Priya Garg-091420 Ritu Lavania-091422

MAY 2013

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the Degree of Bachelor of Technology


(Establishment under MP Private University Act, 2007) A.B. ROAD, P.B. No.1, RAGHOGARH, DIST. GUNA (M.P) INDIA. Phone: 07544 267051, 267310-14 Fax: 07544 267011 Website:

This is to certify that the work titled “DESIGN OF INTEGRATED SUGARCANE BASED BIOREFINERY” submitted by “PRIYA GARG” and “RITU LAVANIA” in partial fulfillment for the award of degree of B.Tech in Chemical Engineering of Jaypee University of Engineering and Technology, Guna (M.P.) has been carried out under my supervision at JUET campus. This work has not been submitted partially or wholly to any other University or Institute for the award of this or any other degree or diploma.

Signature of Supervisor Name of Supervisor Designation Date

................................................... Dr. Hari Mahalingam Associate Professor & Head of Department (Chem. Engg) ....................................................



This project report represents the combined efforts of a large number of individuals and we feel pride in acknowledging to all those who rendered help to us either directly or indirectly. First and foremost, we are indebted to our Project Supervisor, “Dr. Hari Mahalingam”, for his valuable suggestions during the period and for providing all necessary information related to our project. We consider it our good fortune in having worked under his guidance. We express our deep sense of gratitude to “Professor K.K. Tiwari” owing to his untiring help, ever- encouraging attitude and energizing us to complete this project. We express our deep sense of indebtedness to our Vice-Chancellor “Professor N.J. Rao” for his encouragement, help and constant support. Our heart feels regards and thanks to all the faculty members of CHE department for inspiring, encouraging and uplifting us by their enlightened and compassionate care during the course of project. It would have been an impossible task for us to complete the project without the support of these above mentioned people.

Signature Name

.............................................. Priya Garg (091420)

............................................... Ritu Lavania (091422)




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high yield and highly energy efficient. vinasse and raw sugar. including various specifications regarding the operations undertaken in the process. using bagasse as the raw material is presented. which produce multiple fuels and products from petroleum. a biorefinery takes advantage of the various components in biomass and their intermediates therefore maximizing the value derived from the biomass feedstock. and E90 etc. control strategy for major equipment is formulated.108*10^8 Rs 1. The concept of biorefinery is analogous to today's petroleum refinery. In accordance with the process selected for the production of 1st generation bioethanol. Here the selected process for the pretreatment of bagasse is dilute acid pretreatment method. Cost information Total Fixed Capital Investment Total Working Capital Manufacturing cost Payback period= 7years = = = Rs 8. The material balance and the energy balance around the equipments as well as for the overall process with appropriate assumption is worked out. E95. It is mainly used as a fuel like E85. 2nd generation bioethanol. To improve the overall efficiency of the process to 37%. process description and process flow diagram is developed.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This project report contains the final year project entitled “Design of an integrated sugarcane based biorefinery”. The processes are simple. cane trash and some part of bagasse is also used to convert into fuel and electricity to make the biorefinery energy independent and energy efficient.216*10^8 Rs 4. Further process design of all the equipments and detailed equipment design of 2 main equipments followed by complete economic evaluation of plant and costing of equipments is performed. and the production of 2 nd generation bio-ethanol is still under pilot plant study. By producing multiple products.5*10^8 The Pay Back period is 7 years which is close to the acceptable payback period. Hence the project is profitable iii | P a g e . 4 ton/day of second generation bioethanol. To attain efficient production rate. Other products in the biorefinery like sugar and vinasse (a bio-fertilizer) are also produced. This project gives deep insight into this problem and the need of bio-based fuels which are environment friendly and that lessen the independence on the petroleum based products A process for the production of 30 ton/day of 1st generation bio-ethanol using fermentation of molasses. The 1st generation bioethanol is worldwide produced by using molasses.

1 Current Applications of our products 2.2 Bio-environmental Characteristics 10 12 Chapter 5: Manufacturing Processes 5.1 Introduction 1.1 World’s Scenario for ethanol 3.3 Sugar manufacturing process 5.2 India’s Scenario for ethanol 7 8 Chapter 4: Properties.2 Natural occurrence of the products 1.5 Bioethanol production from Sugarcane Bagasse 14 15 15 16 17 Chapter 6: Selected Process iv | P a g e .4 Bioethanol production from Molasses 5.2 Manufacturing Process 5.TABLE OF CONTENTS Certificate Acknowledgement Executive Summary Table of Contents List of Figures List of Tables List of Symbols and Acronyms Chapter 1: Historical profile 1.1 Properties 4. Handling and Storage 4.1 Location of the plant 5.2 Various grades/standards/product specifications 4 5 Chapter 3: Economic Scenario 3.4 Manufacturers 1.3 Traditional applications of Ethanol 1.5 History of the products 1 1 2 2 2 i ii iii iv vi vii viii Chapter 2: Application and grades 2.

6.2 Economic Evaluation Cash Flow Statement 59 62 40 40 49 38 39 Chapter 12: HAZOP Analysis and Plant Layout 12.1 Control Strategy of the Distillation Column 9.3 Plant Capacity 22 22 24 Chapter 7: Material Balance 7.1 12.2 Process Description 6.1 Material Balance for the production of Bioethanol from molasses 7.3 Mechanical design of the equipments Chapter 11: Economic Evaluation 11.2 Description Chapter 10: Detailed Equipment Design 10.1 List of equipments 10.1 11.2 Overall Material Balance for the other products in our biorefinery 25 33 Chapter 8: Energy Balance Energy balance for the equipments in the process 34 Chapter 9: Control Strategy 9.1 Process Flowsheet 6.2 Conclusion References Appendix Hazop of Distillation Column Plant Layout 64 66 67 68 70 v|Page .2 Process design of all the equipments 10.

3 Material balance across centrifuge Fig 7.4 Simplified Block flow diagram of the overall process (of treatment of bagasse) Fig 6.1 Simplified flow sheet for the production of bioethanol from molasses Fig 7.1 Control Strategy of the Distillation Column Fig 10.4 Material balance across Distillation column Fig 7.1 District wise Sugar Contribution % in Maharashtra Fig 5.5 Material balance across Rectification Column Fig 7.2 Block flow diagram for the manufacturing of sugar Fig 5.3 Process flow diagram for the production of first generation bioethanol from molasses Fig 5.2 Price and price variations of Bioethanol Fig 3.LIST OF FIGURES Fig 3.4 Valves sequencing for adsorption and regeneration steps Fig 12.1 Plant Layout of the Biorefinery 7 8 9 10 14 15 15 20 22 25 27 28 29 30 31 38 49 66 vi | P a g e .2 Material balance across Yeast treatment Reactor Fig 7.1 Structure of Sucrose Fig 5.1 Current and projected demand and supply of Bioethanol worldwide Fig 3.3 Demand of bioethanol in the form of pie-chart Fig 4.1 Material balance across fermenter Fig 7.6 Material Balance across Dehydration Column Fig 9.

1 Energy Balance across the fermenter Table 8.2 Comparison of selected pre-treatment processes Table 7.5 Material Balance across Rectification Column Table 7.1 HAZOP Analysis applied to the Distillation Column 8 9 18 19 27 28 29 30 31 32 32 33 35 36 37 37 44 45 59 59 60 61 61 62 65 vii | P a g e .4 Energy Balance across the Dehydrator Table 10.8 Overall Material Balance of all the products in the biorefinery Table 8.7 Overall Material Balance of the process Table 7.4 Cost of Raw Materials Table 11.1 Comparison of the pretreatment methods on the basis of different properties Table 5.1 Material Balance across Fermenter Table 7.1 Material balance across the distillation column Table 10.2 Values for Antoine Constants Table 11.2 Projected Demand and supply of Bioethanol in India Table 5.3 Material Balance across Centrifuge Table 7.6 Cash Flow Chart Table 12.5 Cost of Utilities Table 11.3 Energy Balance across the Rectification Column Table 8.2 Cost of Process Equipments Table 11.2 Material Balance across Yeast treatment tank Table 7.2 Energy Balance across the Distillation Column Table 8.4 Material Balance across Distillation Column Table 7.1 Cost of storage tanks Table 11.3 Cost of all the equipments Table 11.6 Material Balance across Molecular Sieve Dehydrator Table 7.LIST OF TABLES Table 3.1 Application wise Demand Growth Table 3.

LIST OF SYMBOLS AND ACRONYMS 1. 25. 7. 4. 42. 34. 31. 17. 35. 45. 43. 27. 40. 44. 41. 2. 21. 6. 13. 14. 22. 39. 24. 16. 10. 36. F feed D distillate R residue f percentage of ethanol in feed d percentage of ethanol in distillate r percentage of ethanol in residue ∆H enthalpy change mi mass flow rate of inlet materials Hi enthalpy of inlet materials ∆Ek change in kinetic energy ∆Ep change in potential energy Ws work done by shaft ∆U change in internal energy T temperatue P pressure ∆H out change in enthalpy of outlet materials nin number of moles in n out number of moles out ζ extent of reaction Cp specific heat capacity value ∆T change in temperatue FC-Flow Controller LC-Level Controller PC-Pressure Controller TC-Temperature Controller Q volumetric flow rate V volume ρavg average density Kla overall mass transfer coefficient u superficial velocity D diameter L length ρmix average density of the mixture g acceleration due to gravity µ viscosity αavg average relative volatility Rmin minimum reflux ratio Vmin minimum vapour flowrate Lmin minimum liquid flowrate N number of plates N’ actual number of plates Uv maximum allowable velocity of vapour Lt Tray Spacing Density of liquid. 3. 5. 18. 37. 9. 15. 29. 20. 33. 23. 8. 38. 30. ρl Density of vapour. ρv viii | P a g e . 28. 11. 12. 32. 19. 26.

64. 66. lw Weir height. 62. Vw max vapour rate Column Diameter. 48. Ac Downcomer area. Aa Hold area. 50. 63. 67. Dc Column area. 51. Ad Net area. f t thickness of shell material ft tangential or hoop stress f1 stress in axial direction fs stress due to offset piping fR equivalent stress M max bending moment σzp axial stress due to pressure σzs The stress induced by shell weight at a distance X m from the top: σzi The stress induced in the shell due to insulation σzl The stress induced in the shell due to liquid hold up σza The stress induced in the shell due to attachments σzw total dead load stress ix | P a g e . 56. 49. 61. An Active area. 55. 65. 58.46. 54. 52. 57. hw Hole diameter. Ah Weir length. 68. 47. 59. 60. 53. dh Allowable stress.

a biorefinery takes advantage of the various components in biomass and their intermediates therefore maximizing the value derived from the biomass feedstock. In many fruits. power.3 THE VARIOUS PRODUCTS THAT CAN BE PRODUCED IN A BIOREFINERY:        Raw Sugar First generation bioethanol from blackstrap molasses obtained as the by-product of the sugar manufacturing process Second generation Bioethanol from the sugarcane bagasse obtained as the by-product of the sugar manufacturing process Biofertilizers like vinasse Energy obtained by using bagasse as a fuel. minerals). cinnamic acid etc 1. through combined heat and power (CHP) technology.1 Sucrose:   It is found naturally in many food plants along with the monosaccharide fructose.1. and value-added chemicals from biomass.1 WHAT IS A BIOREFINERY? A biorefinery is a facility that integrates biomass conversion processes and equipment to produce fuels. which are not renewable (petroleum. ethyl acetate etc Speciality Chemicals: ethyl lactate. A forward looking approach is the stepwise conversion of large parts of the global economy into a sustainable biobased economy with bioenergy.1. At the same time generating electricity and process heat.1 INTRODUCTION 1. which produce multiple fuels and products from petroleum. sucrose is the main sugar. [2] 1. butanol. heat. The biorefinery concept is analogous to today's petroleum refinery. generation of electricity etc Bulk organic chemicals: acetic acid. natural gas.1.2 NATURAL OCCURRENCE OF THE PRODUCTS: 1. biofuels. By producing multiple products. cinnamic alcohol. and biobased products as its main pillars.2 WHAT IS THEIR NEED? It is essential to establish solutions which reduce the rapid consumption of fossil resources.Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery Chapter -1 HISTORICAL PROFILE 1. coal.2. such as pineapple and apricot. Page 1 . for its own use and perhaps enough for sale of electricity to the local utility[1] 1.

2. MT Amyris Brasil Ltda. The cultivation of sugar cane in the New World also increased its availability. This ensures that all the needs of the manufacturers involved in this sector.2 Ethanol:       It is a byproduct of the metabolic process of yeast It is present in any yeast habitat It is commonly found in an overripe fruit It is also produced during the germination of many plants as a result of natural anerobiosis. Certain other applications. In Europe. Perfume: Due to the high and constant neutrality. probably New Guinea and as the time passed. such as hair spray. Page 2 . India) and Maharashtra.1 Sucrose: Its history begins with the discovery of sugarcane in the South Pacific. It is also used in many cosmetic products. forming an icy coating around dust grains in interstellar clouds. the production of sugar using both sugar beets and sugar cane continues around the world. 1. Mudhol Taluka.Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery 1. screen wash. Mumbai The Blue Marble Energy Company has multiple biorefineries located in Odessa.  Sugar was relatively rare in Europe until the 13th century. [4] 1. including printing ink. eventually making its way to China.5.  Industry: It offers a large range of industrial applications. alcohol is used by the leading European spirits manufacturers to produce many famous alcoholic beverages.5 HISTORY OF THE PRODUCTS: 1.3 TRADITIONAL APPLICATIONS OF ETHANOL: The traditional applications of ethanol are as follows:    Beverage : Due to its high organoleptic quality. Karnataka. Pharmacy: The alcohol used by the pharmaceutical industry must meet various stringent requirements in terms of purity and neutrality. is located in Campinas.It has plants located in the states of Karnataka (Sameerwadi.4 MANUFACTURERS The currently operating biorefineries in the world are:    Godavari Biorefineries Ltd. WA and Missoula. Alcoholic products can be supplied undenatured or denatured.  Today. when trading with Asia expanded.[3] Ethanol has been detected in outer space. alcohol is used for preserving the fragrance of the perfumes. Ethanol produced by symbiotic yeast can be found in Bertam Palms blossoms. Dist: Bagalkot. also need dehydrated neutral alcohol. the use of sugar beets for making sugar also increased during the 1800s. Brasil [5] 1. the plant was grown in Southeast Asia and India. paints and explosives can be satisfied.

