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Secondary(Biological)Treatment: ActivatedSludge PAPR3531

BasicDescription
Theactivatedsludgeprocess: Isaformofaerobicbiologicaltreatmentforreducing solubleBOD Involvesthesuspensionofmicroorganismswithinthe wastewaterinareactor(aerationtankorbasin) A suspendedgrowth process Recycles aportionofthemicroorganismsbackintothe reactor,whichdecouplesmicroorganismretentiontime (solidsretentiontime)fromhydraulicresidencetime [microorganismconcentrationisindependentofhydraulic residencetime]

ObjectivesforActivated SludgeTreatment(AST)
Ataminimum,objectivesarethe SignificantreductioninBODconcentration (lowBODintreatedeffluent) Productionofasludgewithgoodsettlingand compactionproperties(lowTSSinclarified effluent)
NPDESpermitsformunicipalsewagetreatmentand industrialwastewatertreatmentroutinelyspecify dischargelimitsonBODandTSS
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Terminology
Thetermactivatedsludge referstoboththe treatmentprocessandthemicroorganisms Astothelattermeaning,therearesynonyms: activatedsludge=biologicalsludge=secondary sludge=sludge=mixedliquor=bacteria= microorganisms=microbes=bugs=biosolids= solids=biomass

AbbreviationsandAcronyms
HRT=Hydraulicresidencetime SRT=Solidsretentiontime F/MorF:M=FoodtoMicroorganismratio MLSS=MixedLiquorSuspendedSolidsconcentration MLVSS=MixedLiquorVolatileSuspendedSolids concentration RAS=Returnactivatedsludge WAS=Wasteactivatedsludge

ASTDesignParameters
SolidsRetentionTime(SRT) aka:sludgeage, meancellresidencetime(MCRT) FoodtoMicroorganismratio(F/M) HydraulicResidenceTime(HRT) VolumetricLoadingofBOD(VBL) MixedLiquorSuspendedSolids(MLSS) concentrationorMixedLiquorVolatileSuspended Solids(MLVSS)concentration ReturnActivatedSludge(RAS)percentageorratio
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CompleteMixASTProcessDiagram
Aerators/Mixers Aeration Tank Clarifier InfluenttoAST DischargedEffluent

Q,So,Xo

S,X,Vat

Q+QR,S,X

QQW,Se,Xe

Pump
ReturnActivatedSludge(RAS)

QR,SR,XR
Q isflowrate S issubstrate(BOD5)concentration X ismicroorganismconcentration V isvolume Note:Primarytreatment(primaryclarifier)isnotshown.

QW,Sw,Xw
WasteActivatedSludge(WAS)

HydraulicResidenceTime(HRT)
HRTistheaverageresidencetimeofwastewaterin theaerationtank HRT=24 Vat /Q Units:hrs Where Vat =Volumeofaerationtank(106 gallonsorMG) Q=Flowrateofwastewaterinfluenttoaeration tank(106 gal/dayorMGD) Note:Byconvention,RASflow(QR)isnot consideredincalculatingHRT
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SolidsRetentionTime(SRT)
SRTistheaveragetimethemicroorganismsareretainedintheaerationtank SRT=(BiosolidsinSystem)/(RateofBiosolidsLossfromSystem)

SRT=(MLVSS Vat)/(Qw Xw +Qe Xe)Units:days


Where MLVSS=Mixedliquorvolatilesuspendedsolidsconcentrationinaerationtank(mg/L) Vat =Volumeofaerationtank(106 gallonsorMG) Qw =WASflowrate(106 gal/dayorMGD) Xw =Volatilesuspendedsolids(VSS)concentrationinWAS(mg/L) Qe =Effluentflowrate(MGD)(RecallQe=Q Qw) Xe =Effluentvolatilesuspendedsolids(VSS)concentration(mg/L)

NotethatSRTcanbecalculatedusingMLSSandTSSinstead.Also,solidsinthe secondaryclarifier(s)aresometimesincludedinthecalculation.
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FoodtoMicroorganism(F/M)ratio
F/MistheamountofBODtowhichaunitmassofbiosolidsis exposedonadailybasis(loadingbasedonmicroorganisms)

F/M=(Q So)/(MLVSS Vat)Units:lbBOD/lbMLVSSday


Where Q=Influentflow(MGD) So =InfluentBOD5 concentration(mg/L) MLVSS=Mixedliquorvolatilesuspendedsolidsconcentrationinaerationtank (mg/L) Vat =Volumeofaerationtank(MG)

NotethatF/McanbecalculatedusingMLSSinstead. Note:F/MandSRTareinverselyrelated
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VolumetricBODLoading(VBL)
ThevolumetricBOD(organic)loadingistheamount ofBODappliedtoaunitvolumeofaerationtank:
ft3day

