Organic Chemistry for IGCSE Chemistry

Crude Oil
Crude Oil Processing

Crude Oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons. These are simple covalently bonded molecules, with weak intermolecular forces. Fractional distillation is used to separate crude oil into useful components (fractions). The more carbon atoms the molecule contains, the stronger the intermolecular forces and the higher its boiling point. The crude oil is heated to around 350°C in a furnace, and the compounds in the oil enter the bottom of the fractional distillation tower as a mixture of gases. They rise up the tower, and as they do so, they cool down. When a molecule reaches a temperature below its boiling point, it condenses, turns to a liquid and falls down the tower, to be collected in a series of trays. The compounds with a similar boiling point condense in the same area, and are removed as part of the same fraction. The compounds with the lowest boiling points reach the top of the tower without condensing, and are removed as part of the refinery gases section. There are many types of hydrocarbon – straight chain, branched chain, and ring molecules – but the carbon always forms four bonds, and the hydrogen one. Crude oil consists of mostly alkanes.
Cracking

tC A a c E H 1 8 H H t8 s ly a T tl T a c A E t C 6 s y 1 4 H + C 2 H 4

If alkane vapour is passed over a heated catalyst, it thermally decomposes. The alkane is broken down into two smaller molecules, an alkane and an alkene, or an alkene and hydrogen. If an alkane and an alkene are produced, the alkene is usually smaller. The hydrogen can be burned as a fuel to power the refinery. The catalyst is a mixture of silicon dioxide and aluminium oxide, and this is done as 500 degrees centigrade. Cracking is very useful, as it breaks down the longer, less useful alkanes found in crude oil such as diesel and naptha into shorter alkanes like petrol, which is in high demand, and into alkenes, which are more reactive than alkanes, and are can be used to make plastics.
catalyst HEA T

C8H18

C6H14 +C2H4

C8H18

C8H16 +H2

and is used to make plastic bags. Polymers: Name Monomer Repeat Unit Notes. with one repeat unit being a length of polymer made from a single monomer. and the monomers join to form polymers. and Properties Poly(ethene) Ethene Also called polythene. carrier bottles and packaging. Poly(propene) Propene Commonly called polypropylene.Polymerisation Addition H C H Alkenes can add to other alkenes. it is used to make ropes. H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H High temperature and pressure Catalyst H C H H C H H C H The chain above shows three repeat units. Poly(chloroethene) Chloroethene Commonly called PVC. it is the strong rigid material used to . crates. Uses. and many other items.

CH3 C Cl H C H CH3 C Cl H C H CH3 C Cl H C H is made from CH3 C Cl H C H The name of a polymer is always poly followed by the name of monomer in brackets e. and draw the new bonds at the side. The remainders of the monomers join to form the condensation polymer. which is made from a carboxylic acid (-COOH) and an amine (-NH2). window frames and drainpipes. If one monomer contains an –OH group. Polyamides One of the most important condensation polymers is nylon. carpets and clothing. with the central portion of the monomers being represented by a block: . and then replace the C=C double bond. then add the brackets. and this reaction differs from addition reactions as different monomers are used. Each of the monomers is double ended. which lets them join together alternately by forming an amide link (-CONH-) to make the polymer. This can be seen below.g. which is used in ropes. Then break the C=C double bond. Nylon is a polyamide. isolate two adjacent carbon atoms. draw out a monomer so that the C=C bond is horizontal.make doors. H3C C H C CH3 CH3 redraw CH3 C H CH3 C CH3 polymerise CH3 C H CH3 C CH3 2-methylbut-2-ene poly(2-methylbut-2-ene) To find the monomer from which a polymer is made. ethene goes to poly(ethene) Condensation Polymerisation A condensation reaction can be used to join many monomers to form a polymer. these combine to form water. Drawing Polymers To draw a polymer. and the other contains an –H. and all the other groups are vertical.

+ HO C2 H 4 OH C + . and both monomers are double ended. and an alcohol (-OH). which are like polyamides.O C HO C O H N N H O C O C O H H H N H N OH H H + Polyesters Polyesters are condensation polymers. with water being produced as a side product. O C HO C OH H O O O H O C O C O H O C 6 H4 C O H H O C 2H 4 O O O + O HOOC C6 H 4 COOH H Polyesters such as terylene are used to manufacture material for clothing. This results in the formation of an ester link (-COO-). but are formed from a carboxylic acid (-COOH).

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