In Brazil. the remaining two-thirds use mixtures of gasoline and ethanol. Thailand and Sudan are other countries with government or private ethanol fuel programs. the United States. Kenya. the Philippines. when the supply of oil was restricted. Guatemala.2 Bioethanol:      It was one of the first fuels used in an automobile engine It was used extensively in Germany during World War II and also in Brazil. gasoline largely replaced bioethanol as an automotive fuel In 1970s. one third of that country’s automobiles use pure bioetha nol as fuel.Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery 1. The Republic of South Africa. Indonesia. During the postwar period. Costa Rica. for example.[6] Page 3 . bioethanol re-emerge as an alternative to or extender for petroleum-based liquid fuels(ethanol as an extender is added to these fuels to increase their volume) Around 12 countries produce and use a significant amount of bioethanol. the Philippines and the United States. France.5. Argentina. as petroleum supplies became cheap and abundant.

They are used to sweeten drinks. for dusting foods and in baking and confectionery. It must be formed by pressing the fruit has a low sugar content. cakes and beverages for adjusting sweetness. leaving behind some residual sugar that gives the wine its sweet taste. [7] 2. Hydrous ethanol (about 95% ethanol and 5% water) can be used as a fuel in more than 90% of new cars sold in the country.1 Sucrose:  Granulated sugars are used at the table to sprinkle on foods and to sweeten hot drinks and in home baking to add sweetness and texture to cooked products.  Milled sugars are ground to a fine powder.  Liquid sugars are strong syrups consisting of 67% granulated sugar dissolved in water.  Screened sugars are crystalline products separated according to the size of the grains. Brazil has the largest national fuel ethanol industry. fruit sugars are converted into alcohol by a fermentation process.  Brown sugars are granulated sugars with the grains coated in molasses to produce a light. In the production of sweet wines.1 CURRENT APPLICATIONS OF THE PRODUCTS: 2.  Sugar cubes are white or brown granulated sugars pressed together in block shape. They are used as icing sugar. fermentation may be halted before it has run its full course.  Invert sugars and syrups are blended to manufacturer’s specifications and are used in breads. for blending in dry mixes and in baking and confectionery. confectionery and toffees.2 Bioethanol: The current applications of the ethanol are as follows:  As a fuel: The largest single use of ethanol is as a motor fuel and fuel additive. Page 4 . They are used for decorative table sugars.1.1. Gasoline sold in Brazil contains at least 25% anhydrous ethanol. additional sugar may be added to raise the alcohol content of the wine in a process called chaptalization. dark or Demerara sugar. They are used in baked goods. aiding moisture retention and avoiding crystallization of sugars  In winemaking. ice cream and jams. They are used in the food processing of a wide range of products including beverages.Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery Chapter-2 APPLICATIONS AND GRADES 2.

tinctures. It may also be used as a solvent in cooking. It is found in paints.  Solvent: Ethanol is miscible with water and is a good general purpose solvent.2.1 Sucrose: SUGAR STANDARDS & SPECIFCATIONS:  REFINED SUGAR GRADE A . ethyl amines. ethyl esters.ICUMSA 45 Origin Colour ` Granulation  : : : Brazil Sparkling White Fine RAW BROWN CANE SUGAR GRADE E ICUMSA 600-1200 (International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis) Origin Colour Granulation : : : South America/Brazil Brown Fine Page 5 .Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery  Feedstock: Ethanol is an important industrial ingredient and has widespread use as a base chemical for other organic compounds. but is ineffective against bacterial spores. and to a lesser extent butadiene  Antiseptic: Ethanol is used in medical wipes and in most common antibacterial hand sanitizer gels at a concentration of about 62% v/v as an antiseptic.3 Molasses:    Molasses is a waste product of sugar industry of which further extraction of sugar is uneconomical The majority of this waste product of sugar industry of which dried pulp from the sugarcane is used for animal feed Ethanol production is one growing application of this plentiful material [9] 2. and many viruses. and personal care products such as perfumes and deodorants. such as in vodka sauce. Ethanol kills organisms by denaturing their proteins and dissolving their lipids and is effective against most bacteria and fungi. markers. These include ethyl halides.1. diethyl ether.2 VARIOUS GRADES/STANDARDS/PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS 2. [8] 2. acetic acid.

 Purer: “FCC Grade” ethanol (Food Chemical Codex) adds heavy metal specification limits to the grades below since most FCC grade materials are used in food applications.S.2. Organoleptics are normally run at 40 proofs (20% by volume).2 Bioethanol: Several grades of ethyl alcohol are available in the marketplace today. It is added to gasoline as an octane enhancer/extender and to reduce carbon monoxide and nitrous oxide pollution. Blackstrap molasses: It is the byproduct of sugar making process. beverage quality. In addition to meeting all of the quality requirements for USP and FCC grade materials.Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery 2.3 Molasses:    Fancy molasses: It is a direct product of sugarcane and also known as gold star molasses. [10] 2. Cooking molasses: It is the blend of fancy and blackstrap molasses. They differ primarily in the amount of impurities present. This is only domestically produced from fermentation grain sources.  Not-as-pure: The highest impurity levels are found in “fuel grade” ethanol that is produced via the fermentation process. GPC beverage alcohol must pass stringent organoleptic analysis. setting limits on each type. higher amounts of impurities are present. Generally. Pharmacopoeia) has specific tests that measure impurities present. typically corn or wheat.  “NF Grade” ethanol (National Formulary) lowers the amount of impurities further to the 20 to 25 ppm levels. Since GNS is intended for human consumption.2.[11] Page 6 .  “USP Grade” ethanol (U. Manufacturers of this grade don’t take great care in removing the impurities produced in the process because they “burn” easily in a combustion engine . as you move down the chain to a lower quality ethanol. this test is the most important screening tool. The highest level of ethanol purity is “GNS” or grain neutral spirits.  Pure: “Industrial Grade” ethanol can be of either fermen tation or synthetic origin.  The Purest: “GNS” or grain neutral spirits. This can be either of fermentation or synthetic origin. It has most of the impurities removed.

1.1 Current and projected demand and supply: On the basis of data projected on demand and supply of ethanol in 2015 and 2020 it can be clearly seen that from 2015 to 2020 in just a time period of 5 years. Page 7 .1 WORLD SCENARIO (ETHANOL) 3. Future demand analysis shows that demand for industrial and portable sector is increasing that means ethanol consumption in this sector is more than that for fuel purpose.1. Demand is going high and high and our production rate is going down. Fig 3. As petroleum and crude are depleting at a faster rate there is a need to produce bioethanol from biomass to fill the gap between demand and supply.2 Application wise Consumption pattern: Of the total ethanol world demand 28% is for the blending purpose to be used as a fuel and the remaining 50% and 22% by the portable and industrial sector in year 2011.Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery Chapter-3 ECONOMIC SCENARIO 3. It’s a global matter of concern as gap between demand and supply is continuously increasing. Thus we should lay more emphasis on the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic material specially sugarcane bagasse to meet heavily growing demand.1 Current and projected demand and supply of Bioethanol worldwide 3. a gap between demand and supply increases from about 10000 million litres in 2015 to 20000 million litres in 2020 which is a sign of danger for the world community.

346 million gallons Manufacturers and Capacities: The top 2 Global Bioethanol Manufacturers alongwith their production capacity is as follows:   ADM in USA with capacity 6.2.5 World’s Current manufacturing capacity : 11.2 Ethanol demand growth rate (%) 10% Table 3.1 Industrial sector demand 0.6 0.937 million litre/year POET in USA with capacity 5.8 1 1.1 Current and Projected demand and Supply Page 8 .4 Total ethanol demand 3.2 INDIA’S SCENARIO (FOR ETHANOL) 3.7 5.1.6 2 2.2 2011 2013 2015 2017 Fuel ethanol demand @5% blending 0.874 million gallons World’s projected manufacturing capacity : 14.2 3.2 Price and price variations of Bioethanol 3.6 3.957 million litre/year 3.8 4.1 Application wise Demand Growth 3.Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery Year Portable sector demand 1. Fig 3.3 Price and price Variations: There is a very unpredictable change in price of ethanol during the recent past years so there is a need to stabilize the price by increasing the production of bioethanol which will cut short the gap of demand and supply.9 1 1.4 Manufacturing Capacities: Current and Projected:   3.

2 Projected Demand and supply of Bioethanol in India [12] The above data for the projected demand and supply of bio-ethanol in India is calibrated in terms of percentage and is shown in fig. Data from different sources shows that as of 2010. So it justifies our project the need of bio refinery for production of bio ethanol in Solapur.56 billion liters 0. the actual production of ethanol in India has not kept pace with the demand. Maharashtra. Demand all over Country Existing Production Total demand Demand in Maharashtra 5000 1840 2460 700 Lac liters Lac liters Lac liters Lac liters Table 3.2 Application wise consumption pattern: Supply of ethanol as per their application in various Industries as on 2011 is as follows:    Fuel ethanol Industrial sector Portable sector 0.65 billion liters 1. 3.3 using a pie chart. Moreover of the total demand 14% demand is in Maharashtra alone. As per the data existing production is only 37% of the demand.7 billion liters 20% 22% 58% Page 9 . Fig 3.3 Demand of bioethanol in the form of pie-chart 3. This report shows the break-up of production and consumption of ethanol in terms of molasses and cane. It gave projections of demand and supply of ethanol for India for the end of each five-year plan.Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery In the year 2003.2. the Report of the Committee on Development of Biofuels was published by the Planning Commission of India.

crystalline powder with a sweet taste.30g/mol white solid 1. Structure: α-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-fructofuranoside Fig 4. odorless. solid 186o decomp. Sucrose is a molecule with five stereo centers and many sites that are reactive or can be reactive. It is insoluble in ether and chloroform and anhydrous ethanol and glycerol. The molecule exists as a single isomer.1.1 PROPERTIES 4.Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery Chapter .1. C12H22O11 342.1. pyridine.2 Chemical Properties:  Sucrose is readily soluble in aqueous protic solvents such as methanol and ethanol. It is moderately soluble in DMF. and dimethyl sulphoxide. 2000g/L (25oC) Page 10 .587 g/cm3.1 Sucrose:   Sucrose is the organic compound commonly known as table sugar and sometimes called saccharose.1 Structure of Sucrose 4.1.1. it is best known for its nutritional role. HANDLING AND STORAGE 4. A white.4 PROPERTIES.1 Physical Properties: Molecular Formula Molar Mass Appearance Density Melting point Solubility in water 4.

The value of octane number is high in ethanol because of the high heat of vaporization[13] 4.8 to 8.3 nm and 18.      Ethanol is slightly more refractive than water.3 * 10-4 Pa.2 Chemical Properties:  Combustion of Ethanol: Ethanol burns with a pale blue. glycerol and propylene glycol are produced.5 High osmotic pressure of molasses protects it from microbial spoilage. Mild oxidation gives oxalic and tartaric acids. usually dilute HCl.1. non luminous flame to form carbon dioxide and steam. A small amount of the fructose formed is converted to D-fructose dianhydrides.35 °C). ethylene is formed.6. having a refractive index of 1. Due to the presence of its hydroxyl group and the shortness of its carbon chain.1.1 Physical Properties:    It is a volatile. The triple point for ethanol is 150 K at a pressure of 4.3 Molasses:    It is a dark reddish coloured jelly like material. Ethanol has higher values than diesel for fuel density. rendering it more viscous and less volatile than less polar organic compounds of similar molecular weight. (One mole of ethanol loses one mole of water) H2SO4 C2H5OH→C2H4 + H2O 4. as well as acidic materials designated as saccharic acids. sucrose is easily hydrolysed and inversion occurs (change in the sign of polarization from +66. it is able to participate in hydrogen bonding.1. Page 11 .36242 (at λ=589. owing to the large negative rotation of fructose).2 BioEthanol: 4. C2H5OH + 3O2→2CO2 + 3H2O  Dehydration of Ethanol: When ethanol is mixed with concentrated sulphuric acid with the acid in excess and heated to 170oC. It burns with a smokeless blue flame that is not always visible in normal light. colourless liquid that has a slight odour. viscosity and surface tension Ethanol has about 30% lower energy content than gasoline on a per unit volume basis. It has a resistance to self-ignition because of its higher octane number.Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery  Under mild acid catalysis.1. 4. A small degree of inversion is detectable under alkaline conditions. pH. such as propane.2.2.  Sucrose is hydrogenated with Raney nickel to a mixture of sorbitol and mannitol. under more drastic conditions.5 to a negative value.