VBL=8.34 (Q So)/Vat

Units:lbBOD/1000

Where Q=Influentflow(MGD) So =InfluentBOD5 concentration(mg/L) Vat =Volumeofaerationtank(1000ft3)


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ReturnActivatedSludge(RAS)RecycleRatio
RASflowexpressedasapercentageofthe influentwastewaterflow R=(QR/Q) 100 Where QR=RASflow(MGD) Q=Influentflow(MGD) Units:%

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CommonASTTypes
Conventional:Completemix Conventional:Plugflow Extendedaeration Stepfeed Contactstabilization Oxidationditch Highpurityoxygen(e.g.,UNOX,OASES) Sequencingbatchreactor
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DesignValuesforCommonASTTypes
AST Type
High-Purity Oxygen Contact Stabilization^ Conv. Complete Mix Conv. Plug Flow Step Feed Seq. Batch Reactor Oxidation Ditch Extended Aeration

SRT$ (days)
1-4 5 - 10 3 - 15 3 - 15 3 - 15 10 - 30 15 - 30 20 - 40

F/M (lb BOD/lb MLVSS day)


0.5 - 1.0 0.2 - 0.6 0.2 - 0.6 0.2 - 0.4 0.2 - 0.4 0.04 - 0.10 0.04 - 0.10 0.04 - 0.10

Vol. Loading (lb BOD/ 1000 ft3 day)


80 - 200 60 - 75 20 - 100 20 - 40 40 - 60 5 - 15 5 - 15 5 - 15

Reactor * MLSS (mg/L)


2000 - 5000 1000 - 3000 1500 - 6000 1000 - 3000 1500 - 4000 2000 - 5000 3000 - 5000 2000 - 6000

Reactor * HRT RAS Flow (hrs) (% of influent)


1-3 0.5 - 1 3-5 4-8 3-5 15 - 40 15 - 35 20 - 35 25 - 50 25 - 150 25 - 100 25 - 75 25 - 75 NA# 75 - 150 50 - 150

^ MLSS and HRT values shown are for the contact tank. For stabilization tank, MLSS = 4000 - 10,000 mg/L and HRT = 2 - 6 hours.
$

Based on solids in aeration tank only

* Reactor = Aeration tank

NA = not applicable

Table based on Metcalf & Eddy (2003) and Water Pollution Control Federation (1987) for treatment of municipal wastewater 14

ASTintheNorthAmerican PulpandPaperIndustry
Ofmillswithonsitebiologicaltreatment: IntheUS,about40%haveAST InCanada,about65%haveAST AstotypesofASTintheindustry: IntheUS,alargemajorityareeithercomplete mixorextendedaeration InCanada,highpurityoxygenandsequencing batchreactorsaremuchmorecommonthanin theUS
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CompleteMixAST

Intheideal,concentrationsofmicrobesandBOD, andthusoxygendemand,areuniform throughoutaerationtank Goodathandlingslugandtoxicloads Pronetofilamentoussludgebulking(poor settlinginsecondaryclarifier)


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PlugFlowAST

Isbaffledorhaslength>>width,sohavelittleor nolongitudinalmixing Intheideal,moreefficientthancompletemix Variableoxygendemandalongtankwithhigh demand(highaerationrequirement)atfrontof tank


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ExtendedAerationAST
Canbedesignedascompletemixorplugflow OperatesathighHRT( 20hrs)andhighSRT ( 20days) Sludgeproductionisrelativelylow Canproducehighlytreatedeffluent(lowBOD) Cansufferfrompoorsettlingpinflocs Requiresrelativelylargeaerationtankandhas highaerationrequirements
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HighPurityOxygenAST

Oxygenisintroducedintocovered,stagedtanks HighlyefficientwithhighvolumetricBODloading, soaerationtankrelativelycompact Morecomplexequipmenttoinstall,operateand maintain


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SequencingBatchReactor(SBR)

Thesametankisusedinbatchmodeforbothaerationandsettling Withcontinuouswastewaterflowthereisneedforapreceding storagebasinand/ormorethanoneSBR Lowspacerequirementandrelativelylowcapitalcost Relativelyeasytoautomatebutthenrequireshighermaintenance skills


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ASTProcessControlMethods
Commonapproachestoactivatedsludgeprocesscontrol WAScontrol: ConstantSRT ConstantF/M ConstantMLVSS(orMLSS)concentration RAScontrol: ConstantRAS(constantflowrateorconstantrecycleratio) Choicebasedon ASTperformance VariabilityofBODload Easeofimplementation Operatorpreference
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