mount Zion.AndreaMantegna. bringing grapes a blasted as "I for Christ am the true vine. 15:1-2). Christ. the San Zeno altarpiece. across thefaceof Christ light plays and the rockyescarpment. to the thirteenth-century devotional book The on theLifeofChrist.thy cup to passme bywithout mydrinking done" (Matthew a quince trees. . the angel from illuminating below. in is thrown without greatforce" Jesuskneels prayer. 70. in branch me that beareth not fruit he taketh Every away" of great a veritable Eden. in the foreexhausted the lie events. hackednear to the This content downloaded from 130.A garden (John beauty.Two fruit-bearing andanapple. said. stand likelonely sentinels ofhopeinthis scene of arid desolation. must once havegrown foron thehard behind here. 29% χ 37% m· (76 x 96 cm). Meditations It is evening and thecloud-scudded litby the skyis still of which has sunk behind the distant the sun. yet firmly. hill. wingsand leavesbehinda trail houette defined thesharp-edged shafts ofstone ofa against In hishands."not andabove s throw" a stone them.." implores looking up withhis his in "if it is not for face.The Crucifixion. 15 Sep 2013 09:15:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . he received three times before (Meditaprayed anyanswer" 1 23 ] tions to himan angelfrom 75).5 on Sun. pained possible this willbe it. dying rays the walls of the itssoft.Paris (368) ofJerusalem on theeveofitsdestruction byTitus description in A. "wornout by grief"(Luke22:45). 1456-59. Predellapanel from Temperaand gold on wood."And now there appeared heaven him (Luke22:43 -44). . tree.22.The angel. . Musée du Louvre. 26:42)." taking The three distwosonsofZebedee"(Matthew 26:36-37).198. by day's sleeping ciples."about (Luke22:41) aswhenthearmisviolently but as when the stone agitated. ancient of below city Jerusalem Jesus. carries a chalice from which Christ must take hisoh so bitA crystalline terdrink. "Consider how anguished he is now in hissoul. "a a garden. bringing strength" at a from on flies on colored descending sharp angle high. thatthe LordJesus here. slopes Christcan be seen barrenstumps. 18:1)to theMountofOlivesandentered (John and the withhim"Peter placecalledGethsemane.whilebehind ground. Alsonote in contrast to our impatience.

TheResurrection, Predella theSanZeno altarpiece. on wood,28 χ 37 in.(71. ι χ 94 cm). 23.Andrea 1456-59. Mantegna. panelfrom Tempera MuséedesBeauxArts deTours

"Now alsotheaxeislaiduntotherootofthetrees. ground: which notforth is tree, therefore, Every bringeth goodfruit hewndown, andcast intothefire" (Luke3:9).Thisorchard was once pollinated swarm around a pairof by bees that hives setup on a shelf ofrocks. Around theedgesofthemount, itsboundarmarking flows a its surface the ies, stream, by fast-flowing rippled current as it windsits way through theValleyofJeho"betweenthe Mount of Olives and Jerusalem." shaphat Twobridges, constructed from thecleaved trunks oftrees, traverse thestream. Theywillbe crossed bytheapproachwho pausesto look back at "a ing mob led by Judas, detachment of soldiers, and policeprovided by the chief with . . . weapons" and Pharisees, priests equipped A in small rabbit on 18:3). (John stops fright the bridge nearest tohand; thewinding leadsup to themaingate path of "fortified with towers walls," Jerusalem, bythree "twenty cubits broadandtwenty and solidas thewall high, square and dominated at its highest itself," pointby a fortress. ofthecity] wascalled [this "Owingto itsstrength portion David . . . the but we called it the by King Stronghold,
[ 24 ]

in thelowercityis upperagora"(Josephus). By contrast, seenthedomedmass ofthetemple, as thePantheon; proud itscircular wallswitha revetment ofan arched colonnade. Yetanother ofthecity extends downa slope, "encompart ravines the cliffs on passedby deep [so that] precipitous either side of it rendered the townnowhere accessible" Herethewalls andtowers havebeenallowed to (Josephus). crumble and fallintoruin; driven into the staves, pointed blocktheonlyentrance. Belowthis, above ground, directly a cleavage in thecliff, can be seenthefountain ofSiloam, "forso we called thatfountain of sweetand abundant water" Fromthespigot of thisfountain water (Josephus). onto the rocks the stream that runs below, splashes feeding the mob and the past advancing sleeping apostles. Only had passednearthis before, days Jesus very spotandwept over thesight of "Ifonly Jerusalem, saying, youhadknown, on this thewaythat leadsto peace!But no;itis great day, hiddenfrom For a timewill come uponyou, yoursight. whenyourenemies will set up siege-works against you; willencircle they youandhemyouin at every point; they willbring children within youto theground, youandyour

This content downloaded from 130.49.198.5 on Sun, 15 Sep 2013 09:15:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

24-Detailoffig. 23

This content downloaded from 130.49.198.5 on Sun, 15 Sep 2013 09:15:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

Palazzo Ducale, Mantua 2$.AndreaMantegna.Camera Picta,or Camera degli Sposi, 1465-74. Frescoand tempera.

theVirgin's pavilionin the main panelsof the altarpiece, detail andhumanist in archaeological scholarship combining thecreation of an altarpiece ofunprecedented allusive richnessandexpressivity, with that canbe andmust images always havebeen readon multiple levelsby audiences withvastly different someableto elaborate on educations, imaginatively the visualclues the artist while others remained provided intent on thehuman drama. Of course, as in thefrescoes oftheOvetari expresChapel, was at the ofMantegna's consivity unquestionably forefront In treatment of theAgony in theGarden ception. no earlier doesChrist's thequality ofan existential criThis exercise reminds us of the descriptive richness of suffering acquire madethemore and the degreeto whichtheycontain sis, poignant bytheuncomprehending apostles Mantegna's pictures their the for theinformed viewer: hispictures incor- asleepin the foreground, varied; poses studiously potential prompts of the and the associations. bees Thus, foreshortening descending angel, messenger poratememory swarming astonishing of thebitter consolation sentfrom thestony, barren aroundtheir beehive(fig.20) could have recalled forone heaven; terrain of the the crowds in viewer on Psalm 118: 12: Saint foreground; threatening arriving Augustine's commentary "They the and hill the of set the me aboutlikebees" a reference to Christ's distance; soft, green Jerusalem against compassed capincandescent All thosesignifiers of ture. Others havebeenreminded ofthefourth book of lightof the evening sky. might artistic led Giovanni that Santi to rank Manwhichdeals withthe care of bees.These accomplishment Virgil's Georgics, thesupreme artist of hisdayareincorporated intothis kindsof literary references maybe viewedas the comple- tegna without in anywaydetracting from thenarrative. and antiquarian details mentto the classical architecture of depiction [ 26 ]

on yourwalls,and not leave you one stone standing not because did God's moment another, you recognize whenit came" (Luke 19:41-44).Not fourdecadeslater Titusgavehistroops orders "to encamp ata distance ofsix from at themount calledtheMountof furlongs Jerusalem whichlies overagainst thecityon theeast, Olives, being from it a ravine called by deep intervening separated Kedron"(Josephus). It is on thissameplace thatwe see and it is to this so filled with mournful Jesus praying, place, that has us. memories, Mantegna brought

This content downloaded from 130.49.198.5 on Sun, 15 Sep 2013 09:15:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

As in oftheInfanta andhermaids: Las Meninas. seems to By imagining Velazquez and experience oftheviewer. wall. {26V2 square).49. (his us to do likewise: to enter intohisfictions. showing Gonzaga in the OvetariChapel. garden. havebeen drawn back to calledthe CameradegliSposi (Bridal simulated heavybrocadecurtains (Painted Room). later reveal the court. (fig. moment life.Andrea Camera Ludovico andhiscourt. Red). byorganizing two remaining shut. worshiper thetripartite oftheframe atthe what aretrying to decipher is nothing lessthan theimagi.looksthrough opening Virgin they and herattendants courtin a Roman-style is nation oftheartist. Fresco andtempera. inhabiting very generates. of theVirgin. the notexplicate theparticular event it shows. 15 Sep 2013 09:15:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .wherethe Unlike the situation viewerstands below and outsidethe scene. scholars drawn theportraits Mantegna cleverly adapted Although inwhich theviewerevents to realhistorical haveattempted to relate these incidents.marble-encrusted wall. hasin effect theconaround twonarrative events.It is a remarkable oftheflexibility demonstration all that so inMantegna's we canidentify looking depiction masterpiece. On the forin it Mantegna recon. including itself as the fictions it And he invites name is or but we still canhismaster's chair Rubino. PalazzoDucale. position Margarita out. trait pavilion. Mantegna. Forthese areimaginary encounters. The Camera Picta [ 27 ] This content downloaded from 130. on thewest wallis an openlandscape. There holding pavilion In theCameraPictahe putsus surrounded in thescholarship a parallel bya rosehedge. ceitoftheSanZeno altarpiece.On two of thewalls theso-called Camera Picta raised a bedroom andaudience chamber.Despite Chamber). he redefined thevery the viewer to participate in an informal position havebeen inviting character ofpainting.a walled works ofRenaissance art.198. ofMantegna's mind: a mindthatconceives of' hisrest beneath and ingenuity ofthemain thedogtaking characters. pavilion Gonzaga on a low.5 on Sun. surrounding Velazquez's great porinside the in the ifyou will. Mantua Picta.north 26. ofcourt andso doesMantegna. to incorporate theactual theviewlooksouttoward modest dimensions feet theroomis one of the fireplace. On the north conceived in its in the Palazzo Ducale Mantua wall.in the Camera an interactive withvisiBetween and1474 undertook for themarchese PictaMantegna 1465 sought relationship Mantegna tors to the which he transformed into a fictive of a served as Ludovico the decoration room that both room. Gonzaga neatly 25). defining wallsthe heavybrocadecurtains havebeen ceived thenotion ofcourt He didthis portraiture.