2 Health Impact:  Diabetes: It is a disease that causes the body to metabolize sugar poorly. as a consequence. In bacteria and some animals.2. Obesity: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I along implies that obesity may correlate better with sugar consumption than with fat consumption.2.1 Metabolic fate in Human beings and other organisms: In humans and other mammals.2 BIO ENVIRONMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS: 4. Page 12 . a healthy planet for us all and for future generations. reformulated gasoline reduces smog-forming emissions by 25% since 1990. Ethanol use in the US reduced CO2 -greenhouse gas emissions by about 7. These properties make it an ideal substance to formulate fuel blends the use of which will mean a cleaner and less polluted environment and. In 2005. which prevents excretion of uric acid from the body. glucose and fructose. is non-toxic. by sucrose orisomaltase glycoside hydrolases.2 Bioethanol: 4.1 Sucrose: 4.1 Environmental Fate and Impact: Ethanol contains 35% oxygen.2.1. 4. water-soluble and quickly biodegradable.1. It can be pumped easily 4. sucrose is broken down into its constituent monosaccharide’s.Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery   It can be easily transported by tankers etc. Ethanol blends contribute significantly towards the safety and conservation of the environment. The resulting glucose and fructose molecules are then rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream. Compared to petroleum-based fossil fuels.2. the hormone that allows the metabolizing of sugar (Type 1 diabetes) The body's cells exhibit impaired responses to insulin (Type 2 diabetes). 4. which are located are located in the membrane of the microvilli lining the duodenum.8 million tons. and that reducing fat consumption while increasing sugar consumption actually increases the level of obesity  Gout: A diet rich in sucrose may lead to gout as it raises the level of insulin.2. According to the American Lung Association of Metropolitan Chicago. occurs when either:    the body attacks the cells producing insulin.2. Ethanol-blended.    10% Ethanol blends reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 12-19%. sucrose is digested by the enzyme invertase.

below acute toxic levels. can percutaneous toxicity occur.2 Metabolic Fate in Human beings and other organisms: The first and foremost concern for public health is its carcinogenic effects. especially in humans with an aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) deficiency. Ethanol has a positive energy balance. After regular application of ethanol on the skin (e. Ethanol reduces formaldehyde emissions. In addition.g. toxic content by 13% (mass) and 21% (potency). harvests and process the grain. it acts as a skin penetration enhancer and may facilitate the transdermal absorption of xenobiotics (e. operating via a similar mechanism to that found after alcoholic beverage ingestion. which are.Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery    Ethanol brings down tailpipe emissions by 30%.[14] 4.2. in the form of hand disinfectants) relatively low but measurable blood concentrations of ethanol and its metabolite acetaldehyde may occur. [15] Page 13 . however. Only in children.2. carcinogenic contaminants in cosmetic formulations). Ethanol use is associated with skin irritation or contact dermatitis. Limited and conflicting epidemiological evidence is available on the link between the use of ethanol in the oral cavity in the form of mouthwashes or mouth rinses and oral cancer. It yields 67% more fossil energy than is used to grow.g. and tailpipe fine particulate matter (PM) emissions by 50%. especially through lacerated skin. for it generates more energy than is consumed during production. as there is unambiguous evidence for the carcinogenicity of ethanol orally consumed in the form of alcoholic beverages. Some studies pointed to an increased risk of oral cancer due to locally produced acetaldehyde.

   Security is good. Page 14 .  Labor will be easily available.Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery Chapter . Maharashtra’s level of industrial facilities like electricity and water supply are better. The reasons for choosing it are:  Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra are the 2 leading sugarcane producing states of India.1) Fig 5. Raw material availability.5 MANUFACTURING PROCESSES 5.1 District wise Sugar Contribution % in Maharashtra  There are about 35 sugar mills in Solapur. MAHARASHTRA. from which we could get our bagasse for increased ethanol production.  Compared to Uttar Pradesh.e. In Maharashtra. we prefer SOLAPUR because:  Sugar production is highest in Solapur(as shown in Fig 5. sea port is there which helps in transportation of raw materials from abroad and export of our products to other countries i. helps in reducing transportation cost. Product market.1 LOCATION OF THE PLANT: We have selected the location of our proposed integrated sugarcane based biorefinery in SOLAPUR. We have preferred Maharashtra over Uttar Pradesh because:  Near Maharashtra.

in which cane is passed between heavy rolls .2 Block flow diagram for the manufacturing of sugar The basic steps followed in the manufacturing of sugar are as follows: 1. The juice is extracted either by milling.Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery  Climatic conditions are as per our needs. The cane is washed and broken into pieces.  Infrastructure 5. CLARIFICATION: Page 15 . generation of electricity etc 5. The sugar recovered is nominally 10% of the cane. so raw sugar mills are located in the cane fields. or by diffusion in which the cane is leached with water.3 SUGAR MANUFACTURING PROCESS: The basic block flow diagram for the production of sugar from sugarcane is as follows: Fig 5. 2. MILLING: Sugarcane cannot be stored more than a few hours after it is cut.2 MANUFACTURING PROCESS In our sugarcane based bio refinery we are producing following products: 1) Raw Sugar 2) First generation bioethanol from blackstrap molasses obtained as the by-product of the sugar manufacturing process 3) Second generation Bioethanol from the sugarcane bagasse(lignocellulosic biomass) obtained as the by-product of the sugar manufacturing process 4) Biofertilizers like vinasse 5) Energy obtained by treating bagasse as a fuel.

the massecuite contains more crystals than syrupand is very viscous. much of which can be saved by the use of a continuous centrifuge consisiting of a conical basket with a screen. about three or four are used in series in which the first operates at atmospheric pressure and subsequent effects are at higher vaccum. 4. Suppliment schemes complete the clarification.4 ETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM MOLASSES Syrup B molasses is used for the production of Anhydrous Ethanol. CRYSTALLISATION: Crystallisation from the concentrated syrup is traditionally a batch process. EVAPORATION: The clarified cane juice is not much concentarated and a large amount of water must be removed. After seeding. the resulting juice is not necessarily clear . Although clarification removes most of the mud. the first strike is called the A strike and the mother liquor obtained from the centrifuges is called A molasses.Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery The first step in the process is to add lime. the evaporation and feeding of the syrup are balanced for the fastest possible rate of growth. 3. Multiple effect evaporators are used. CENTRIFUGING: The massecuites from the vaccum pans enter a holding tank calleda mixer that has a slowly turning paddle to prevent the crystals from settling. The large opening is required in order to empty the pan in a reasonable time. The vaccum pans has a very large discharge opening. At the end of the strike.3[16] Page 16 . typically 1m dia. which raises the pH . The B molasses we are using for the production of our first generation bioethanol.a centrifugal force of about 1000 G is applied. VACCUM PANS: Crystallisation is done under a vaccum such that the water boils at about 65oC in order to minimise thermal destruction of sucrose. 6. The starting and stopping of the centrifugal batch consumes a large amount of energy.stop inversion and hepls to settle the suspended matter. 7. The Process flow diagram for the production of bioethanol from molasses is shown in Fig 5. The so called B sugar obtained from the second strike is only half as pure as obtained from the first strike. BOILING SYSTEMS: In raw sugar munufacture.the centrifuge is fed from the mixer. The juice after evaporation is called syrup and is almost black and little turbid. We are obtaining the A strike raw sugar and now we have theoption o either to sell it to vendors or to convert it to the refined sugar. 5. 5.

Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery Page 17 .

2. This is done by distillation. 4. effluent treatment. hemicelluloses and lignin). This is due to the close association that exists among the three main components of the plant cell wall (cellulose. alcohol is purified with the help of rectifying columns and stored in bonded warehouses[16] 5. The basic Steps involved in the process are: It is a large scale biotechnological process requiring large scale tubular tower fermenters (bio-reactors) and involves the following steps. 3. 4. depending upon. This is because (a) they grow vigorously. Addition of yeast: After adjusting the desired temperature. 3. fermentation of hexoses. 1. Fermentation: Fermentation by the yeast process starts and soon becomes vigorous. 5. 1. a yeast ‘starter’ is allowed to be mixed thoroughly with the molasses ‘mash’ in the fermentation tank. biomass pre-treatment. which is by far the most determinant factor for the low accessibility of plant Page 18 . 5. separation of ethyl alcohol from other impurities is necessary. Micro-organism used: Selected strains of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are commonly employed for fermentation. This is because they are cheap and readily available in large quantities.1 Basic Raw Materials: Molasses are one of the most common raw materials used in the manufacture of alcohol. Gathering. Biomass pre-treatment: Pre-treatment is one of the key unit operations for the successful conversion of lignocellulosic materials to ethanol. separation. The fermented medium contains alcohol as well as other volatile constituents and unused constituents of the molasses. the feedstock which may have an additional cost.4.Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery 5. Preparation of the medium: Water is added to the molasses to bring down the sugar concentration to the desired level (usually 30 to 40 percent). cellulose hydrolysis. Therefore. purified and used in various other industries. Separation of ethyl alcohol: Alcoholic fermentation is completed in about 48 hours. The gas (by-product of the alcohol industry) is collected.5 BIO-ETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM SUGARCANE BAGASSE: The production of fuel ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass includes the following steps: 1. (b) they have high tolerance for alcohol and (c) they have a high capacity for producing a large yield of alcohol. 2. A measured quantity of acid is then added so as to adjust the pH on the acidic side. Distillation (Purification): Finally. 6. A large quantity of carbon dioxide is evolved during the process.

Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery carbohydrates to biological processes such as enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. The best pre-treatment conditions must be defined as those in which the maximum recovery of water-soluble hemicellulose sugarsis obtained. along with the production of the best possible substrate for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation The comparison of various methods of pre-treatment with the perspective of various properties and their advantages and disadvantages is given below.1 Comparison of the pretreatment methods on the basis of different properties [17] Now on the basis of above comparison. we have selected 4 pretreatment methods are selected and their net energy ratio. These are steam explosion ammonia fiber explosion among others. renewability index. energy efficiency and energy emissions are compared. the main role of a pre-treatment method is to decrease the interaction between the main that are inhibitory to the subsequent hydrolysis and fermentation processes. Many methods have been used for pretreating lignocellulosic materials. Therefore. Table 5. Page 19 . Each one of these methods has advantages and disadvantages and no one seems to be optimal for all practical applications.

2. thus these processes have higher energy consumption and it is necessary to apply energy integration methodologies to reduce the external energy input Although Case 4 have higher energy requirement in pretreatment stage because of solvent recovery process. The feedstock. the highest energy output by means of produced ethanol improved the net energy ratio. Enzymatic hydrolysis is initiated in a high-solids continuous reactor using a cellulase enzyme prepared on-site. After a total of five days of sequential enzymatic hydrolysis and Page 20 . by fermentation of the resulting glucose and xylose to ethanol. wastewater treatment. The process is divided into nine areas as shown in the fig 5. Area 100: Feed handling. Hydrolysis is completed in the batch reactor. The partially hydrolyzed slurry is next batched to one of several parallel bioreactors.741 L/d 196.540 L/d NER <1 RENEWABILITY INDEX ENERGY EFFICIENCY HIGHEST ENERGY EMISSIONS 200. and required utilities.5 1. product storage. 3. However. Process Overview involving all the steps required for the production of second generation bioethanol from Bagasse: The process described here uses co-current dilute-acid pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass followed by enzymatic hydrolysis (saccharification) of the remaining cellulose. From there. the biomass is treated with dilute sulfuric acid catalyst at a high temperature for a short time to liberate the hemicellulose sugars and break down the biomass for enzymatic hydrolysis. product purification. The process design also includes feedstock handling and storage.2 Comparison of selected pre-treatment processes  Net energy ratio (NER = net energy output/net energy Input) Due to NER< 1 indicates that the fuel ethanol system has not net energy gain. In this area. it is higher than 1 when at least 53% of energy input is from renewable resources. Area 300: Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. lignin combustion.314 L/d 203. and then the slurry is cooled and inoculated with the co-fermenting microorganism Zymomonas mobilis.  Renewability index (net bioenergy outputs/net fossil energy inputs) higher than 1 is a minimum requirement to indicate that the biofuel system can help to reduce dependency on fossil energy.Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery Acid catalyzed steam Explosion Diluted acid Liquid hot water Organosolv Ethanol production 185. Area 200: Pretreatment and conditioning. Only minimum storage and feed handling are required. in this case milled SUGAR CANE is delivered to the feed handling area from a uniform-format feedstock supply system. the biomass is conveyed to the pretreatment reactor (Area 200).193 L/d <1(HIGHEST) <1(LOWEST) <1 HIGHEST LOWEST MINIMUM LOWEST HIGHEST Table 5. Thus we have selected dilute acid for the pretreatment of bagasse for the production of second generation bioethanol. Ammonia is then added to the whole pretreated slurry to raise its pH from ~1 to ~5 for enzymatic hydrolysis.

Page 21 . Area 500: Product Recovery. The methane-rich biogas from anaerobic digestion is sent to the combustor (Area 800). Area 600: Wastewater treatment. Purchased glucose is the primary carbon source for enzyme production. 5. and residual solids by distillation and solidliquid separation. Area 400: Cellulase enzyme production. most of the cellulose andxylose have been converted to ethanol. The treated water is suitable for recycling and is returned to the process. where sludge from the digesters is also burned. An on-site enzyme production section was included in this design. Solids recovered from the distillation bottoms are sent to the combustor (Area 800) while the liquid is sent to wastewater treatment (Area 600). Ethanol is distilled to a nearly azeotropic mixture with water and then purified to 99.Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery fermentation. Fig 5. is fed to Area 300 to carry out enzymatic hydrolysis. Media preparation involves a step in which a portion of the glucose is converted to sophorose to induce cellulase production. water. The entire fermentation broth.The enzyme-producing fungus (modeled after Trichoderma reesei) is grown aerobically in fed-batch bioreactors. 4. The beer is separated into ethanol.5% using vaporphase molecular sieve adsorption. Plant wastewater streams are treated by anaerobic and aerobic digestion. containing the secreted enzyme.4 Simplified Block flow diagram of the overall process (of treatment of bagasse) [18] 6. The resulting beer is sent to the product recovery train (Area 500).

This area provides bulk storage for chemicals used and produced in the process. sulfuric acid. The majority of the process steam demand is in the pretreatment reactor and distillation columns. 9. The boiler produces excess steam that is converted to electricity for use in the plant and for sale to the grid. The solids from distillation and wastewater treatment and the biogas from anaerobic digestion are combusted to produce high-pressure steam for electricity production and process heat. and turbo generator. nutrients. This area includes a cooling water system. 8. Area 900: Utilities. Page 22 .Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery 7. boiler. Area 700: Storage. water. and ethanol. Area 800: Combustor. chilled water system process water manifold. ammonia. including corn steep liquor (CSL). and power systems.

WATER: Molasses when introduced into the fermenter is first diluted because molasses is basically a thick syrup which cannot be fermented easily as choking of materials takes place and this thick liquid may stick to the walls of the reactor Page 23 . The molasses is diluted to a mash containing ca 10 ±20 wt% sugars. it is inoculated with the yeast. is then set to the product recovering purification section of the plant. YEAST: Yeast.Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery Chapter-6 SELECTED PROCESS 6. The fermented beer. and the fermentation is carried out non-aseptically at 20 ± 32°C for about 1 ± 3days. metabolizes glucose to ethanol primarily by way of the EmbdenMeyerhof pathway.1 RAW MATERIALS MOLASSES: The most widely used sugar for ethanol fermentation is blackstrap molasses which contains about 35 ± 40 wt% sucrose. After the pH of the mash is adjusted to about 4 ± 5 with mineral acid.1 Simplified flow sheet for the production of bioethanol from molasses [16] 6. The overall net reaction involves the production of 2moles each of ethanol. and 28 ± 35 wt% of non-sugar solids. Blackstrap (syrup) is collected as a by-product of cane sugar manufacture. which typically contains ca 6±11 wt% ethanol.2.1 FLOWSHEET Fig 6. under anaerobic conditions. but the yield attained in practical fermentations however does not usually exceed 90 ± 95% of theoretical.2 PROCESS DESCRIPTION: 6. 15 ± 20wt% invert sugars such as glucose and fructose.

vaporized and superheated before being admitted to the vessels containing molecular sieve material. liquid CO2 for soft drinks. This is in fact a complex series of conversions that brings about the conversion of sugar to CO2 and alcohol.Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery and disturbs the entire section. absolute or anhydrous ethanol is obtained with 99. In brewing we use the sugar fungi form of yeast. This process is carried out by yeast cells using a range of enzymes. reducing partial pressure of H2O. filtration products and various industrial uses. Then the beer stream which consists of alcohol (10-15%) and water mixture and CO2 will be separated into two different streams where CO2 will be sent into the beer column where the CO2 stream will be separated by varying temperature or pressure conditions. Certainly enough to cause the explosion of a sealed glass bottle. the formation of ethyl alcohol takes place. as the yeast dies when the alcohol exceeds its tolerance level. 75-80 %( w) is added and will be sent into fermenter and allow them to react or ferment for 1-3days. such as dry ice. In general pressure would be increased to separate the gas stream because if temperature is increased. The carbon dioxide by-product bubbles through the liquid and dissipates into the air. molasses is first diluted with water. fire-fighting foams. In brewing. In practice. the quality of alcohol is affected. maximum of 95% of ethanol can be recovered. Especially cultured strains of yeast with the correct environment can withstand alcohol levels up to 21% alcohol. In the fermenter. Not all yeasts are suitable for brewing. These yeast cells gain energy from the conversion of the sugar into carbon dioxide and alcohol. remains in the liquid which is great for us but not for the yeast. In confined spaces the carbon dioxide dissolves in the liquid making it fizzy. To be specific yeast is a eukaryotic micro-organism. the ethanol-water mixture will be sent into distillation column and the ethanol will separated and collected at the top and water at the top. The pressure build up can be quite immense. Wine yeast is more tolerant at a range of 10-15%. alcoholic fermentation is the conversion of sugar into carbon dioxide gas (CO2) and ethyl alcohol. In this superheated. It is repeated for continuous operation and referred to as pressure sieving mechanism. This mixture is often referred to as hydrous sugarcane ethanol´ because it contains 5% water. After separating CO2. adsorption of water molecules by sieve is optimized while the alcohol molecules pass through Water accumulated on sieve is removed by means of vacuum applied to column. For the sugar content of nearly20-25% (w). [18] Much of the CO2 that is generated during the fermentation process can be captured and converted into marketable products.5% Page 24 . making it evaporate again and allowing molecular sieve to be reused in next cycle. The other by-product alcohol.2. Hydrous alcohol is preheated. To avoid this molasses is first diluted hence water also takes a part among raw materials [19] 6. excited and vapor phase at controlled temperature and pressure.2 PROCESS: As it was already mentioned that molasses is the by-product of sugar industry. By further dehydration.

2 tons per day.e. from molasses) and 3.3 PLANT CAPACITY: The plant capacity which we have decided is 30 tons per day or 1250 kg/hr of first generation bioethanol (i.2 tons of second generation bioethanol (from lignocellulosic material) therefore overall plant capacity for the production of bioethanol is 33.Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery 6. Page 25 .

3.789 kg/l The ratio of water to molasses is 4:1 For ethanol system. water and biomass Overall Reaction: C12H22O11+H2O→2C6H12O6→4C2H5OH+4CO2 Mol.1544*10^-3 kg H2SO4 1kg H2SO4=0.2 kg H2O Density of ethanol:0.1 FERMENTER Assumptions:          Molasses contain 52% fermentable sugar in the form of sucrose and 48% water 95% of sucrose will convert to bio ethanol 10% less alcohol is produced due to pipe losses 1 kg=2. 4.1 MATERIAL BALANCE FOR THE PRODUCTION OF BIOETHANOL FROM MOLASSES: BASIS: 30 tons per day of bio ethanol from the rectification column (95% by weight) 7. 2.1 Material balance across fermenter Streams: 1.694*10^-3 kg Ammonium sulphate 1 kg=2.5[20] Fig 7.Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery Chapter-7 MATERIAL BALANCE 7. dx/ds=0. Mesh(Water + Molasses) Yeast culture + yeast cells CO2 Mixture of ethanol.1. Wt of sucrose= 342 Page 26 .

sucrose in the molasses (feed)=(0.26 kg of molasses Acc to our capacity (i.136 = 5170 kg/hr molasses Water added to molasses is 4 times of molasses = (4*5170)=20.95=174.5*10^-3 *25850 =323. Mesh) produced= (5170+20680) =25850 kg/hr Since molasses contain 52% fermentable sugar in the form of sucrose.789)=3.495kg water/hr Water Balance Water in-Water used in the reaction=Water out = (20680+11.643kg/hr CO2 produced According to the stoichiometry. water required for the reaction= (18/342*26.692 kg H2SO4=11.871*44=1314.6 kg/hr H2SO4 in 25850 kg/hr mesh= 55. Yeast culture needed =5% by weight of mesh Therefore.071 kg ethanol/hr. therefore 2688.Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery Mol.136 kg of molasses 1 l bio ethanol requires (4.5 kg/hr Cell concentration=12.125 kg cells/hr Nutrients in the culture is Ammonium Sulphate Ammonium sulphate in 25850 kg/hr mesh= 69.138)-141.e. Moles of CO2 produced is equal to the moles of ethanol produced Moles of CO2 produced= moles of ethanol produced/46= 1374. cells present in the culture=12.138 kg/hr As per the stoichiometric equation given. 1kg bio ethanol requires =3.8 kg pure ethanol.071/46 = 29.871 kmol/day Therefore.136*0.52=657.8 kg bio ethanol Molasses for 342 kg sucrose = 342/0.69 kg molasses 174.4 kg sucrose/hr gives 1374. yeast culture= (0. molasses required= 12.324 kg CO2/hr Biomass Material balance over fermenter wrt yeast bacterial mass is Page 27 .495=20549. 12500 kg/hr).071 kg/hr of ethanol is produced= 29. 342 kg sucrose gives 174. we know that.8 kg bio ethanol requires 657.5 gm/kg of mesh So.692 kg H2SO4 Water formed by 55.05*25850) =1292.76)= 4.4 kg sucrose/hr From our reaction.76 kg of molasses Due to 10% pipe losses.680 kg/hr Therefore.76+(0. CO2 produced when 1374.50*4.52*5170)=2688. Wt of ethanol=184 CALCULATIONS: Input to the fermenter                  342 kg of sucrose gives 184 kg of bio ethanol 342 kg of sucrose will give= 184*0. total feed (i.884)=141.1*3.69 kg molasses Or 1 kg bio ethanol requires 3.e.

2 YEAST TREATMENT Assumptions: Page 28 .122=800.125 kg/hr cells So=2688.871 kmol/hr From stoichiometry of reaction. moles of sucrose converted=29.393 kmoles/hr Kgs of substrate at the end(S) =0.183 2481.5 55.122 kg of cells/hr Along with cells.1 Material Balance across Fermenter 7.061+1600.071/46=29. moles unconverted=7.468 kmol/hr Initial moles of sucrose=2688.4/342=7.061kg water/hrs Therefore.5*1600.6 654.317 Total 27521.861 kmoles/hr Therefore.5g/g=(x-xo)/(s-so) =y*x/s Where. X=1600.861-7.317 55. about 50% water also goes out=0.393*342=134.692 Components Diluted Molasses Molasses Water Yeast cells Yeast culture H2SO4 CO2 Bioethanol Biomass Sucrose Residual molasses matter 27521.1.324 1374.Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery [Change within vessel]= [Increase due to feed] + [Increase due to growth]-[Decrease due to loss in effluents][decrease due to death] dx/ds=0. of biomass=800. X is dry cell mass finally Xo is dry cell mass initially S is substrate mass finally So is substrate mass initially Xo=323. wt.4 kg of sugar/hr S is the final weight of substrate or the left moles of ethanol=1374.406 kg/hr Now.871/4=7.196 20549.643 Kg/hr(outlet) Table 7.692 1314.468=0.071 2400.122=2400.125 1292.183 kg/hr Kg/hr(inlet) 25850 5170 20680 323.

Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery     Yeast culture needed is 5% by weight of mesh Cell concentration is 12. Yeast culture + yeast cells 2. water.1.5g in 1kg of feed Nutrients by ammonium sulphate pH control by H2SO4 Fig 7. Mixture of streams 5&6 Kg/hr (inlet) 2400. biomass and sucrose 5. Mixture of ethanol.125 1292. water and sucrose 7. H2SO4 6. Mixture of ethanol.183 55.183 55.125 1292.692 323.3 CENTRIFUGE: Fig 7.692 323. Biomass recycled Page 29 .3 Material balance across centrifuge Streams: 4.5 4071.5 4071.2 Material balance across Yeast treatment Reactor Streams: 5.2 Material Balance across yeast treatment reactor 7.5 Components biomass H2SO4 Yeast cells Yeast culture Total Kg/hr(outlet) 2400.5 Table 7.

6 26805.3 Material Balance across Centrifuge Kg/hr(outlet) 1374.497 % of alcohol in spent wash= 1374.643 2400.1.183-5137.267.183 2481.914=D+R F=feed D=Distillate R=Residue Component balance over distillation column for ethanol: F*f=D*d + R*r Page 30 .497-2400.4=19.643 2400.Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery Kg/hr(inlet) 1374.071 20549. 19.071/ (26805. water and sucrose Distillate: 80% ethanol Bottom: Vinasse % of alcohol in feed=7.4 Material balance across Distillation column Streams: 7. Mixture of ethanol.914 kg/hr Therefore.6 26805.497 Components bioethanol Water Biomass sucrose Total Table 7.267.2 % 7.805.4 DISTILLATION COLUMN: Assumptions:   80% by weight of ethanol in distillate 2 % by weight of ethanol in bottom product Fig 7.183 2481.183)*100 = 7.2 CALCULATIONS: Overall material balance: F=D+R F=26.071 20549.497-2400.

071 15412.528 17983.Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery 19.267.2322 Components ethanol water Ethanol (80%) Vinasse (residue) Kg/hr(outlet) 1284.072=D*0.02 We have 2 equations and 2 variables to solve.91 Total Table 7. Distillate from distillation column Recycle from molecular sieve dehydrator Distillate: 95% ethanol Bottom: residue CALCULATIONS: Page 31 .914-D)*0.5 Material balance across Rectification Column Streams: 8.8+ (119. hence solving we get the values as given in the table*0.914 19.267.5   RECTIFICATION COLUMN: Assumptions: 95% by weight of ethanol in the distillate 1% by weight of ethanol in residue Fig 7.386 kg/hr 7. D=1284.528 kg/hr R=17983.267.4 Material Balance across Distillation Column So.386 19.4 Kg/hr(inlet) 1374.

Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery
Overall material balance: R+1250=x+1284.528 x=R-34.528 Component balance: 0.01*R+0.95*1250=0.97*x+0.8*1284.528 Therefore, R=201.385 kg/hr x= 166.857 kg/hr

Kg/hr(inlet) 1284.528 166.857

Components Ethanol (80%) Recycled ethanol (96%) Ethanol (95%) Residue


1250 201.385 1451.385



Table 7.5 Material balance across Rectification Column 7.1.6 DEHYDRATION COLUMN:

Fig 7.6 Material Balance across Dehydration Column

Streams: Feed: Hydrous Ethanol (95% by weight of ethanol) Top Product: Recycle stream to the rectification column Bottom Product: Anhydrous ethanol (99.5% by weight of ethanol) CALCULATIONS: D=x +E+W 1250=166.857+E+W 0.95*12500=0.96*1712.817+0.995E E=1030.803kg/hr

Page 32

Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery
W=52.34 kg/hr Kg/hr(inlet) 1250 Components Ethanol (95%) Water Anhydrous ethanol (99.5%) Recycled ethanol (96%) 1250 Total 52.34 1030.803 166.857 1250 Kg/hr(outlet)

Table 7.6 Material balance across Dehydration Column


kg/hr (inlet) 5170 20680 1292.5 323.125

components molasses water yeast culture yeast cells vinasse residue(rectification column) Anhydrous ethanol (99.5%)

kg/hr (outlet) 6991.419

17983.386 201.385 1030.803 1314.324 27521.317





Table 7.7 Overall Material Balance of the process

7.2 OVERALL MATERIAL BALANCE FOR OTHER PRODUCTS IN OUR BIOREFINERY Basis: 5170 kg/hr of molasses Assumptions:    From 1 ton of sugarcane, 240 kg sugar, 30 kg molasses, 280 kg of bagasse, 450 kg cane trash and other residues can be produced 1200 ton/day of bagasse produces 158384.649 kg bioethanol 50.5% of bagasse is converted to bioethanol[21]

Page 33

Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery
CALCULATIONS:      5170 kg/hr of molasses can be produced from 172333.33 kg of sugarcane 1 ton of sugarcane can produce 240 kg of raw sugar Therefore, 172333.33 kg of sugarcane can produce 41360 kg raw sugar From 172333.33 kg of sugarcane, 48253.33 kg of bagasse can be produced Cane trash and remaining residues amounts to 77550 kg 50,000 kg/hr of sugarcane bagasse can produce 6599.36 kg/hr bio ethanol Therefore, 3216.25 kg of bioethanol is produced from bagasse

Kg (inlet) 172333.33

Components Sugarcane Sugar Molasses Bagasse Cane trash + residues 2nd generation bioethanol Fuel and electricity 24367.93(50.5%bagasse) 48253.33

Kg (outlet)

41360 5170

77550 3216.25 23885.4 172333.333


Total Table7.8 Overall material balance of all products of biorefinery

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8 kJ/mol ∆Hformation H2O (g) = -241.5)-2(-1250)] =-180kJ/mol CALCULATIONS: From the stoichiometric reaction: Sucrose balance: Min of molasses=51.700 kg/hr Page 35 .5) +4(-393. ∆H= [4(-276.5kJ/mol ∆Hformation (CO2) =-393.8 kJ/mol ∆Hformation (glucose) (g) =-1250 kJ/mol ∆Hformation (sucrose) (g) =-2220kJ/mol Therefore.5kJ/mol ∆Hformation H2O (l) = -285.8 ENERGY BALANCE Energy Balance Reactions: For Non-reaction processes: ∆H=∑miHi(outlet)-∑miHi(inlet) Q-Ws=∆H+∆Ek+∆Ep Ws=0 (when no moving parts) Q=∆U (for closed systems) Q=∆H (for open systems) 8.Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery Chapter.1 FERMENTER: Stoichiometric Equation: C12H22O11+H2O→2C6H12O6→4C2H5OH+4CO2 T=298K (assuming isothermal conditions) P=1atm Energy Balance in fermenter: ∆H=4(∆Hformation Ethanol) +4(∆Hformation CO2) -2(∆Hformation glucose) Enthalpies of formation [22] ∆Hformation (Ethanol) =-276.

energy Balance: Q-Ws=∆H+∆Ek+∆Ep Now.99 moles CO2 balance: Nout =13143.1 Energy Balance across the fermenter Now. ∆Ek=0 (Kinetic changes) ∆Ep=0(horizontal unit) Q-Ws=∆H Assumption: Power input=1.971.5 -393. 800=26.256-15.89 0 0 Hin(kJ/mol) -2220 -285.5 -393.740.256 1141.117 1148.8 -276.871 29. extent of reaction: ζ= [(nC12H22O11) out-(n C12H22O11) in]/ (‫ ע‬C12H22O11) = (7.117)/1=-7.126 KW Page 36 .Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery But.16/342=3.341 ∆Ho=793.88 moles Nout=197495.71/46=298.135kg/hr Power Input=Ws=440.5 species C12H22O11 H2O C2H5OH CO2 nout(mol) 7.6 mol Nout of sucrose= 1344.8 -276.861 mol/hr Now.5 Table 8.71 moles nin (mol) 15.93 mol Water balance: Nin=206.85/18=10. sucrose content in molasses=52% Sucrose=0.6 watt/kg of input Total input=275213.71 moles C2H5OH balance: Nout= 13.288/44=298.871 Hout(kJ/mol) -2220 -285.646 29.884 kg/hr Moles of sucrose=26884/342=78.800/18=11488.52*1240.

2 Energy balance across the Distillation Column ∆H=475455.835 9496.58 + = 44.6211=44.5oC Boiling point of water=100oC Feed enters at 25oC CALCULATIONS:  For ethanol.311 Ethanol Water 301.311 kJ/mol =38.11 kg/hr Page 37 .4*10^-3(100-25) =46.47kw/hr 8.3125kJ/mol Species Feed nin(mol) Hin(kJ/mol) 0 9.042 kJ Q=mCp∆T=∆H Cp=43.847 2562. m=144.57 Distillate nout(mol) 222.655-1.656+5.99kJ/kgoC ∆T=75oC .19 Table 8.1*10^-3(100-25) =46. Steam required.26 Hout(kJ/mol) 46.656+75.Therefore.20 9632.3125 46.69 kJ/mol  Ethanol in residue: ∆H =∆Hv+  Water in residue: ∆H =∆Hv+ =40.516 =40.58+103.126+440.2 DISTILLATION COLUMN: Assumptions:     Temperature of distillate=82oC Boiling point of ethanol=78.58+5.341= 1233.69 Residue nout(moles) 75. In distillate: ∆H=∆Hv + ∫CpdT=38.034 44.74 Hout(kJ/mol) 44.Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery Q=∆H+Ws=793.034 kJ/mol  For water in distillate: ∆H=∆Hv+ + dT =38.

m= 4.797 40.4 DEHYDRATION COLUMN Species Ethanol nin(mol) 258.152 Hin(kJ/mol) 0 nout(mol) 35.856 28.722 11.61 40.000 KJ Therefore.806 2. m=10.71kJ/mol Q=mCp∆T=∆H therefore.72 Hout(kJ/mol) 38.4 Energy Balance of the dehydration column ∆H=10.Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery 8.75 37.44 111.58 34.59 146.15 34.58 40.5oC Residue-100oC Species Feed nin(mol) 258.46 Hout(kJ/mol) 40.78.406 3.656 Residue nout(moles) 0.45 Distillate nout(mol) 258.5oC Distillate Temperature-78.656 37.7531 Water 34.06 Hout(kJ/mol) 38.746 222.45 Table 8.18 Hin(kJ/mol) 0 11.32kg of steam/hr 8.3 Energy Balance across the Rectification column ∆H=14246.3 RECTIFICATION COLUMN: Assumptions:    Feed Temperature. steam requirement is.571kg of steam/hr Page 38 .656 Ethanol Water Table 8.

1 CONTROL STRATEGY OF THE DISTILLATION COLUMN: For the production of anhydrous bio ethanol from the molasses. we have utilised two distillation columns-first one takes beer(which is containing 7. In the figure 9.Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery Chapter-9 CONTROL STRATEGY 9.1 Control Strategy of the distillation column FC-Flow Controller Page 39 . we have discussed the control strategy of the first distillation column. The second distillation column used is the Rectification Column after the first distillation column which gives 95% by weight of ethanol as the top product and the other residues are taken from the bottom. [23] Fig 9.3% ethanol by weight) as feed and the top product of which is hydrous ethanol(80% by weight of ethanol) and the bottom product contains vinasse which is further treated to give biofertilizers.1 given below.

and the column pressure. These variables are the compositions of the bottom and top products (x and y). heat removal (QT) and the ratios of L/D or V/B. barometric pressure and ambient temperature) and coolant temperature. Column pressure almost always is controlled by heat removal (QT). A change in one will upset the other because whenever the openings of their control valves change. Thus. the number of independent variables is eleven. In a binary distillation process. No matter how we make that selection. therefore.. environmental conditions (e.g. these two loops will interact. The manipulated variables that can be assigned to control these are the distillate ( D). Page 40 .37 kg/hr and of residue which is 17576. heating medium and product flows. the vapor boil-up (V set by heat input QB). coolant. The five manipulated variables are so assigned to the five controlled variables that the heat input at the reboiler (QB) and the distillate composition (y) are fixed and. column temperatures and pressure. feed enthalpy. Consequently. the levels in the column base and accumulator. while the levels are controlled to close its material balance. Load and disturbance variables include feed-flow rate. Therefore. the bottoms flow (B) and composition (x) are allowed to change with the variations in feed flow (F) or composition (z). Manipulated variables include reflux. Temperature and pressure for the stable and efficient working of distillation column is also controlled. steam-header pressure. the material and heat balance of the column will also change. bottoms (B) and reflux(L) flows.Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery LC-Level Controller PC-Pressure Controller TC-Temperature Controller 9. feed composition. and tower and accumulator levels.2 DESCRIPTION: Controlled variables include product compositions. the maximum theoretical number of automatic controllers that can be used on a binary distillation process is nine. we are able to control the composition of the distillate which is 80% (by wt) of ethanol and residue which is 2% (by wt) of ethanol. the flow rate of distillate which is 1281. and the number of defining equations is two. the number of degrees of freedom is nine. This loop closes the heat balance around the column.52 kg/hr. but usually only five are controlled. rain.

   3.2 PROCESS DESIGN OF THE EQUIPMENTS: Equipment 1: FERMENTER Standard specifications of a Fermenter: [24] 1. mechanically ground and polished Approx proportions: Height/diameter=2 Impeller/vessel diameter=0.3) are as follows: Equipment 1 Equipment 2 Equipment 3 Equipment 4 Equipment 5 Fermenter Yeast treatment Tank Centrifuge Distillation Column Molecular Sieve Dehydrator 10. bottom drive standard. Material: Stainless steel. 4. Steam-sterilizable inoculation/addition port Air inlet line Air exhaust line Well for temperature control sensor and temperature recording sensor Well for thermometer Water inlet line to jacket of vessel Side-entry port for pH electrode Foam breaking: Injection port provided for chemical breaking. 2.35 Baffle width/vessel diameter=0. maximum tip speed of 1200ft/min. Agitation system has 3 six-bladed turbine impellers adjustable along the shaft.1 LIST OF EQUIPMENTS: The lists of major equipments in the process flow diagram (Fig 5. top drive optional Page 41 . 5.1 Maximum working volume=75-80% Minimum working volume=25% Ports and penetrations.Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery Chapter-10 DETAILED EQUIPMENT DESIGN 10. standard drive of 40HP for a 5000-L vessel.        6. free of cervices. consists of a double disk rotated at high speed with its own drive 7. mechanical breaker optional.

(ii) ---------.5D) D=2. Q= 27521.5 Superficial velocity.Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery 8.508 kg/m3 Volumetric flow rate. 4 fermenters of volume= 127. of working days = 200 days Total time taken for fermentation i.98 m3 Typical size of fermenter used= 66 m3 – 200 m3 Therefore. q= area*us Q=76.81(approx.3% No.) m3/hr --------.643m L=19.995= (π/4)*D*D*(7.85*127. dissolved oxygen..995 m3 each Rate of dissolution of gas into fermenter: dc/dt= Kla *(Cs-C) Where dc/dt = rate of O2 transfer Kla = overall mass transfer coefficient Taking aspect ratio L/D= 7. rupture disk on vessel.1) Outlet concentration of ethanol in fermenter=7.825m Now O2 flow rate required. relief valve on jacket. residence time = 21 hrs ρavg = 1128. pH.38*21 V=511. temperature. V= Q*residence time =24.317 kg/hr (from Table 7. air rate. optional automatic sterilization cycle control. Controls and monitors: liquid level.e.38 m3/hr Volume of fermenter. Process Design of a Fermenter: Feed to fermenter = 27521.317 / 1128.508 Q=24.(i) Page 42 .. reduction-oxidation potential. u=14 m/hr For Kla= 12 /hr Now v= (π/4)*D*D*L 0.