Andrea ofwest Camera detail Picta. seeking listens marchesa Barbaraof Brandenburg much-admired ofa letter he as herhusband discusses thecontents attentively her hasjust received 27). Fresco.5 on Sun. walloftheCamera abovethefireplace On thenorth Picta. wall. up thefolds In Mantegna ina preoccupied fashion.The brocaded curtain.With one arm she embraces. timethegrouping seemscompletely casualand natural. showing with his sons Ludovico and relations. Palazzo Gonzaga Mantua Ducale. shegathers ofher whilewiththeother daughter. On theadjacent surrounds 28). Mantua andtempera. Andrea Camera detail ofnorth Fresco Picta. who is evidently a visit from Rome. s pictures dress gestures thenarrative drama.Ludovico thecontents ofa letter with a courtier.The figures have paying beenmeticulously to illustrate a hierarchy ofimporarranged tanceas well as theline of dynastic At thesame succession.thewholefamily his son. young Gonzagalivery pushback the (fig. 15 Sep 2013 09:15:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . an audience with the marchese. The cardinal a fingers with and firmness he holds the hand of his letter. character aswellas support always convey so well in And has anyone otherthan succeeded Velazquez ofthedwarfs who were theroleandthecharacter suggesting ofcourt life? suchan essential part wall(fig.198. (fig.49. 27showing Gonzaga Mantegna.Cardinal LudovicoGonzagaas he greets Francesco. in courtiers 26). discussing PalazzoDucale. [ 28 ] This content downloaded from 130. gentle 28. The marchese raises his handin greeting. wall. Mantegna.

[ 29 ] This content downloaded from 130.5 on Sun.49.198. 15 Sep 2013 09:15:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .

198. 29family. placid. the Gonzagaarmsare displayed on thehumanist culandan imagination reared Reality gate. younger a quality oftrust cousin little convey Sigismondo. Pacis. sculpture. classical took his inspiration from face.c. Roman ruins.though Augustan monucouldhaveseenanysignificant partofthis Mantegna unfolds a landscape of Behindthefigures mentis uncertain. Madrid). t 30 ] This content downloaded from 130. Museo b. Mantegna or ofcomparison arewith Aurelian theclosest points Perhaps whether reliefs suchastheAraPacis(fig. Camera Andrea Picta.5 on Sun.) fashion.ofAugustus' oftheprocession AraPacis. villas. though and most of in rows the showing grouping figures overlapping in nearfullFrancesco withonlyCardinal themin profile. ceiling Mantegna. 30. 13-9 Imperial. 29). ofantiquity intersect herein an unprecedented ture conceived of theCameraPictaMantegna On theceiling to complete the effect of stepping decoration an ingenious Mantua PalazzoDucale. extraordinary complexity beauty Mantua as a dazzlinghilltopcity adornedwith swampy and quarries. handis heldbyhis brother whoseownleft Ludovico. Goyamight in the Museo his of the of Charles IV of (think portrait family there canbe little doubt that when delPrado. (To dispel anydoubtabout abovetheentrance thesite.49. that and recasts flat. 15 Sep 2013 09:15:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Fresco. detail Roman. decoration. Rome dell'Ara Marble.The gestures have envied It is an achievement andprotection.

18Yzχ 14Viin.AndreaMantegna.Palazzo Ducale.49. Mantua the San Zeno altarpiece(fig.8 cm).Fresco. (47 χ 36. 15 Sep 2013 09:15:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .Camera Picta.Samsonand Delilah.detailof the 32.Glue size on linen.AndreaMantegna.5 on Sun.oculus.198.ca. National Gallery. base of theVirgin's throne 33.17). 1500.31.AndreaMantegna. London (NG1145) [ 31 ] This content downloaded from 130.

by the Florentine historian-poet to Benedetto Varchi (1502?1565). Mantegna gaveexpression theideain theSanZeno altarpiece he depicted 32). putti playing posedthem The message wasclear: can counterfeit but painting sculpture.It to simulate and. At the verycenter thantwo centuries later. sculpture. of againconby figures wingedputti.Mantegna up theidea of feigned sculpture evident on theceiling oftheCamera Pictawith modest-sized. andsimulate life itcango one better itself as theAgony in theGarden showssome of thesame Just in theOvetari withdramatic narration that we find concerns so there are a seriesof independent works Chapel frescoes. h. Gift 190. comparison arts.Putto. oftheceramic ceilings precedent to evokeImperial Rome. politan 35. century. bothmarble (see fig. 1917 1402) (17. The MetroBronze with silvered 15th eyes. ofj. putti decorating Virgin's sculpted a Anatolian and headswittily hidden by fringed carpet. Museum ofArt.He divided (fig. pavilion fictive marble moldinto separated by ceiling compartments roundels withbusts ofRoman aresetfeigned Intothese ings.Detailoffig.49. that share theconcerns found Forexamfollowed so ple.where (fig.198. setagainst a background ceived as marble owe to the It solution that something may goldmosaics. 33) thatemulate independent paintings [ 32 ] This content downloaded from 130. thebaseofthe their throne. festoons of colored fruit that we aremeant to compare with thefeigned carved festoons the Roman busts. thesuperiority of sculpture The arguments maintaining or ofpainting wererehearsed overpainting oversculpture by on art.laterstill. emperors supported ofpainted orstucco.(21cm).The scheme wasobviously intention in the comment that whatcounts Alberti's seems to embrace of butthe"wealth ofa building is nottheexpense decoration do the individual Not compartingenuity" displayed. feigned Baroque right more ofPalazzoFarnese in hisfrescoes on thevault sculpture of the ceiling.Pierpont Morgan. only to the Gonzagaby including ments eight pay compliments scenes of Hercules. third After a model Mantua. is a butthe ofLucadellaRobbia. definitively by opening up to the sculpture painting trumps an oculus surrounded anoculus to thesky viewer 31) by (fig.5 on Sun. This is encircling or of theworldof theRenaissance the paragone. 8Va in.mostfamously by Leonardoda Vinci everywriter (1452-1519)and. in theCamera Picta. painting Renaissance and thatrunsthrough is the kindof dialectic use of to Annibale Carracci's down art. butthey Orpheus. as wellas mythological Romanemperors of makea display oftheability andArion. to surpass it. 15 Sep 2013 09:15:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 34· quarter byAndrea Mantegna. juxtawith flesh-colored musical instruments. 31 the marble intoa Roman-style 30). in so doing.

(68 χ 8ΐ cm). Pinacoteca di Brera.The Dead Christ.becomes tragedy.5 on Sun.itis to be found (fig. and response. 1465 these GianCristoforo -1512). Part of trespassing emulating sculpture well have come from his direct involvement hismastery may A bronze in theMetropolitan's collecwith statuette sculpture. can be no doubtthat the 36). or hearted serious and we areinvited to pictorial joke. moodoftheceiling.Distemperon canvas. modeledin dellaFrancesca. kind ofsculpture that hascometobe associated with the VeneAntonioLombardo(ca. 15 Sep 2013 09:15:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . orputto tobe basedon a model tion ofa youth. thelighthowever. ca.AndreaMantegna. ofemperors on theceiling oftheCamera Picta. backed withwood. 34). 1490. of this kind of was his famous and growth thinking haunting influential foreshortened Dead Christ in thePinacoteca di vastly Brera in Milan(fig.seems (fig. foreshortening winged who stand on the rim of the oculus putti precariously 35) (fig. On theother theextreme ofthe hand. 1455?butwasexplored brother 1532) by Romano (ca. is knownto haveusedfigurines No than or wax to and clay study poses compositions.198. theforeshortening ofthefigure ofChrist us puts in a particular and us to assume a position requires particular attitude In theDead Christ. i458?-?i5i6) and his tiansculptors inMantua Tullio(ca.hismastery overa andbronze reliefs andthat assert.Whatmakes showed in so remarkable is thediscipline Mantegna paintings without its limitations. with theputti.Therereally same kind ofprojection he employed for theputti inthe system oculus wasputto usein this devotional As extraordinary image. 26 % χ 31% in. the madeto use in creating Mantegna likePiero Bacchanal with a WineVat(see fig. must havespurred to further theexpressive Mantegna explore ofsharply The mostoriginal outpotential angled viewpoints.) fewer exist: must have been as casts of the model they eight popular in for artists and were collected as their studio objects props Ifwe arelooking for evidence that could ownright. (Mantegna.49. Mantegna have created the modelforthe bustin his funerary chapel in thefeigned marble or stucco busts 1). 63). Milan 36. indirectly. one ofhisengravings. [ 33 ] This content downloaded from 130. which is conceived as a scherzo.

1931 (32.Temperaand gold on wood.198. Collection. 17% χ ΐΐ % in.49. (44·ΐ Metropolitan [ 34 ] This content downloaded from 130. 15 Sep 2013 09:15:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 1460.6 The Art.5 on Sun.100.and Cherubim. ca.Bequest of Michael Friedsam.Madonnaand Child withSeraphim 37· Museum of The Friedsam χ 28.97) cm). AndreaMantegna.

tionedthathislegsstretch forward and reston theparapet.5 on Sun. The Metropolitan's (figs. What a contrast there is betweenthissmallpicture and twolater of the Madonna and Child that paintings Mantegna must havepainted whilehe wasworking on theCamera Picta in Mantuain 1465-74. surrounded while cherubs. alas. picture whileMantegna was at workon that fresco.The earliest paintings surviving is a small in the that so is.The composition bya fictive and a marble set behind the arched sursurround. is framed window 37). ascending by flying the apostles out of the arch and onto a spill framing ledge little musthavebeen 5.evenas MaryMagdalene anoint Christ's feet withourtears did. Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (s. our space with his and addingto the thereby connecting affective of theimage. establishing The sacred ofthe and Childaresetbehind the figures Virgin and a crowded host of cherubim and parapet against seraphim. 15 Sep 2013 09:15:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .i67/s χ 12Η in. 8).The painting is a striking testament to theflexibility of mind anddesire to rethink traditional basedon ideas imagery outofa particularly commission. Distemperon canvas.Madonnaand Child. growing demanding The same process is at workin Mantegna's devotional of theMadonnaand Child. eachheadbeautifully in spaceandviewed at a difpositioned ferent the exact of the flat of angle opposite gold ground traditional The ChristChild is so posiimagesof thissort.like painted so many ofhisworks ofthe 1450s. 5) . parapet roundprovides another spatialdivision(note the angled in thelower shadow theincidence oflight). Virgin intoheaven. ca. example picture Metropolitan that the two are all but facebadly damaged principal figures less(fig. (43 χ 32 cm).198. left. Whatwe haveis a use of illuquality sionistic similar to whatis found in theOvetari Chaframing where on the back wall is a fresco of the shown pel. and. are not concerned with a They play ΐ 35 ] This content downloaded from 130. Gemäldegalerie.AndreaMantegna. it reveals a profound debt to thesculpture ofDonatello.49. 1465-70.38.

In one. painted wall more informal and domestic of as the be might thought his Ludovico and the marchese oftheCamera Picta. Carrara theAccademia 39). (figs.Madonnaand Child.1.the a realchild.sheet. National Gallery ofArt. (27.27). is in theearly theinfant dreams. of teethIn theother. tighter organization. on laid paper. It is possible in Berlin Madonna and Childnow in the Gemäldegalerie on what was was while 38) Mantegna working (fig.198. AndreaMantegna. ofa realmother thepresence holding as he handsmove involuntarily and his little Child sleeps.28). 26.39·AndreaMantegna.7 χ 23. (43 χ 31 cmJ.the to arguethatone of thesepictures ture. showing in while the Barbara ofBrandenburg other./pr) a between realand fictive space so muchas withcreating ofportraibasedon hisexperience ofverisimilitude quality .C.Madonnaand Child. slipping and alsobysimuandgravity. in believable andtender described is Not theleastfascinating aspectof thesetwo paintings inpaintinvolved over therisks concern Mantegna's apparent of humanterms: ing a devotional imagein suchstrikingly this mainHe avoided into mere by genre painting.is moreclosely wall(figs.ca. (1998. stages betweenmotherand child is ing. Bergamo (484) 40. 15 Sep 2013 09:15:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .the affection terms.5 on Sun. Permanent Fund D. wife. a latinggold [ 36 ] This content downloaded from 130.10% χ gVsin.50. a moodofmelancholy taining moiré for the brocade and Virgin'scloak. In both. 16% χ 12Vain. in Bergamo(fig.withitsmuchmoreforin In bothofthese we feel mal. paintings. Patrons' Washington.. to thewest related 25. trimmed withplate Engraving mark.1 cm). 1475.49. Distemperand gold on canvas. ca.Accademia Carrara. 1470-74.

" Is it anywonder 'madeflesh' that 'sengraving ofthe on theground. and but could be further from the feeling humanity. theChildthemainideais moreon a planewiththat ofother withBellini. The style is intricately composed picture [ 37 ] This content downloaded from 130. a medium that fortheprecision he could Mantegna preferred butthatcouldbe easily achieve. figures the the Child's left arm embraces his mother ingposes way and hisleft is extended over her left arm while her left leg handsteadies hisother and the of the contours. picture fered from abrasion: it is painted in distemper on canvas. "[The Madonna]livesa lifeapart." and Childin the yeta greater in Berlin. so later. a reflection of Renaispicture an effort sancesyncretism: to accommodate RomanStoicvalues to Christian faith and vice versa. seated Mantegna Virgin bentover theChildshecradles in herlap (fig. andwitha greater there is realism Of theMadonna remoteness. nothing truth. MaryMagdalene It is easyto see in this matron.Mantegna often been compared to that of hisbrother-in-law Giovanni andit is sometimes evensaidthat hispictures lackin Bellini.7 cm). Metropolitan (fig.should Rembrandt to create one ofhismost intimate as well inspired as affecting etchings? Whata change in emotional tenor twodecadesor when. notably to the of a mind conscious of the expression agony already burden it hastaken but even so the sense of uponit. Museum ofArt. 15 Sep 2013 09:15:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . But the Motherand Child are as affecting as thosein the Berlinand Bergamo Whatdistinguishes these aretheir interlockpaintings. Frywrote.Distemper 22 V2 χ i8 in.198. leg sharpness of thisultrarefined. Of the insight Madonna and in Child theAccademiaCarrara in exquisite a life Bergamo.1506. mystery is stronger than in Bellini.643) naturalistic backto thegoldstriations on the wayofharking clothes of thesaints on Byzantine s arthas icons. have 40).5 on Sun. (57.40.1913(14. Allthepenalty. thefacts. solvents We be forgiven forthinking that had intended might Mantegna to shownot Saint buta Republican senator or Stoic Joseph and that looks like a Roman philosopher. allthehumiliation. damaged by theapplication of varnish or by the use of strong in cleaning.moreintense than still ours. Like him Mantegna heregives artists. inwhich unknown to us. is hereno "there Gemäldegalerie Frynotedthat in theordinary idealization no attempt to escapefrom sense. The with SaintMary Mantegna painted HolyFamily in the The hassufMagdalene 41).2 χ and gold on canvas.The Metropolitan Bequest of BenjaminAltman.49. almost thesqualor attendant on being aremarked.The Holy Familywith SaintMaryMagdalene. described the in matter an article RogerFry beautifully of1905 whosecritical hasnever beensurpassed. feelings do notavailto ruffle theserenity ofa superhuman In insight. 1496.4L AndreaMantegna. 45.

Felice wore a of though they garland myrtle andivy."Thesesublime canvases out plished brought ofMantegna s character. χ ofCaesar. 9 ft. 2 in. Hampton Acquired byCharles characteristic ofMantegna s paintings for Isabella d'Esté s privatestudy: onceagain. I (RCIN403959) Court. and another sometimes identified as the Gonzagaarchitectcompanion Giovanni da Padovaand sometimes as thePaduan engineer Giovanni di Each assumed a role. theseries to Charles I ofEngland. in 1629. humanist scholar and scribe groupincludedthateccentric FeliceFeliciano. At thetimetheGonzagasold Hampton (figs. The Triumphs of Caesar The centerpiece ofMantegna s legacy wasalways theseries of canvases the of now installed at showing triumphs Caesar.7χ 2. Court 42-44).198. 42.8 m). In September of1464 . 8 ft.49. 15 Sep 2013 09:15:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .The RoyalCollection.Mantegna before he undertook the series set out witha of friends for an excursion on The group Lago di Garda. Samuele andplayed theluteas they sailed around sang [ 38 ] This content downloaded from 130.5 on Sun.The Triumphs 9 in. ca. which yetanother aspect concerning . as antiquarian were Romans.AndreaMantegna. theideasgrowing out ofa major projecthavespilled over intoother areas ofhisactivity.(2. thepainter Samueleda Tradate.II: The Bearers ofStandards Temperaon canvas.twodecades we havea uniquerecord. Marcanova.and SiegeEquipment.1506. 1484. theFrench ambassadorinVenicedeclared it "the mostbeautiful and accomworkthat exists .