H2SO4=55.085 kg/m3 Or. The most popular yeast strain used is “Saccharomyces cervisiae”. 3. 2. 2.5 kg/hr Density of components mixture =1426. Ethanol concentration=7. The nutrients Ammonium Sulphate (NH 4)2SO4 are added to facilitate proper growth of yeast and sulphuric acid H 2SO4 is added to control the pH of the mixing tank. 4. It is able to produce and tolerate high concentrations of ethyl alcohol. centrifuge is separating biomass from ethanol which is formed in the fermentation tank and then ths ethanol of 7.5 kg/hr Mass flow rate=4071.Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery Equipment 2: YEAST TREATMENT TANK Here. the capture of product as a solute in a particulate free liquid. Material of construction is Stainless Steel Feed Rate: (from table 7. Volumetric flow rate=2.497 kg/hr Density of the components(in kg/m3):  Ethanol= 789 Page 43 . It a lso possesses uniform and stable characteristics.2% Slurry feed rate in=26805.855m3/hr Assuming residence time to be 8 hrs Therefore.692kg/hr Yeast culture=1292. yeasts are grown separately to be added to the fermenter. Data: 1. Here. Data: 1. V=2.2)   3. diameter and height can be calculated: V=πD2H/4=25 D=2.99m =3m and H=8m Equipment 3: CENTRIFUGE Centrifuge helps in the removal of insoluble.8 or 25 m3 Let us assume aspect ratio H/D=4 Therefore.855*8=22.4% concentration is sent to the distillation column for further separation. calculating the volume of the tank or vessel.

15 m3/hr Δρ=solid density-liquid density=361 kg/m3 µg=Δρ*g*d2/18µ Where.058)+(1000*0.32) =14.     Calculations: ρmix inlet=(789*0.835)+(1587*0.(iv) --------.95m2 ∑= (π/4) D2 Or D= [(4*∑)/π] ^0.96/ (2*4.53*(feed rate/density) =0.426*10^-3*0.0513 Water=0.53*(26805.8*(100*10^-6)2/ (18*10^-3) =1.08954 Sucrose=0.(v) ---------.32 kg/m3 Q=overflow rate=0.7666 Biomass=0.497/1004.3) Ethanol=0.(iii) Water=1000 Biomass=550 Sucrose=1600 Mass fraction of the components(as per table 7.Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery    4.1015)=1004.8) =1829.46m or 8m Assume L/D ratio=0.8 Page 44 . ∑=area -------.5 D=7. µg= velocity of the particle d=diameter of particle g=acceleration due to gravity µ=viscosity of water Let us assume d=100µm=100*10^-6 m µwater=1*10^-3kg/ms Therefore.0925 =12.965*10^-3 m/s ∑=Q/ (2*µg*η).005)+(550*0. µg =361*9.

ToC The values of Antoine constants.Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery L=5.3 Calculations: 1. we employ Antoine equation: log10P= A-B/ (T+C) P is the vapour pressure.07131 8.(vi) A H 2O C2H5OH 8.426 230. It is the residue left which acts as good fertilizer and a source of methane.5m3 or 302 m3 Equipment 4: DISTILLATION COLUMN Distillation Column is used to distil 80% ethanol as the top product.273 0 36.362 Feed Zi 0.2: -------. The bottom product of the distillation is vinasse.63 1642.00847 1 Table 10. Distillation Column receives its feed from the centrifuge containing 7.2 Values for Antoine Constants C 233.613 xD 0.256 856.89 Table 10.0081 1 Distillate kmol/hr 22. Calculation of vapour pressure of ethanol and water: Page 45 .No Component kmol/hr 1.235 7.256 893.0334 0. Data: Table 10.00913 0.982 0. B and C for H2O and C2H5OH are given in Table 10.1 Material balance across the distillation column For calculation of vapour pressure of ethanol.61 0.4% by weight of ethanol which undergoes distillation giving 80% ethanol by weight from top and 20% by weight of water which further goes to rectification column for further separation to 95% by weight of ethanol.958 0. A.819 841. 3.229 7.1 gives the material balance of the components across the distillation column: S.304 xW 0.389 0 1 Bottom kmol/hr 7. 2.20417 B 1730.97 or 6m V= (π*D2*L)/4 =301. Ethanol Water Sucrose Total 29.871 856.34 14.

34*0.Φ) + (1*0.1+230.294 mm Hg P (H2O) =266.63/ (73.2 in equation (vi). of plates: A is the light key component ie ethanol B is the heavy key component ie water According to Fenskey equation: Nmin=log [(xA/xB) d*(xB/xA) B]/log (αavg) =log [(0.89/ (73.31-2.389/ (1-2.982/0.9841 kmol/hr Lmin=Vmin-D D=22.1+233.389)/(2.31*0. Ethanol Log10P= 8.31.61/0. Calculation of minimum reflux ratio (Rmin): 1-q=∑i αiZi/ (αi-Φ) q=0 1= (2.(viii) -------.61)/(1.7545)] =73.31) =6plates 3.294 mm Hg 2.389)*(0.34 kmol/hr -----.07131-1730.20417-1642.516 mm Hg P (C2H5OH) =615.00913)]/log (2.31*22.Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery Putting the values from Table 10.(ix) Underwood equation --------.Φ) Φ=2.(vii) Page 46 .7545 Vmin=∑i αiDxi. Calculation of minimum no.516 mm Hg Water Log10P=8.9841 Vmin=73.61/ (2.D/(αi-Φ) = [2.426) P=266.7545)] + [1*14.273*0.3) P=615.

Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery Lmin=73.304/36.(xv) ------.9841-22. Determination of column Diameter and height: Tray Spacing=Lt=0. of plates X=R-Rmin/(R+1) Y=N-Nmin/ (N+1) X= (3.4X/11+117.(xi) -----.8=11.34 Lmin=51.5*2.465 5.206 =0.389)*(0. Calculation of Reflux Ratio R=1.311 R=3.2587 Y=1-exp [(1+54. W/xHK.(xiii) ------.457)] Y=0.5 Uv =2.0265 Vw= max vapour rate -----.801NS+NS=14 NS=8 NR=6 Feed plate is 6th plate from the top 7.34=2.2X)*(X-1/X^0.4124=N-6/ (N+1) N=11plates Assuming 80% efficiency.6441kmol/hr Now.(xiv) ------.465=0.(xii) ------.6441/22.61/0.27Lt-0.206 = [(0. Actual no of plates N’=11/0.8=14 plates 6.982)*856.311 4. Rmin=Lmin/D =51.8m Height of column=H=14*0. ρv=0.00913/0.465-2. Calculation for position of feed plate: NR/NS= [(ZHK/ZLK)*(xLK.047)/ [(ρl-ρv)/ρv] ^0.7724 kg/m3 Uv is the maximum allowable velocity of vapour Uv= (-0.3648*(-1.(x) Page 47 .5)] Y=1-exp [0. Calculation of no.W)*W/D]^0.4124 0.31)/4.2m Density of liquid.171Lt2+0. ρl=895kg/m3 Density of vapour.613]^0.5*Rmin =1.801 NR+NS=N 0.

6] [refer fig.6m Column area. 11. Dc= [4Vw/ (π ρv*uv)] ^0.(xvi) Page 48 . how =750 [Lw/(ρl*Lw)]^(2/3) =28.76*Dc =0.5 Dc=0. vapour rate/ Ah [refer eq.03396m2 Net area.456m Assumptions: Weir height. 11.Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery Vw=0.3 page 571.2151m2 Hold area. how = 750 [Lw/(ρl*Lw)]^(2/3)=36. dh= 5mm Plate thickness = 5mm Check Weeping: Max liquid rate. vapour velocity = min. Aa =Ac-2*Ad= 0.283 m2 Downcomer area. R&C vol.6 Plant Design: Column diameter.357 kg/s Column Diameter.017kg/s Max.5] = 8.2491m2 Active area.1*Aa =0.9(25.46 At min.31kg/s Min.4-Dh)}/ (ρv) ^0. Ah=0.31*0. hw = 50 mm Hole diameter.31. C&R volume 6] -----. An= Ac-Ad=0.7 = 3. rate hw + how= 79mm K2= 30. C& R Vol 6] [ref fig. Lw= 4.02151 m2 Weir length.63m/s Actual min. 11.84 page 571. Dc = 0. page-572.3 Uh (min) = [{K2-0. Ad= 0. liquid rate.12 *Ac =0.10 mm Min. Ac= (πDc^2)/4 = 0. lw= 0. Lw= 4 .

6 min. minimum operating rate is above weeping rate.05 tall and 10 ft in diameter. 6. 4. Bed 1(adsorbing column) pressure 107. we use Pressure Swing Adsorption.5% ethanol is reached is calculated using theoretical breakthrough curve. and flow is diverted to next bottle set for adsorption. while for the other 17. 5 minutes cycle. Heat and pressure are transferred to the next bottle and are not lost. Material of Construction for vessel. Design Specifications: [25] 1. 10. 40% of the dry ethanol product is sent to help regenerate desorbing column while 60% is condensed to the final product.3kPa.33 min. 7. Equipment 5: MOLECULAR SIEVE DEHYDRATOR Molecular Sieve dehydrators are used to dehydrate a liquid feed of 95% by weight of ethanol to 99.Stainless Steel Types of sieves. Beds are 3. Page 49 . Sequencing: adsorption cycle ends.61m/s So. 2. 5.23. 9. For this purpose. The time at which a 99.5% by weight of product of ethanol. vaporised then sent to the adsorbing column where it is dehydrated by a packed bed of Type 3A molecular sieve. regenerating purge stream is no longer needed and 100% of the product stream is condensed to the final product. Molecular sieve: 1521 ft3per bed.33 min Adsorption time. The liquid feed is first heated.Type 3A molecular sieve.Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery = 11. 8. within 6. Working capacity was set at 1%. Regeneration time -6. made up of alumina-silicate or zeolite Design of this equipment consists of the 2 parallel columns one of which is adsorbing while the other is desorbing or standby.9 min While the adsorption takes place. bed is depressurised. 3. Inlet and Outlet Temperature-120oC Breakthrough time is the time at which water is first observed in the product.

3 MECHANICAL DESIGN OF THE EQUIPMENTS: Equipment 2: YEAST TREATMENT TANK Data from process design:           Design: 1.3 N/mm2 Joint efficiency=0.3=0. f= 130 N/mm2 Internal Pressure.Stainless steel Allowable stress.33N/mm2 t= [pDo/ (2fJ+p)] +C ------.85 Corrosion Allowance=3mm Crown Radius=1200mm Knuckle Radius=180mm Material of flanges is Carbon steel Material of construction of head=Stainless Steel Page 50 . Design of Shell: Design pressure is 10% excess than pressure inside Design pressure=1.1*0.4 Valves sequencing for adsorption and regeneration steps [26] 10.(xvii) Outside Diameter of vessel (Do) =3000mm Material of Construction. p=0.Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery Fig 10.

33=4.33] +3 Or t=990/221.85)=72.Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery t= [(0.394+vol of nozzles=65m3 Density of material is taken to be that of water=1000kg/m3 Therefore.024Do+0.06*R=0.(xix) Page 51 .04) ------.06*3000=180mm B= (1.e within permissible limit c) Stress due to weight of vessel: Volume of cylindrical portion=60m3 Volume of 2 dished ends can be calculated: Volume of head for knuckle radius to be min 6% of internal diameter of vessel V=0.67R1+2Sf R1=0.33*2984*8)/4=19.85) +0.47mm+3=7.984)3=2. total volume of dished ends=2(2.33(3000-8)/(2*8*0. B is the blank diameter B=1.04kg or 4512 kg Wt of dished ends: W= (π/4)*B2*t*ρ Where.47mm or 8mm Check for loadings: a) Tangential or hoop stress: ft =p (Di + t)/2t=p(Do-t)/2tJ ft = 0.045) =4.67*180)+(2*0.045m3 Therefore.69N/mm2 i.394 Total volume of vessel=60+4.008*π*8020 W=4511.152+0.081(2.33*3000)/ (2*130*0.081Di3=0.(xviii) Shell is fabricated out of SS plate of t=8mm Estimated wt= π*D*H*t*ρ D=3000-8=2992mm H=7480mm t=8mm ρ=8020kg/m3 W=2.6 N/mm2 (within permissible limit) b) Stress in axial direction due to internal pressure: f1=pDi*t/4 = (0.992*7.480*0. total weight of the liquid filled in the vessel=65*1000=65000kg -----.152m3 The straight length of dished end is 40mm Volume of cylindrical portion=0.024*3) + (0.(xx) -------.

thickness of 8mm is acceptable -------- -----.000)/(π*8*2984*2992) =0.994kg or 71000kg From eq.77 Th = (0.68+160.944kg/mm2=9.00445 N/mm2 Combining the above stresses on the basis of shear strain energy theorywe get equivalent stresses from given equation (xxii): fR=[ft2-ft*fa+fz2+3fs2]0.5}=1.15(4512+539.00445)2]0. Mechanical design of an agitator: Data: Vessel diameter=3000mm Page 52 .85)=7.5 = [(72.Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery B=3.5kg Wt of vessel including nozzles.33*3000*1.25)=10.44)2+3(0.983N/mm2 Both fr and fa are less than permissible stress ie 130N/mm2 Therefore.2726)2*0.000N-mm due to offset piping. dished ends and flanges Wt of vessel=1.44N/mm2 Assume T=500.5) =5994kg Total weight=vessel + content=65000+5994=70.(xxiii) 3.008*8020 W=539.25N/mm2 Assuming no wind load.2726m W= (π/4)*(3. f2=W/ [πt(Di+t)]=71000/(π*8*2992) = 0. Th = (p*Rc*W)/(2f*J) W=0. Head design-flanged and shallow Dished head For torispherical head.25{3+ (Rc/R1)0.69+ (-9.6*10. manholes and support is considered to be 10-20% higher than the sum of weights of vessel shell.6)2-(72.5=67.44)+(10.92mm or 8mm Straight length of dished end=40mm -----.(xxi) (xxii) 2.68kg or 540kg We have 1 dished end=W=540kg Wt of carbon steel body flanges=160.77)/(2*130*0. f3=0 Fa=f1+f2+f3 =19. Stress due to offset piping is given by: fs=2T/[πtDi(Di+t)]=(2*500.