8 ft.Acquiredby CharlesI (RCIN403960) thelakein their boatdecorated withcarpets andlaurel.Upon returning from thisexpedition. gardens entered a church andgavethanks to the and her they Virgin whomthey in terms addressed moreapproprison. inthese ingamong in not in bodies but and stones.Temperaon canvas. They the islands for classical and looking explored inscriptions monuments. almighty ate to Zeus. identified as a shrine to One monument they An orchard Diana and her nymphs. χ 9 ft. Thisis imaginatively thespirit that underlies theninecanvases of The Triumphs of [39] anditis whatmakes them inWestern sucha landmark Caesar.The impulse was a romantic a antiquarianism: notsimply to readabouttheRomanpastandstudy its desire in itsvery remains butto participate life.198." Much earlier in the fifteenth the Greekscholar century ManuelChrysoloras hadwritten someletters that weremuch read humanists. placesbeauty living He marveled that "the skill of these images. 2 in. 43·AndreaMantegna.The Royal Collection.5 on Sun. he declared.7 χ 2." representations This content downloaded from 130. "arealmost aliveandbreathing so that thesubject seems notrepresented butto actually exist. The among Mantegna's outstanding images. reminded themof the of theMuses.8 m). He found in Rome wanderhimself byItalian theruins "inthehopeoffinding ofthecity. ca. art.The Triumphs 9 in. ofTrophies ofCaesar. marbles.Hampton Court.and Bullion.49.HI: The Bearers (2. 1484-1506. Francesco himself this when he listed Gonzaga recognized them achievements. 15 Sep 2013 09:15:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .

gling the seems thecanvas the bearers 43). pace showing trophy (fig.1506.The Triumphs ofCaesar. a itsvarious viewedthrough witha veritable parts parade. army. horse.7 χ 2. 9 in. One figure under the weight thetrophy pauses In thesixth ofthe Triumphs canvases he hasto carry. (fig.49. armor. 15 Sep 2013 09:15:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ." in theTriumphs In all ofthe revived that ofCaesar. man. It is typical of theworkings of Mantegna [ 40 ] This content downloaded from 130. 9 by9 feet.Temperaon canvas. excited or or weeping. Bearers. VI: The Corselet The Royal Collection.Hampton Court. equals or andreal or sword. by narrative knowledge archaeological thatgives for kind of incidental detail and an the sweep eye intoa haveturned lifeand movement to whatcould easily of heavy-handed piece pedantry.2 in.andtheeffect offigures across moving of is irresistible. In effect. to life one back to as brought transported antiquity Mantegna a great oftheexciting celebrations following military victory.5 on Sun. thestreets. thecanvas to pickup. ca. city. that defines haveclimbed up on thewalloraqueduct spectators s thebackground. χ 9 ft. 42) a Gonzagadoghas to insert himself a figure somehow alongside strugmanaged In or female with a bronze of a statue priestess votary. 1484. people captured fleeing.Acquiredby CharlesI (RCIN403963) so that one seems to see a real andrivals Nature herself. 44·AndreaMantegna. 44). theviewer was screen ofenframing classical pilasters. pompous. laughing. (2. whentheninecanThe effect must havebeenastonishing in wereinstalled eachofthem vases. Rome toward the artof ancient It was thisattitude angry.8 m).198. Mantegna is matched canvases. In thefirst three scenes grand bootyis beingcarried through In thesecondofthem(fig. breastplate. approximately so thatthe viewerwas confronted a roomaboveeyelevel.8 ft.

5 on Sun. script) put words intothesnarling mouths ofChrist's accusers. The ViennaSaintSebastian is often forward as a put candidate forthe operetta. How he wouldhaveappreciated thesignature inscribed on thepierto theleft Mantegna [ 41 ] This content downloaded from 130. 1500. Musée Paris (MjAP-p-1840) André.In thebackground against one in profile scheme addedtwo further Mantegna figures. it was conceivedalong the lines of a Roman funerary with a figure viewedfrontally set relief. wood. (54 χ 42 cm).a an engagedviewer. Moreover.piecesofpaper(juridical that tions have indictments.ca. Let us takeyetone moreexample smallpainting in the Kunsthistorisches Museumin Vienna forthis 46-49) thatcannothelp but elicitadmiration (figs.41). in Mantegna s artis nothing casual.The would have suited Marpicture perfectly cello's tastes andhissophistication. s circleof humanist friends on his property on Monselice.49.198. in thepictorial and another fullface. As hasperhaps becomeclear. Jacquemart- mind that thefigure with bowedheadbearing a suitofarmor shouldhavebeen translated so readily intoa canvas(alasin of Christ thecross(Museo di wretched condition) carrying a that is underrated work Castelvecchio. deeply . . were Roman inscriptions and reliefs. artist andseems to encapsulate hiscomplex andexalted imagination.andone of ofthis moment The great devotional picture thebest ofallofMantegna 's canvases is a painting preserved in Paris André oftheEcce Homo in theMuséeJacquemartLike the with Saint 45). HolyFamily Mary (fig. 21 Î4 χ 16Viin. The beautifully schiacciato. requires .forMarcellohad close tiesto Mantegna in Padua. It wouldbe nice ifthiswereso.Ecce Homo. backed with Distemperand gold on canvas. some of whichwere sketched Bellini and studied by Jacopo by Mantegnaand FeliceFeliciano. 15 Sep 2013 09:15:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . southof the city. really) been affixed to the frame with red wax seemingly sealing evincebothMantegna 's love of Roman letters (he wrotea humanist andhisdesire to quiteliterally beautiful. of this twoin three-quarter view. inscrip. waspainting for the Venetian scholar andsoldier tegna Jacopo Marcello. Metropolitan's Magdalene (fig. of depicted equivalent lettered relievo orlowrelief. or little thatin 1459Manwork.45·AndreaMantegna. It demands and repays theclosest it viewing. Verona) by curiously scholars butwas clearly and is designed by Mantegna many affecting.

Kunsthistorisches Museum. 46 (enlarged) [ 42 ] Saint Sebastian. This content downloaded from 130. wood. offig. Vienna(gG 301) Detail 47 (opposite).263áx ii V% (68 χ 30 cm).Andrea Mantegna.49. 1459p).46.198. 15 Sep 2013 09:15:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . andgoldon Tempera in.5 on Sun.

5 on Sun. 15 Sep 2013 09:15:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .[ 43 ] This content downloaded from 130.49.198.

48 (above) and 49 (opposite).Details (enlarged)of fig. 15 Sep 2013 09:15:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .198.46 [ 44 ] This content downloaded from 130.49.5 on Sun.

5 on Sun.198. 15 Sep 2013 09:15:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .[ 45 ] This content downloaded from 130.49.

asserting showedSebastian tiednot to a postor a tree. In theupper left drew an Mantegna wascelebrating wasnotmilitary Sebasintentional between hiscreative skills and those tegna victory (though comparison tianwas a member of the Praetorian Guard)but Christian imagesthatNaturemakeson occasionin passingclouds: over madebychance. of outwriting "[The drawing we are invited to admire theartist s skillat painting in is the water mark of refinement. conventions and is Giovanni Santi's true successor to theancients: Here. On the base ofthethrone in his ceiving throwing weight creative powers on one leg. it once formed littered withclassical monuments on one sideanda lakewith partofan in whatseems arcade to havebeena Romanbasilica. intellectually complex back Rome to the art of Greece? The world of and his insistegna reaching beyond high-minded. images Comparing ability withmeticulous AroundSaintSebastian.He was fascinated sius. chance. picture steeped Mantegna painted picture in classical all culture. theartist's to crevictory paganism. 15 Sep 2013 09:15:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . ." Threecenturies after s death. thediscovery oftheLaocoön to theBible. for as Cicerorightly fragments very of Christian for we cannot undercuts the message "no imitation of a was evermade by noted."thereby a universal canon. victory." thedestruction Blaketakes us veryclose. Butifon imitation. Mantegna gone beyond Romans. city to saya ruined tribunal or place ofjudgment. thevictory world oftheimagination.In the Saint line?How do we distinguish one faceor countenance from hissignature is shown incised intoa pieceofreused another.49. whichsays that God created manfrom thedust Following [ 46 ] This content downloaded from 130. pain Thatthesignature isin Greek that this is a or ecstasy becamea commonplace in Baroqueart. as was tradi. alsoclearly to thebuilding thecontour and makea satisfactory Mantegna gavecareful thought boundary oftheancients. ate to Nature's depicted are broken of Roman a bacchic and included such and cism. Goingagainst pictorial in the Golden eventhestory as recounted someone who had the with Legend. 49) arein contempoMantegna walking orate ofChristian The column Sebasand they lead us intoa deep landscape witha hill dress." contrapposto poseofSebastian whomPlinycredited withconfabled workof Polycleitus.butby thebounding outhis depiction of the wallssurrounding cities.on theother. transposition only in the timeof Diocletian. butto give ment. knavery. fragments sharp bination of nostalgia and regret on thetransitoriness of the delineation of thefigure. . Of course.his signature his competition with the greatest masters of but to a column. is a fragmentary view of God modeling device wasrepeated ingAdamout of clay. The juxtaposition ofthesculpted tellsus (Natural 35:67-68). forwent heroine He rarely "How do we distinguish theoak from Ruth.48). But the della The Madonna Vittoria in the Louvre are establishing great altarpiece is also the of a rhetorical of sufferthree scenes the creation and fall of Adam and Eve. practices of that forbehindthe . including Mantegna images again againin relief withputtiand grapes(see fig. construction). centuries this sort ofrhetorical-expressive a representation as rareas it is faithful in Rome ad nauseam. William . then. butitalsoenabled to elabSebastian for thearchers on thepath(fig." helpbutlament destruction great ofthefact that weremadebypagans.5 on Sun. lapidary.indeed. uponthetheme rary tianis tiedto is notjusta column. is one in whichmany havewon distinction.a toposofhumanist ."To paintbulk and the History marble footwithSebastian's blood-stained one is very much surface within theoutlines.asked. wirey certainty over paganism. tional. Blake. . perfect thing the these once of And thatis whatMantegna was mostinterested in: works.perhaps In subsequent The sceneon theleft thefirst suchin Renaissance art. The beautywith hiswork. indistinct forms ofhishorseman regardless they perfect theone hand." sculp. marble revetment is a brickcore.Thisis thedistinction arcade is a demonstration cessful concededto Parrhaknowledge. no doubta great achievethough to thepoint. in theopportunity to display thisarchaeological fascination thebeech. chanceimages ofnature andtheartifacts are paintedpartly ofmanarereally which these archaeological unlike eachother. artistry. pieces sculpture. left comment on hisnotionofthe Mantegna yetanother statues their oftheidea of"making of an artist. equivalent figure pose depicting . to an through Does thisGreeksignature also carry an allusion to Manof the and understanding hard. . victory.ofthesaint: Toergon ton Andreou thecontrapposto withupturned headto signify (Thisis theworkofAndrea)! in 1506. demanding Mantegna is an obvious emulation ofthe tenceon the"wirey lineofrectitude. The puffy.198. of thefigures. But when signals immediately with a designated audience orviewer: someone this he was breaking new ground. this is a worldin whichpastandpresent coalesce: a of Victory. by the Mantegna reuse ofbuilding thewaythedetritus ofone culture commenting materials: on a drawing of his own showing thebiblical becomes thebuilding material for thenext.thehorsefrom theox.Whatis itthat stonebehindthe carved from (notethatthebottommost andmovements? pilaster distinguishes honesty His like letter is buried behind thelater but the hard and line of rectitude and name. by hisinsistence works ofman on thecontour line. was a commonthemeof Renaissance criticare. Aboveand to In short. This not classical ancient Greece.lines] painting highPliny ture as wellas living flesh. these causeus to reflect witha comin thecloudscouldnotbe moredifferent from thehard. situates the story underwhom theshattered wallsofthebuilding thesceneshifts. leaveout lifeitself. which is boatsferrying backandforth to a fortified on theother. Beyond wasmartyred. andhisdepiction ofthefragmentary wherethepainting in sucwithin is rarely attained finishes. Mantheright is a figure Of course. butby thebounding lineand itsinfinite Sebastian inflections . a delineation muchenhanced very . has thusbeen revealed in the actionsand intentions? Leave out thisline and you Sebastian's victory oftheRomanbuilding.

1500P). comparison. record (3848LR). or Raphael's frescoes in the in the Vatican andMichelangelo's The after Sistine Caesar Chapel. 50) fall category. thetwospecialists in the to be shown the exhibition cataloguing prints ExcellentPainters. thanks to a controversy in that largely erupted thewakeofpreparations for theMantegna exhibition that was heldin LondonandNewYorkin 1992.In brief.After Mantegna.a theme laborof thosewho workin stoneand marble in hisarguments forthe Leonardo wasto express powerfully ofpainting oversculpture.6cm). ca. sculpture painting.) pictures Mantegna been contrasting hismastery of thebrush withthemanual .VI: The Corselet Bearers (see fig. by Giorgio didnothesitate to assign to him. often included references to quarrying paintings Mantegna ofstatues marble andthecarving and columns. oftheearth this detail (Genesis 2:7).198. Squarcione. teacher. (27.The first is comprised of categories famouspaintings: the reproductive engravings publicizing after Leonardo daVinci's LastSupper. creation on thegodlike character of artistic 1 ManuelChrysoloras "we As early as 141 had declared that admire notso muchthebeauties ofthebodiesin statues and asthebeauty ofthemind oftheir maker. Mantegna and Engraving To discuss without Mantegna's placein theRenaissance sayat least a few words about the associated with ing engravings him is impossible.8χ 32. and Architects (first Sculptors. discussion we needto makea distinction Forthis between' twobroad ofprintmaking. was to be leveledtwo centuries later (The samecriticism another artist obsessedwith the legacyof the at Poussin. prints Mantegna's Triumphs of intothis Forourpurposes. In recent rolein printmaking has been years Mantegna's muchdiscussed. It wasfamously taken andis up bytheFlorentine Neoplatonists In his a recurrent themein the poetryof Michelangelo."The divine paintings nature ofcreativity wasmuchdiscussed in theRenaissance. Over and overMansuperiority on callingattention to the qualityof his tegnainsisted in his that same he wished to commemorate genius genius funerary chapel. On themrests claimto cifically Mantegna's one of the innovators of a role his contembeing engraving in his LivesoftheMost followed Vasari poraries.5 on Sun.God as artist. reproduce compositions never intended to be translated intopaint butweremadespeto be engraved. (seefig. Surely goeswellbeyond for to the s penchant visual references Mantegna introducing It or between and paragone.44). Paris. 1550).49.Muséedu LouRothschild Collection vre. Yetin these seems to have ancient world. 11χ Ι2% in. he affirmed in that mostuncompromisingly hisbelief "hard andwirey lineofrectitude": thefoundation ofItalian disegno. however. 15 Sep 2013 09:15:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . for engravings example.The pilaster may thecarved that pilasters separated thecanvases whenthey were installed together The Triumphs ofCaesar. interest attaches to a secondgroup: thoseengravings greater that that were drawings byMantegna.Andrea 50. Engraving. publishedin [ 47 ] This content downloaded from 130.thesedetails attest to the artist's ativity? fascination withwhatwe might calltheculture ofmarble a fascination thatled to his paintings being criticized by his first for their stonelikequality. art. Mightthese on thethemeof crebe construed as yetfurther comments On the one hand. is notonlya singular illustration of Genesis buta comment . for even more than his paintings they ensured hisbroadandcontinued anditis in them that legacy.

5 on Sun. 52.ca. (24. 1497. ca. (34 χ 23 cm).49. bywhat be of as an narrow attitude toward the might thought overly idea of authorship. New light was shedon thisquestion nineyears ago.7 χ 31. wouldbe leviediftheterms werenotmet. 63. 1918 (18. an attitude that would have seemed anachronistic to the Renaissancemind and thatperhaps the thetechnical innovations of these underplayed factthat hadto havebeenconceived engravings byMantegna.Hercules and Antaeus. to thestipulations.65. permission fined 100 ducats.reached conclusions aboutMantegna s involvement. Museum of Fine Arts. 40. thathe will not showthe designs and platesnor allow said designs to be copied by anyone without from Messer underpenalty of Andrea. forhimself and his heirs. opposite Theircommon was therecognition that pointof departure most oftheprints basedon hisdesigns weremadebyprofessional printmakers." much for So a casual attitude toward being the processof printmaking. There is no way of knowing AndreaMantegna. 15 Sep 2013 09:15:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 62. So farso good.The Metropolitan Rogers Fund. 59. 51.Wherethetwo scholars was in their or rejection of the parted company acceptance traditional view thatthesevenfinest associated with prints name (figs. 1497. plate 13Ysχ 9 in. One passage runs. playeda crucialrole in the history in of The debate was fueled nique printmakingItaly.in conbyMantegna of the techsequence.with thediscovery of an absolutely document: a forfascinating malarrangement in made with a Mantegna April1475 goldsmith namedGian Marco Cavallito engrave copperplates after hisdesigns. 60. was According Mantegna to retain theplates andheavy fines engraved byGianMarco. thesameGiovan "item: Marcopromises Messer both Andrea. regardlessofwhether or nothe actually wieldedtheburin. Boston.3) AndreaMantegna.9 cm).After FourDancingMuses.198.Engraving.After Museum ofArt. Engraving.Helen and Alice Colburn Fund (M28357) [ 48 ] This content downloaded from 130. 65) had actually Mantegna's beenengraved himself andthat he had. sheet9% χ I2 V£ in. In the fifteenth this usually century meant a goldsmith.

44. 1929 (29. had made him but offers.The Flagellation withthePavement.198. [ 49 ] This content downloaded from 130. 15 Sep 2013 09:15:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Engraving." The report of a virtually event undercontemporaneous scoreshow seriously took the translation of his Mantegna into engravings. ca.Manprintmaking a core groupof engraved tegnaretained plates(including five oftheseven finest ones). in. forSimone. employment.AndreaMantegna. In September of 1475the painterdesigns Simoneda Reggio registered a complaint printmaker against It seemsthat he had come to Mantuahoping for Mantegna. Whatthis establishes is the very clearly attached to what we would call importance Mantegna today "intellectual property. 1470-75 (?). whether thearrangement withGianMarcowasunique. engravings.whichhe passedon to hisson in a post-mortem of LeoLeonardo. Mantegna before that date.49. 53·After trimmed. he Unfortunately was a friend of another Mantuan who had painter recently had somedrawings. Mantegna nothing seemsto havecome of them. Whichever was the case. how it or whether had in been involved long lasted.5 cm).19) AnonymousGift. ofChrist. (38.The Metropolitan Museum of eliminating plate 15% χ il V% Art. they appear inventory nardo's in 15 effects 10.5 on Sun. and medals stolen from him. door moldingat top and right.6 χ 29.