33 Gland loss is assumed to be 5% and efficiency of power transmission is 95% Motor rating=598958. d i.e.33/(0.63hp or 890 hp ------.41 From graph.8182 mm2 Zp = (π/16) d3 Therefore.74=889.Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery Internal pressure=0.5 P=Np*ρ*N3*Da5 =4.75*500) Page 53 .5*25360.5*1840*(250/60)*1 =598958.33 N/mm2 Diameter of agitator (impeller) =1000mm Width of blade=150mm Thickness of blade=16mm Speed=250rpm Liquid in vessel is sulphuric acid Density=1840kg/m3 Viscosity=26.7*10^-3) =2871.95*0. shaft diameter =152mm Fm=Tm/0.95*10^5 N/mm2 (a) Power calculation: NRe= (Da2*N*ρ)/µ = {1*(250/60)*1840}/(26.64 =38040.95)=663665.7cP Overhang of agitator shaft=2000mm Permissible shear stress in shaft=55N/mm2 Elastic limit in tension=246N/mm2 Modulus of elasticity=1. Np=4.(xxv) -------.75Rb=38040*10^3/(0.64N-m Maximum torque during startup=1.(xxiv) (b) Shaft design: P=890hp=663940 W Tc=P/ (2πN) =663940/ (2π (250/60)) =25360.96N/m =38040*10^3 N/mm Permissible shear stress =55 N/mm2 Zp=Tm/fs =38040*10^3/55=691653.

5} =1/2{202880 + (202880 +38040 ) } =204647.807)*(2000)^4}/(8*1.(xxvii) ------. 722 N.95*10^5 N/mm2 I= (π/64)*d4 I= (π/64)*(2104) =1527.45*10^6) =3.45*10^6) =0.272 kg/mm δs =Wl4/8EI={(0.95*10^5*1527.45*10^6 mm4 δ1= (101440*2000^3)/(3* f=Me/ {(π/32) (ds) 3} Or f=204647722/ {(π/32)*(152) } =593.5 -----.807)*20003}/ (3*1.908mm Deflection due to impeller and hub weight is 40 kg δ2= {(40*9.57 N/mm2 Higher than the permissible elastic limit 246 N/mm2 If we take diameter=210mm F=225 N/mm2 which is within the elastic limit 3 2 2 0.0035 mm Shaft weight per unit length W= (π/4) d2*ρ= (π/4) (210/1000)2*7850 =271.45*10^6) =0.89kg/m=0.95*10^5*1527.018mm Nc =946/ [δ1+ δ2+ δ3/1.5 Nc =483. M=Fm*l M=101440*2000=202880 N-m Me=1/2{M+ (M2+Tm2)0.25]0.(xxvi) ------.12rpm Present speed is 250 rpm which is 51% of critical speed which is on the safer side ------.272*9.Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery Fm=101440 N Maximum bending moment M at the bearing point from where the shaft overhangs.51*10^-3 mm=0.(xxix) Page 54 .(xxviii) (c) The critical speed consideration: δl =Wl3/3EI W=Fm=101440 N L=2000 mm E=1.95*10^5*1527.

of trays Tray spacing Top disengaging space Bottom separator space Length of column (tangent to tangent) Skirt height Operating temperature Operating pressure Design temperature Design pressure Selection of shell material: Stainless steel Calculations: (a) Calculation of Thickness: Allowable design stress for the material specified.8m 1m 1. BCB] Di= 0. 3.31N/mm2 which is acceptable Equipment 4: DISTILLATION COLUMN 1.85-111. Data from process design: Shell inside diameter No. J=0.75Rb-Rh) =101440(0.1*101.46x 10^3x0.03635m Corrosion allowance = 3mm Thus thickness.(xxx) Page 55 .18x10^6x0. BCB] -----.f= 1.5 m 82oC 101.75*500-210) =167360N-mm F=BMmax/Z Z=bt * bw2/6 F=22.            2.6/ (2x1.75m 13.8 page 260.46x10^3)] = 0.64m [ref appendix A.Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery (d) Design of Blade: BMmax=Fm (0.85 t = [PDi/ (2*f*J-P)] = [111.95m 4.325 KN/m2 82+8=90oC 1.6m N=14 lt=0. page 261.46 KN/m2 [Ref art 2.325 = 111.18MN/m2 Welding joint efficiency factor. t=40 mm Outer diameter Do= Di + t= 0.

5 x10^-3 MN (b) Weight of ladder =3.01*X MN/m2 (iii) The stress induced in the shell due to liquid hold up: σzl=Wl/(π*Do*t) Where Wl= wt.632/(π*0.04) σzl =0.00196MN/m2 (iv) The stress induced in the shell due to attachments: (a) Weight of top head = 7. of trays x tray loading Tray loading=1KN/m2 of tray area [ since weight =ρVg] Page 56 .65x10^-4 MN (c) Weight of trays = no.46x10^3x0. where g is acceleration due to gravity Wi/(π*t*(Di+t)) Assume t (ins) = 0.075x5640xXx10^-6)/0.075m Wins =5640g = (0.446 MN/m2 (c) Calculation of axial stress due to dead loads: (i) The stress induced by shell weight at a distance X m from the top: σzs = Ws/(π*t*(Di+t)) Assume Ws= 7850g σzs =0.632 σzl= 157.64*0. of liquid supported for a distance X m from the top Wl= (π/4)*D*D x weir height x 9.04) =0.64/ (4*0.Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery (b) Calculation of axial stress due to pressure: σzp= PDo/(4*t) = 111.8 x ρ Wl =157.04 σzi =0.96*X MN/m2 (ii) The stress induced in the shell due to insulation at a distance X m from the top: σzi= .

4 KN/m2 (area with moderate wind) The resulting BENDING STRESS in the axial direction is then computed from the following co relation: σzwm= 4Mw/[π*t(Di+t)*Di] Where.5 sec or less) k2=2 (if period exceeds 0.013785MN/m2 (v) Calculation of stress due to wind: Since the wind pressure does not remain constant throughout the height of the vessel it is recommended to calculate the wind load in 2 parts for top and bottom part separately.075m k1 is the coefficient depending upon the shape factor k1=1. Pbw=0.6X^2 N-m [ref table 9.7-1 KN/m2 (coastal area) Do is the outer diameter including insulation Assume thickness of insulation=0.4*10^3*X*(0.7*1*0.7(for cylindrical surface) k2 is the coefficient depending upon the period of 1 cycle k2=1 (if period of vibration is 0. Page 57 . But here in this case since height of vessel is less than 20m pressure is calculated for bottom part. Pbw=k1*K2*p*h*Do Where Pbw is the total force due to wind load acting on vessel h is the height of the vessel p is the wind pressure p= 0.97*X + 0.011825MN σza= Wa/(π*D*t) = 0. BCB] p=0.4 (for flat plate 90o the wind) k1=0.1 page 146.2X*X/2 Mw=110.147MN/m2 Thus total dead load stress acting along the axial direction of shell at point is then given by σzw=σzs+ σzi+ σzl+ σza σzw= 0.Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery = 14x 1000x π*D*D/4 = 0.075) Pbw=221.00396 MN Thus total weight of attachments = 0.5 sec) thus.64+2*0.2X N Now the BENDING MOMENT at the base of the vessel due to wind load is determined by the following equation: Mw=Pbw*h/2 =221.

(b) COMPRESSIVE σz(compressive)= σzwm + σzw.009168 X^2MN/m2 σz(compressive max.97X+0.6] σzwm =0.009168 X^2MN/m2 (vi) Calculation of resultant longitudinal stress (a) TENSILE σz(tensile) = σzp + σzw+ σzwm =0.64-0.5 Now.0.456=0 Solving for X.18 MN 1.013785 +0.0256=0.) =1.576MN/m2 Page 58 .04) σr= 0.009168 X^2 MN/m2 0.97*X .46x10^3*(0.0256 MN/m2 13.97*X + 0.125*E*(t/D o) =0.446+0.0427/0.σzp = 0.)= 0.97*X + 0.95m Thus assumed thickness is correct.009168 X^2 +0.Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery σzwm is the longitudinal stress due to wind moment (compressive on downward side and tensile on upward side) Mw is bending moment due to wind load Di is the inner dia of shell t is the corroded shell thickness σzwm= 4*110.009168 X^2MN/m2 X= 19.125*(2x10^7)*(0.55 m >> 13.23 >> 17.446 + 0.97*X .64)*0. σr= P(Do-t)/(2*t)= 111.446 + 0.0.013785 +0.446+0.6 X^2/[π*0. (vii) Design check by equivalent stress consideration σs= (σr2 –σr*σz+ σz2)0.836 MN/m2 σz(tensile)= 1.04(0.82) = 13.04)/ (2*0.55 m Thus assumed thickness is correct.009168 X^2 MN/m2 σz(max. X= 17.18=0.

Page 59 .18 MN/m2 Thus under operating conditions shell thickness of 0.04 m is safe.06 MN/m2 < 1.Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery Now substituting these values σs=1.

4736 Material of Construction-Stainless Steel-316 The costs of Storage Tanks as used in our process are given in Table 11.1 Cost of storage tanks The costs of Process Equipments estimated using correlations are given in Table 11.321 670. Equipment Yeast Treatment Tank Fermenter Centrifuge Distillation Column(Tower) Distillation Column(Trays) 5.323 234.1 Correlations Used: log10 Cpo=K1+K2 log10 A +K3[log A]2 S.831 21.Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery Chapter-11 ECONOMIC EVALUATION 11.590. CBM=Cpo[B1+FP*FM*B2] S.199 152. Cost Index for 2013=585 Cost Index Factor=cost index 2013/cost index 2001= 585/397=1.1 0.96 56.The combined table of all the equipments is shown in Table 11.2 Correlations Used: log10 Cpo=K1+K2 log10 A +K3[log A]2 .057 21.488 0.014 Table 11.218 103.602.89 1.776 41. 4.158 CBM(2013)($) 256. 3.42 83. Storage Tank(Molasses) Storage Tank (Ethanol) 232.3 Page 60 .352 3028. 2.136 60.994.066 52480 42619 77335 62803 Cost in US$ 2001 Cost in US$ 2013 Table 11. Compounds Cpo= Equipment Cost Storage Capacity(m3/3 days) 1. 2.225.No.65 94.2 Cost of Process Equipments .618 CBM(2001)($) 174.No 1.1 PROJECT COST: [27] Purchased Equipment Cost: Cost index in 2001 = 397.126 1.24 820. Molecular Sieve Dehydrator(Tower) Molecular Sieve Dehydrator(Packing) Attributes Volume(m3) Volume(m ) Power(kW) Volume(m ) Area(m ) Volume(m3) Volume(m ) 3 2 3 3 CBM= Bare Module Cost Cpo($) 25 128 200 4.879 988.851 83.

194 CBM($) Page 61 . Storage Tank(molasses) Storage Tank(ethanol) Yeast Treatment Tank Centrifuge Fermenter Distillation Column (tower) Distillation Column (trays) 7. COL= Cost of operating labor CUT = Cost of Utilities 8 4 2 167552 352. Total Fixed Capital Investment (FCI) = $12.3 Cost of all the equipments Therefore.23[CUT+CWT+CRM] Where.481 FIXED CAPITAL INVESTMENT: CBM= Direct Cost +Indirect Cost CTM=1. 9. 5.No.280 FCI +2. Heat Exchangers Pumps Total Table 11. 2. 6.73*COL+1.5 From Calculations. 763.18* CBM CGR=CTM+0.481 3 3 1 1 6 2 121. 4. 3.236 232.409 256.000 7. Equipments No.768 = ₹ 6. Molecular Sieve Dehydrator (tower) Molecular Sieve Dehydrator (Packing) 8. of Equipments 1.597.892*10^8 MANUFACTURING COSTS: COM=DMC+FMC+GE DMC= Direct Manufacturing Costs FMC= Fixed Manufacturing Costs GE= General Expenses COM= 0. Total Bare Module Cost CBM= $ 7.014 5929.597.005 188.879 152.192 198.Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery S.

5 Nnp=12. 3.6 Page 62 .032.877.384.803 kg/hr *24*200*53.7 P2+0.103 Table 11.33 638.032. 2.608 Table 11.186=$4.79 185. 2. 909 REVENUES: Market price of ethanol = ₹ 42/litre Annual Production= 1030.Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery CWT= Cost of waste Treatment CRM= Cost of raw materials Cost of Raw Materials: S.335.057.No 1.No 1.485 1.400 4. p=0 NOL=no.778 $/yr Therefore.5 Cost of Utilities Cost of Waste Treatment= 5% of CRM= $ 202.725.4 Cost of Raw Materials Cost of utilities: S. of operating labor/shift=3 COL=77.232=₹263. Raw materials Molasses H2SO4 (NH4)2SO4 Yeast Culture Total Cost ($) 3. Utility Cooling Water Steam Total Cost ($) 123.23 Nnp) 0. 4.09 1.088.855 Cost of Operating labor NOL= (6.485 The cash flow chart for our project is in Table 11.29+31.216. COM= $ 8.889 16.