3. butonce he engaged GianMarcoCavalli.2χ 34. 15 Sep 2013 09:15:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .[b-8266]/pr) Simone offered to make replacements for the engravings. 1470-75. there wasno room in Mantuaforanother of printmaker.whichones?Do we designs [ 50 ] This content downloaded from 130. (i943.in conseMantegna for atleast someofMantegna s quence. National of Rosenwald Collection Art.5 on Sun. regardless whomthat was for. on themforfourmonths. Limbo. sheet 16%χ 13Viin. Engraving. extraordinary Mantegna quiteclearly not take printmaking casuallyand was willingto go to extremes to ensure that he hadno competition.After Andrea Christ's Descent into ca. 54· Mantegna. punishable by cityand then the marchese for a Whatever elseone petitioned pardon. The question is. responsible translating intoengravings.3cm). person working SinceGianMarcowasstill on good terms withMantegna somethirty later there can be no doubtthathe years really had notfailed in 1475and thathe was. enraged.(42.C.57ó7. D.. Simone fled the omy. makes ofthis did drama. a crime death. then a beating andthenan accusation ofsodbyhired thugs. When Mantegna heard working what wasup tohe became Simone First camethreats. Not onlydid he insist on total control oftheplates that wouldbe engraved.49. Gallery Washington.198.

ca.and brownwash on vellum. inventory of about 1497. notlong from workon a painting derive Mantegna's Mantegna in Mantua(there after arestill echoesofhisworkin mustdate fromthattime as well so both engravings arriving [ 51 ] This content downloaded from 130. Ecole Nationale Supérieuredes Beaux-Arts. that seemsto havedevised in the 1460s.52). But unlike Hercules andAntaeus and thatis listedin the 15 and back of a singlecopperplate s property. 54) dancing (fig. (37.ink. 1465-70.14% χ DescentintoLimbo.he wouldprobably also havebeen responsible engravings showingthe Flagellation also muses as Christ and the Descent into Limbo were of four less dazzling 53.5 on Sun.198. Pen. Hercules andAntaeus. 15 Sep 2013 09:15:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . ofwhich isin theMetropolitan thefinest 51)? (fig.Christ's 55Paris (189) ii in.49. The muses FourDancing theseengravings recordcompositions of Leonardo Mantegna Muses. morethantwenty after theinitial contract withGian owetohimprints suchas themarvelous years Marco.2 χ 28 cm). AndreaMantegna. (figs. impression forthe Two fascinating of Ifso. engraving in on thefront doneon thefront andbackofthesameplateandarelisted twocompositions wereactually these engraved 10 that same15 10inventory.

engraving (which raninto in thiscase we can see exactly wherethe engraver forwhatseemsto 's design.42. ingframes .detailof SaintJohn(enlarged). wanted to his version of the on he hold (also vellum). The sameinability ingbecomeflattened in all thefigto translate thedrawing intoa print is evident ures. a double-sheet [ 52 ] This content downloaded from 130. beautifully DescentintoLimbo(fig. a failed But on thepartofwhom?GianMarco? sents effort. whichis staged standing and The figures arerendered however. rectangular openFlagellation wonderfully . Similarly.HarrisBrisbaneDick Fund. in the the drawof demons marvelously complex poses flying outin theengraving.198. schematically.one sitting.30) fortheseengravings are the OvetariChapel).AndreaMantegna. plate iiYs χ ΐ63/β Museum ofArt. that Giovanni Bellini(who livedin awe ofMantegna).6 cm).and The same is trueof Christ's the lostin the pathetic pletely glossof the print. engraving paper) of Hell in described the The brilliant wayMantegna opening the thedrawing as a tunnel viewedin steepforeshortening. 15 Sep 2013 09:15:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .49. difficulties Mantegna transposing on vellumrather be the autograph drawing (exceptionally. of the original thisengraving too repredrawing.5 on Sun. engraver in favor missed ofGianMarco(letus hopewithgreater consideration thanSimoneexperienced)? Thisbrings us to theseven that lie truly superb engravings at theveryheartof the debate:The Entombment. a Bacchanal witha Wine Vatand a pendantBacchanal withSilenus. It is notsurprising whenMantegna s brother-in-law. was left The blank).54). as yetanonymous. (fig. in. thecoltheengraver losthiswaywhenit cameto finishing lacksa base) and theentablature umns(theone at theright is clearly unfinished.The designs In the a inventive. is survives than on which the based 55).observing in thebacktheaction. Engraving. hasbeencomcrevices between thestones defined.The Entombment. whomMantegna disAnother. 1937 (37.The Metropolitan 56. got paint subject In short. ground. (29 χ 41. theother with twosoldiers thescene. The Risen Christ between SaintsAndrew and Longinus.

ofworking. he loosened andGian control. Fletcher.AndreaMantegna. Everyone Longinus.Bacchanal witha Wine Vat(fig. designed a relicof Christ's of the housed blood.havemade prints may. petent Alternatively stagewe can alternatives after some initial only Mantegna.Their chronological sequence ofwhether their a or relahastheissue production spans long that theChrist between brief oftime.49. experimenting in a newdirection. Marcofell backintoa morerotemanner To demonstrate was after. Mantegna breathe downtheback wielded theburin anddidnotsimply ofa proficient cannot be dismissed out of hand. witha number ments.5 on Sun.whencethepresence Romansoldier who Christ's side). Then. byAlberti. the layingof the foundation stone for the Church of Sant'Andrea onJune 12.198. exceptionally high quality theold idea that because oftheir that extraordinary qualities . pierced these stand out from therest for that seven agrees engravings andinnovative It is their technique. of theNationalGallery ofArt. goldsmith An exemplary undertaken technical of these by analysis prints Battle 59-65. 15 Sep 2013 09:15:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . as 40). ofengraving His manner wasthen pushed imitated somemorecomby other professional printmakers. just whatit was that Mantegna will to show a of the of it be detail perhaps enough profile the weepingSaintJohn(fig.63).1472(thechurch. detail(enlarged) 57· hasbeenmuchdiscussed. Itseems likely tively period with Andrew andLonginus Saints 59) hassomeconnection (fig. oftheSea Gods.and the Madonnaand Child (figs. experisuggest ofgoldsmiths.56) in the greatprintof the [ 53 ] This content downloaded from 130. withtime. and at this than others. possibly managed bylithim to do what· overGianMarcoto get erally standing exactly he envisioned. Shelley Washington. in their status the ofprintmakhasunderscored special history to view themas theproducts not of a ing and givenreason an established but professional goldsmith applying technique in an unfamiliar ofan artist which he medium.thathe himself after all.

London (1860. 1470-75.3 χ 13.AndreaMantegna.Pen and brownink. 15 Sep 2013 09:15:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .Man on a StoneSlab.58.ca. BritishMuseum.49.63) charcoal.5 on Sun. [ 54 ] This content downloaded from 130.overtracesof black chalk or 8 χ 5 Viin.0616.198.9 cm). (20.

ca.49.AndreaMantegna. (31. 15 Sep 2013 09:15:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . The Metropolitan Museum ofArt. 1472.198. Rogers Fund. 1921 (21.9 cm).Engraving.The Risen Christ between SaintsAndrew and Longinus. 59plate 12% χ 11% in.28) [ 55 ] This content downloaded from 130.5 on Sun.5 x 28.

The results contrast with the diligentdullness markedly found in Baccio Baldini 's transcription ofBotticelli's designs for in in 148 theDivineComedy 1. 15 Sep 2013 09:15:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Entombment. that oneideas.C. oftheEntombment to thedeeply narrative moving a rocky withthethree crosses of 60). plate of Patrons' Permanent Fund Art. landscape in in from scenes ofdrunken Calvary thedistance. wonderfully oflight effects and shade. In themost forwhichclearly camefrom himself. someunfortunately times retouched at a laterdatewithpen and ink). doubleprint that when 62). or compositional plyas a meansof recording butas an imitation ofhismanner ofdrawing.5 on Sun. revelry Bacchanal with a Wine Vat ofthecom63) andthegrotesquery (fig. 1470-75.an unprecedented [ 56 ] This content downloaded from 130.65) to the mock Battleofthe panion Bacchanal andin boththesamesortofparallel ityin theline. impression of whichis in theMetropolitan have (mostof theseprints come downto us in poor impressions.. hatching. withSilenus(fig. on her child tral seated the floor background. Mantegna sense he is of these and their the author important prints innovative style.This is published Florence becauseMantegna conceived of theprint medium notsimhis invenzioni. trimmed to andwithin 11% χ 17%in. nessof mindand handthathad so impressed his admirers from an early One needonlycompare themodeling of stage. D. they reprein thehistory theimpetus senta revolution ofprintmaking. to see the close relationship he Bothdrawing andengraving showthesameemphasis sought.9χ sheet.98.6o. Butofcourse theimportance oftheprints goeswellbeyond their andstyle.setagainst (fig. So whether madethese Mantegna himself or whether he foundin Gian Marco Cavalli prints someonewho was able to realize hisintentions. thesetwo engravings and withMantegna s marvelous pen inkdrawings. 40) Mary against (fig. Sea Gods(fig. laiddown. Mantegna./pr) Gallery Washington.(29.Andrea TheEntombment. The way the burinhas been manipulated to achieve theductility of a pen lineis equallyclearin a detail from theprint of a bacchanal 57). Engraving.49.2 cm). 44.Nothing could be further removed from normalengraving practice. mark.The ofseven cover a range coregroup technique from of the of subjects thatextend the devotional intimacy a neuMadonna andChild which shows .National (1986.58). suchas thebeautiful Man ona Stone Slabin the British Museum (fig. humbly cradling in herarms. ca. denser. i. on contour andinterior variabilwithenormous definition.198. sometimes sometimes creates subtle finer.thefinest (fig..

Timanthes mentioned 62). Alberti's treatise on painting. in are clad windblown . an extraordinary battling paint. 56). with so should have invested the that he is Alberti's choric isolated to one Saint side. with thecorrelations ofManIt is typical forms ofthebodyto be described. to imagine emphasis armswas derivedfroma sarin them The engraving TheRisenChrist The woman with outflung all." said. frieze of marine creatures Timanthes' andAlberti. some when he hisEntombment for illustration of an Albertian is a brilliant Entombment painted 60) departure Raphael (fig.The Metropolitan ofArt.Mantegna prints as Alberti left more for the onlooker His constant a veil.5 on Sun. (29 χ 41.198. plate n % χ i63/sin."he problems thanhe could see withtheeye. visual as demonstrations thus. frieze the as a continuous andviewed ing illustrated suggests together pasted of father Timanthes the ofa Romanrelief on a sarcophagus. 1937 (37. That the is an exercise of thepicture (they provided pointof by plane. limp project angled edge podium the with obvious effort two men in illusionism. offigures foreshortened. many John ing allofwhich alsoenhance The ofartistic cue for theviewer. subject tegna figure. (seefig. HarrisBrisbaneDick Fund.42. 15 Sep 2013 09:15:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Christ. one ofwhich. 6i.for example.30) and to express the the sacrifice of Iphegenia.6 cm).lying there aretenfigures." abouthis grief often viewedin complex."and ofhisingegno. response thetragic mood. And all ten who noted istoria was demonstrated later) figures thirty years by MichaelBaxandall. painting by (fig. in Padua and that Alberti relief the minedforhis greatmarble feet viewed disotto insu. thegriev. serves as an emotional whose signifiers accomplishment.49. format grief Iphegenia's inexpressible himwithhisheadcovered with to showcase certain hitupontheidea ofshowing usedthese Thentoo. AndreaMantegna. Engraving.Museum detail(enlarged). muchprizedbyAlberti becauseit allowstheunderAsAlberti drapery.their itsthree overlapping figures his is borne The dead with to out also admired. posesis apparent of the dead MeleagerthatDonatellohad already with cophagus Andrew andLonginus between Saints 59).(fig.is marvelously bygrief of thisreligious narrative contrasts his face with The who covers with another trasted highseriousness grieving figure humor of the Battle the Sea Gods with the mordant the ancient an obvious allusion to a cloth of abruptly 61).The Entombment. so as and the cross of the limbs. (fig. recommended. byPliny [ 57 ] This content downloaded from 130. consaint's contorted face.

In theforeground of Bacchanal with a WineVat(fig. a highly ridiculous His comoriginal. collegefraternity. The twobacchanal of 63.In thecenter of thecomposition another leafyhaired takes oftheinebriated who sits figure advantage youth on the of the wine vat.198.reaches on a cornucopia ofgrapes to claim his wreath of up which him is offered to an an older victory. (28. I. Who can fail to admire teetering edge brilliant of character and motive: the Mantegna's description contrast between thetwomouths.Engraving and drypoint overall11Veχ 32V2in. A statue But envyof what? of Neptunestands on theshore amidst therushes that border theshallow marsh.5 on Sun. (Album 38) eachother under theaegisofan old hagwithsagging breasts whoholds aloft a cartel with theinscription "invid[ia]"(envy). 15 Sep 2013 09:15:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Envy. Itisrotated so that thegodseesnothing. two have infants out after 64) passed drinking too much. shown andideally withhisright handresting beautiful. ion. whilea still sober climbs companion up thesideof thebarrel. and blowsthrough a hair. offish to beateachother as one ofthemarine creatures holds skull as a shield.AndreaMantegna. one foot on a with a placing spigot phallic notably The comicpairat theright celebrate in drunken fashshape. panionhasleafy ramshorn. wearsa goatskin.62. grin (see thecoddling hands oftheseducer andthe 57).BattleoftheSea Gods. young . It is likea brawl in students up a bull's among an American theprint seemsto say. At the left. 1470-75. DevonshireCollection. intentionally concept. by unlikely pair: [ 58 ] This content downloaded from 130.65) aretheproducts (figs.3 χ 82.Chatsworth n. Bacchus limp. one unconsciously hanging the otherforming a lascivious open in slumber. of artas themirror of nature? Whatever thespecifics of the and it does not seem to be based on literallegory anysingle text what is is the ridicule that ary apparent Mantegna heaps on theseagodsandtheir female who useclusters companions.ca.49. leadsto folly that eventhegodsrefuse to observe. away from whatappears to be a circular mirror thatwouldallow him toobserve thefracas Or isthemirror anemblem indirectly.orbetween fig. (in two parts).6 cm). hisheadis alsoturned Indeed. prints thesamescathing wit.One is a sort offoolorcourt who wears bells on his jester ankles andwhoselegsareadorned withacanthus-like foliage. defenseless ones of the youth.

ofNudeMen (fig. Pollaiuolo's printmaking activity quite possibly.Mantua precisely thecenter of theworld or evenof northern forthat Italy. and there is every reason to believethatthey were undertaken for this reason. Like Poussin twocenturies theterms later. theopportunity to make press to hisstatus as thesupreme Italian artist must prints advertise havebeen irresistible to Mantegna.which Landini that Alberti himself madeengravings reported [ 59 ] This content downloaded from 130. in a city ofrealcultural artists of consequence among competing In Florence he must have taken note of the genius. musthaveworried thatwhatever Mantegna prestige attached to beingthecourt artist oftheGonzaga carried with it the downside of working in an out-of-the-way townon thatfewpeoplewerelikely to see. once again. laiuolo's would have made clear the engraving quite possibilities this newmedium for fame. Not coincidentally. Battle thetheme of 66).of degenerate humanfolly. that is alsoa battle without causeandwithout print apparent clear outcome: an exposéon thefutility ofunbridled violence. cophagi pose to a sarcophagus in the VillaMediciin Rome.including. in creating Therecanbe little doubtthat these engravings withclassical themes was Roman sarMantegna inspired by the of the for can be traced Bacchus.49. After wasnot all.198. Whena printing provided spreading was setup in Mantuain 1472.mansitting on theshoulders ofa Hercules-like figure wearing a lionskin. Thisis nota celebration ofthekingdom ofBacchus but an exposure.5 on Sun. matter. Mantegna appropriated of theancient worldonlyto subvert themto his own high moral purpose.But Mantegna hastransformed hisancient sources intomoralizing allegories. burgeoning . Alberti s friend Cristoforo . instance. Andit too involves in a of Polfigures variety complex poses.He had been to projects Florence in 1466andwhilethere he must havebeenreminded ofwhatitwasliketo work. Theseseven s ambition as engravings encapsulate Mantegna an artist. and he has subverted thelanguage of classicism to his own ends. 15 Sep 2013 09:15:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . as he hadin Paduain the1450s.

(29.Engraving and drypoint. 15 Sep 2013 09:15:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 63.49.1159) 64.Bacchanal The Foundation and The ElishaWhittelsey The ElishaWhittelsey Museum ofArt.1986 (1986.The Metropolitan witha Wine Vat. 1470-75. Purchase. Fund. Engelhard Rogers Fund.8 χ 43-8 cm).11Vaχ 'η Vain.AndreaMantegna.5 on Sun. Collection. Charles Gift.198.ca. Detail of fig.63 (enlarged) [ 60 ] This content downloaded from 130.

4 χ 60.Engraving.H.Purchasefrom theJ.withSilenus. Itisnotuniformly (fig.9 cm). The holding vagaries 66. its useofcolor anda black demonstrate itwas that background intended as a finished workof art. 6$. Engraving plate 11% χ ij% in. and thatit was meant to remind itsowner of thoseantique cameosand intaglios that were so prized Thatitwaslater translated into byconnoisseurs. outstanding extraordinary Therecan be no more of than an exquisite poignant example this drawing inthe British Museum but finished. oneofthose over which exercised conMantegna anyguiding .we knowthat trol thedrawing half preserves onlytheupper ofa larger Whatwe see is humanity underthe composition. ofIgnorance.to use art to moralize Mantegna's persistent tendency notonly to depict idealcityscapes for human activities butto . shown asanobesewoman seated on a globe reign a rudder attributes of the of Fortune. ca.49. 15 Sep 2013 09:15:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .Bacchanal early1470s(?). 1929 (29. Cleveland Museum ofArt. 67).AndreaMantegna.7 cm). But surely it is one of the traits of this most artist.The Metropolitan MuseumofArt.5 on Sun. 1460. Antonio del Pollaiuolo (1431/32-1498). Becauseoftheexistence of theengraving not inspired. is another indication ofthewayprintmaking wasbeingtransformed from thespecialty ofgoldsmiths for intoa means propideas as wellas artistic elite.44. (29.BattleofNude Men.198. and drypoint.does not always characterize the folliesof humankind receive theattention it deserves.127) [ 61 ] This content downloaded from 130. (42. agating bytheintellectual .9 χ 43.Wade Fund (1967. an engraving the invention is an index of the admiration . 16% χ 24 in.15) AnonymousGift.alas.

15 Sep 2013 09:15:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .198.-=09 )(8*=-0/'] This content downloaded from 130.49.5 on Sun./'.

5 on Sun. 's and hissons'concern aboutthe genius(whenceMantegna It is thisbiting. Vinci and Mantegna casta farmorecritical and pessimistic on the world around and what sawwasignothem. ca. grope one a bitof their tofall intoa pit. of of them burn branches oflaurel: thetraditional symbol virtue has inscribed the "virtuscomandmerit. drawing Mantegna a group offigures busta"(Virtue setablaze).Purchase.them issupported andalongside globe bythree-legged sphinxes shown aresacks ofmoney.ca. on papergivena lightbrownwash. red. Thisis a remarkable invenzione. ominously is always attached "Ignorance opposedtoVirtue. amidstthe into a laureltree: Virtuedeserted transformed derived thorns andruins ofcivilization. 15 Sep 2013 09:15:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ." Mantegna a personal to thisidea.AndreaMantegna. brown. ears resemblance to thefigure breasts and pointed (her sagging intheBattle the Sea is not Beside ofEnvy Gods coincidental). Pen and brownink overleadpoint(?).579) [ 63 ] This content downloaded from 130. The theme reminds way. an imageMantegna Alberti. hypercritical but always exaltedmindthatgivestheartof Mantegna suchan extraordinary himthepivotal artist edge and makes ofthefifteenth century. The voice assumed is bothproudand cynical. 67. witha blackoverred (vermilion) background. Vice and Virtue. hasarrived. . 1954 (54. Mr. Is he Fraud? In thepitbelow andherewe areobliged to movefrom the drawing to the printby GiovanAntonioda Brescia 68). ofthearts. right Mercury.he reaches out andrescues one of thevictims ofIgnorance.she'sthe old skinny womanwith andAvarice blindfolded.At theleftis a woman (fig. Scholz Gift. and Mrs. withwhite. almost to seeming takemorepleasure in thescathing of theblind description and ignorant thanin their rescue. 1490-1500.rather the humanspirit as JacobBurckhardt framed the But both Leonardoda period in the nineteenth century. GiovanAntonioda Brescia (activeca. thegod ofeloquenceand logic. heightened χ 17% in. Allegory of Viceand Virtue.and indigo wash. folly.Ignorance and Mercury.3 χ 44 cm). bottomhalfof An Allegory 11 χ in. 1525).forhe voicedit in letters to meaning Francesco But to the the inventor Gonzaga. sheet % ιηΎ% of Engraving.after AndreaMantegna. only oftheblind Pieter theEldersfamous leading Bruegel painting is indeedblind.Lust. She is theblind. eye they wantonness and a lack of recognition of real rance.6 χ 44.49. 1490. We areproneto think of in terms the Renaissance of optimism and the progress of .ΐ. (28. (30. is advised Ignorance byIngratitude. hisheadand Another manhasa cloth tiedover bagpipes holds a dogon a leash.198. To theleft.thebodieshavepiled up. 11XA British Museum.1 cm). of the discarded from a dialoguewritten One by marble blocks isinscribed with letters that declare.23) 68. forthenude female figure with s ears Error and is to her fate a ass by figure guided with webbed feet and bat's a by satyr wings playing encouraged . funerary chapelin Sant'Andrea).Janos The Metropolitan Museum ofArt. Like Christ at thegates ofHell.London (pd ρρ.

Arnold.Mantegna Thiébaut.withcontributions Jane. of et al.17. pp. 18 (2001). with Mantegna. Paris."The Creation ofAdam: A Detailin Mantegna's Italia medioevale e umanistica documentimantovani. RoyalAcademy New The Metropolitan MuseumofArt. desMuséesNationaux/Art Resource. Fig.BIBLIOGRAPHY on Mantegna Principal monographs I: La storia delVarte libera la Agosti. Fig.62:© Devonshire Reproduced ofChatsworth Settlement Trustees. Andrea Genevaand Mantegna. Trustees.1971. Milan. Erich Resource. Giotto in and the Pictorial Discovery of ComposiofPainting Italy Andrea. "Mantegna Burlington Magazine 8 (November 1905)."WhyMantegna 31.cat. Resource.27-32. NewYork This content downloaded from 130.341-47. Alberta. NewYork. 103-18."New Findings about Andrea His Son Mantegna: Ludovico's Post-mortem Γ 15 ( 10) Journal Inventory ofthe and Courtauld Institutes 59 (1996). Matters.54. QueenElizabeth Chatsworth.Includes an up-to-date.49.pp. Milan. 2008. NewYork.. ed.60: Images Figs. Exh.33:© National Art New York.Andrea London. Rodolfo. 1431-1506. Mantegna. I e Attività Culturali/Art Scala/Ministero Béni le per NewYork.35: Figs. 1972.ioozL.editedby FredericEisig. 1901. andDominique eds.Michael. dipinta Andrea Parma.25-28.9.1. 42-44: Gallery Washington. Mantegna: NewYork. 2005.Opushoctenue: La camera di Signorini. Kristeller.5 on Sun. Hampton London. London/ Resource. Mantegna andPainting as Historical NarGreenstein. 23. Boorsch Mar tineau. Catalogue ofthe Oxford. Paintings. . Arts. 1985. pp..293-319. Mantegna. Renaissance." 43 Credits and Copyright Notices Photograph ofworks inThe Metropolitan Museum New photography ofArtis byMarkMorosse andJuan Trujillo. Resource. forConnoisseurs pp. M. by Grayson." Print Fletcher. and theOrators: Humanist Observers Baxandall.pp. Drawings. Giovanni. Figs. Edited Leon Battista. ..3-41. Shelley."Journal and ofthe Warburg Courtauld Institutes 59 (1996). courtesy National ofArt. 1070." Fry. Musée du Louvre.201-29. 1350-1450. a Ronald. 1992. pp. . tion. 12. Jack rative.Su Mantegna testa. Fig. Christiansen. Figs. December .67: oftheBritish ©The Trustees Museum/Art Resource. exhaustive bibliography. byAndrea ofCaesar in the Collection Her the at tegna of Majesty Queen Court. Complete Lightbown."In II dolcelavorare: Mélangesen Vhonneur du Professeur Mauro Natale.13." NewRepublic.Giovanni.Andrea Mantegna. 45:Scala/Art Figs. "Andrea Mantegna (2002). 42 (2001). 2004." Esch." Italia medioevale Oxford. Chicago. "Mauernbei Mantegna. 15 Sep 2013 09:15:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .50:Réunion Figs. bypermission Fig. De Nicolò Salmazo. Andrea PaduaandMantua.149-79· e GianMarcoCavalli: Nuovi . Fig. Zeitschrift fürKunstgeschichte 47 (1984). andPrints.29: Alinari/Art NewYork.87-98. pp.36: NewYork. Figs.198. perAndrea e la tipografia a e altre notizie sull'oreficeria Mantegna e umanistica Mantova nel XV secolo. Warburg Madonna della Vittoria . "A CloserLook atMantegna's Prints. NoémieEtienne. 8. bySuzanne Exh. LondonandNewYork. Andrew. Paul. andtranslated Cecil London. Preussischer Kulturbesitz /Art Fig. Quarterly pp.38:Bildarchiv New York. and Grégoire Extermann. Paris. pp. 30-32. Gallery. Nimatallah/Art Resource. as a Mystic. 1986. 303-4.39: Lessing/Art NewYork. "GianMarcoCavalli incisore Canova.2008. The Triumphs ManMartindale. 2009. Milan.58: oftheBritish Museum. Resource. Collection. 30. cat. Agosti. On Painting Alberti. York. to in thispublication Specialized studiesreferred Keith. oftheBoardof 40. 1992. RogerE. ©The Trustees 22. The RoyalCollection © 2009HerMajesty II. London. Resource."SomeThoughts on Mantegna's Placein the andOn Sculpture.