893 0. VA=6.262 0.157 1.108*10^8 WC=15% of TCI = ₹ 1.353 0.476 0.5 4.54 -3.193 0.042 1.895 0.2918 1.048 0.446 -3.372 0.892 *10^8 a.686 0.018 0. Depreciation Calculation(by Written-down Value Method) VA=Vo (1-DWDV) n n=10.576 0.283 0.446 *10^8 in second year 4.5 4.624 0.2 CASH FLOW STATEMENT: 1. 3.072 1.877.15 TCI TCI=₹ (6.871+ 0.892 Page 63 .216 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1.964 -0.214 0.545 0.5 -0.675 -2.9422 -0.6892 Table 11.6 Cash Flow Chart (all figures in ₹ 1*10^8) 11.999 2.015 1.448 0.675 -3.322 0.85 = ₹ 8.564 0.892.675 1.682 0. Income Tax @32.9242 0.462 Total= ₹ 5.217 1.612 Salvage Value= 10% of FCI = ₹ 0.8892 -8.903 -1.446 -1.088 1.675 -3.0792 0.871 5.954 -0.1652 -4.54 -4.446 0.244 0. Depr.871 5.3222 -5.735 0.492 1. 4.097 -6.675*10^8 FCI= ₹ 6.871 5.956 0.5392 -6.154 0.5 4.216+ 0.871 5.9982 0.356 0.299 0.224 0.036 1. Ethanol= $4.387 -0.871 5.127 0.147 1.5 4.892 *10^8)/0.783 -0.109 1.871 5.178 5.994.648 -5.983 -2. b.153 0.446 -4.0748 2. ₹ 3.675 -4.419 1.108 0.66 0.693 -1.485 Biofertilizer=$5.871 5. b.Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery Yr Inv.775 0.048 0.1648 0.6892 *10 ^8 Working Capital TCI=FCI+0.807 0.121 -8.5 4.806 -0.79 0. Vo =6.645 -0.658 -6.9842 -1.048 1. Revenue COMd Tax.711 0. Calculation of Revenues: a.0562 -2. 2.221 -0.446 *10^8 in first year ₹ 3.871 5.831 -7.944 -0.675 -3.923 1.871 *10^8 6.5 4.871 5.45% Net profit Cash Flow Cumulative Cash flow Discounted Cash Flow Cumulative Discounted Cash Flow 0 1 2 -0.329 0.216 *10^8 5.5 4.5 4. Cost of land= 45 acres*15 lacs= ₹ 0.5 4.586 -2.662 -0.

964*10^8 Cumulative Cash Ratio=11. Payback Period: Land+WC=0. Net Present Value(NPV)= ₹ 0.206=20.0815=8.994 *10^8 Present Value Ratio(PVR)= ∑ all positive cash flows/∑all negative cash flows =7.6 NON-DISCOUNTED PARAMETERS: 1.891 PBP=7+ (-1.9422+1.216/1. Discounted Payback Period(DBPB): Discounted value of land + WC=0.33 years 2. 3. Cumulative Cash Price=₹2.675+1. 3.891) / (-1.795/8.216=1.9422+0.68*10^8 DBPB=6.648=1.05years 2.6% Similarly.5% DISCOUNTED PARAMETERS: 1. annual net profit/FCIL-S=0.Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery D=0.05=7.9242)=7+0.142 Page 64 .336 ROROI=Avg.12 =₹ 1. 4.831=1.5922/6. other values of depreciation as shown in table 11.675+1.

High pressure at outflow Action required Level control alarm Trip. [28] Hazards and Operability Review Project Name: Design of Integrated Sugarcane based biorefinery Process: Production of first generation bioethanol from Molasses Section: Distillation Column Item Study node Process Guide Possible causes parameter Words Tower Too High Too high inflow 1A Level Too low outflow Temp expansion Vessel contraction depressurization 1B Too Low Too high outflow Too low inflow evaporation Too high inflow Too low outflow Long storage Wrong substance dipped. Corrosives. shutdown Dump valve Overflow.e.1 HAZOP Analysis: In our biorefinery. Distillation units are one of the most important parts in any chemical plant.1 HAZOP Analysis: Unit: Distillation Unit Study Node: Tower Process Parameters: Level. DISTILLATION COLUMN. Too low The guide words are applied to the study node of the tank. the major process is the production of first generation bioethanol from molasses. shutdown controller 1C Concentration Too High Check valve Alarm Page 65 . The qualities of a distillation unit’s products are directly affected by feed’s properties. closed pipe section and standpipe with the designated process parameters. Pressure Guide words: Too high. The HAZOP study of the column is summarized in the Table 12. Concentration. In our biorefinery also it plays an important role. impurity Azeotrope formation Poisoning on cleaning Evaporation Date:25/04/13 Page: 1of 2 Possible consequences Flammable. pressure vessel. drain Level control alarm Trip. We have considered the HAZOP Analysis of one of our major equipment i. Temperature.Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery Chapter-12 HAZOP ANALYSIS AND PLANT LAYOUT 12.

the shutdown temperature would be higher than the alarm temperature to provide the operator with the opportunity to re. metal weakening. fire. Shutdown Cooling Burst disc Trip. Page 66 .1 HAZOP Analysis applied to the Distillation Column [29] The potential process modifications resulting from this study are the following:   install a high-temperature alarm to alert the operator in the event of cooling function loss install a high-temperature shutdown system (this system would automatically shut down the process in the event of a high temperature. loss of reflux flow Low pressure 1E Too Low 1F Pressure Too High 1G Too Low 12. shutdown Relief valve Temp control Alarms Trips shutdown Safety valve Relief valve Trip.2 PLANT LAYOUT: Site Selection: For our biorefinery. including information on how hazards can develop as a result of operating procedures and operational upsets in the process. Maharashtra. Shutdown Alarm Vacuum breaker Pressure control 1D Temperature Too high Overpressure. metal stress.Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery Reverse flow Wrong burst in flow Too high heating flow Too low cooling flow Too high electrical heat Fire Low pressure Too high cooling flow Too low heating flow Too low inflow temp Too high temp Too high inflow Too low outflow Pressure reduction fails Full of liquid Too low temp Too low inflow Too high outflow Cooling Table 12. Advantages of HAZOP Analysis: The advantage to this approach is that it provides a more complete identification of the cooling before the unit is shutdown)   install a check valve in the cooling line to prevent reverse Study the cooling water source to consider possible contamination and interruption of supply. Steam Temp control Alarms Trips. Dump Tank Cleaning. install a cooling water flow meter and low-flow alarm (which will provide an immediate indication of cooling loss). we have selected the Indapur region of Solapur.

Availability of Utilities: a) Power: We are taking power from the local grid and we are also producing power by burning of bagasse in our biorefinery plant. The plant layout of our Biorefinery is shown in fig 12. Mumbai Highway passes through Indapur and we will transport our products via road and also receive our raw materials via road network. Shri Siddheshwar Sugar Factory and many more.e. b) Water: We are getting the water supply for our plant from Ujani dam on Bhima River. So the raw material availability is quite easy from these mills. we are relying on the Transport by road.Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery Raw material Supply: Many sugar mills are located in the nearby region of Solapur like Siddhanath Sugar Mills. Transport Facilities: Majorly.1 Page 67 . Northern Hihgway-9 i.

Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery Page 68 .

being the main product of our integrated sugar based bio-refinery. major equipment in our process flow diagram. The importance of Bioethanol as an additive to regular fuel is increasing continuously. pollution and environmental concerns are taken care of. Page 69 . justifies our project. minerals). demand and supply analysis by going through a process of mass. supports this approach. which are not renewable (petroleum. the properties. Thus blend 5% ethanol with petrol from December 2012. The location of our plant is Solapur. being the solution to the problem. In India. natural gas. subsidized rate with sound transport and electricity facilities. This is likely to reduce the fuel import bill and lower India's dependence on fossil fuel as the ethanol prices are lower than petrol. A detailed plant layout of the plant is also prepared. A forward looking approach is the stepwise conversion of large parts of the global economy into a sustainable bio-based economy with bioenergy. We have discussed in detail. current uses of our product and also discussed how we can make the manufacturing process more energy efficient by producing 2 nd generation bioethanol as well. energy balance with detailed equipment design in the process. It is essential to establish solutions which reduce the rapid consumption of fossil resources. We have worked on the control strategy of the distillation column. and bio-based products as its main pillars. The economic evaluation of the plant shows a total capital investment requirement of Rs 8. In the development of the plant various practical considerations regarding safety. biofuels. Biorefinery concept. Hindustan Petroleum and Indian Oil Corporation .Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery CONCLUSION Our project emphasizes on the need of bio-refinery in the present scenario.Vehicle engines require no modifications to run on it and vehicle warranties are unaffected also. Ethanol is a high octane fuel and has replaced lead as an octane enhancer in petrol. Thus we have designed a plant of 30 ton/day with techno-economic feasibility report which is stated with the need. coal. the most common blend is 5% ethanol and 95% petrol . The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA) has made it mandatory for oil marketing companies (OMCs) Bharat Petroleum.108*10^ 8 with an acceptable payback period of 7 years. traditional applications. Maharashtra on account of the availability of raw material at a cheaper.

Gruber and Michael Kamm.htm as of 25 Nov 2012 Sugar at http://en.3 3.htm as of 5 Sep 2012 12. Biorefineries-Industrial Processes and Products Status quo and future directions Vol-1 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & as of 7 Dec 2012 Godavari Biorefinery at Lignocellulosic ethanol in Brazil at http://edepot.Felder.engr. 2nd generation bioethanol at “http://www. Ronald. John Wiley and as of 2nd Sep.A. Richard. Trends in bioconversion of lignocellulose: Biofuels.asp as of 5 Dec 2012 9.wikipedia.doe. http://www. http://hengyeusa.usask. Molasses at http://en. 3rd edition. Ethanol at “http://petrofedwinwinhosting. Traditional applications at as of 2 Nov 2012 21. 2012 4.pdf” as of 2nd Sep. 6.ethanolindia. Simulation of ethanol production from sugarcane at http://www. Biorefinery at of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery REFERENCES 1. 2012 Birgit Kamm. Pune” as of 8 Dec 2012 19. Patrick R. Ethanol at http://www.pdf as of 8 Dec 2012 16.extraordinaryroadtrip.dtic. 7. http://www. National Chemical as of 5 Sep 2012 as of 8 Dec 2012 15.pdf as of 7 Dec 2012 Distillation Control and Strategy at http://xa. Ethyl alcohol at http://www. Demand supply for ethanol at Division of Biochemical Sciences. Elementary principles of Chemical processes. Safety evaluation of ethanol at http://www. Mala dhari.somaiya.html as of 4 Sep 2012 Alternative fuels at http://www. Grades of ethanol at http://www. India 18. Alain. platform chemicals & biorefinery concept. Types of molasses at http://whatscookingamerica.ryssen.htm as of 5 Sep 2012 25. pg. Production of ethyl alcohol from molasses using aspen plus at as of 6 Dec 2012 Ethanol a renewable energy source at 71-88 14. Vishnu Menon. Biomass to biofuels-strategies for global as of 6 Dec 2012 as of 8 Dec 2012 17. KGaA. 5.W.yimg. Page 70 .authorstream. Appendix B as of 2 Nov 2012 20.pdf 26.wur.htm as of 5 Sep 2012 13.

Shaeiwitz Joseph. Daniel.pdf as of 25th April 2013 Page 71 .266-272 28.risoe.dtu. Whiting Wallace. Turton Richard.Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery Pg-448-453 29. “Analysis.Bailei Richard. Crowl. Synthesis and Design of Chemical Processes”. Joseph. HAZOP Analysis at http://www. second ed. second edition. pg 143-180. A..F. A. C.Louvar. “Chemical Process Safety-Fundamentals with applications”. B.

Design of integrated sugarcane based biorefinery APPENDIX MATERIAL SAFETY AND DATA SHEET Page 72 .

Non-irritant for skin. call: 1-800-424-9300 International CHEMTREC. Non-irritant for skin. Non-irritating to the eyes. Non-irritating to the eyes. Non-permeator by skin. Synonym: Dihydrogen oxide Chemical Name: Water Chemical Formula: H2O Contact Information: Sciencelab. Non-irritant for lungs. Non-sensitizer for skin. call: 1-281-441-4400 Section 2: Composition and Information on Ingredients Composition: Name Water CAS # 7732-18-5 % by Weight 100 Toxicological Data on Ingredients: Not applicable. TERATOGENIC EFFECTS: Not available. Non-hazardous in case of Inc. Noncorrosive to the eyes. 1 . He a lt h 0 0 0 A 0 Fire Re a c t iv it y P e rs o n a l P ro t e c t io n CHEMTREC (24HR Emergency Telephone). Non-sensitizer for lungs. Non-corrosive for lungs. Section 3: Hazards Identification Potential Acute Health Effects: Non-corrosive for skin. Nonhazardous in case of ingestion. CARCINOGENIC EFFECTS: Not available. p. MUTAGENIC EFFECTS: Not available. Texas 77396 US Sales: 1-800-901-7247 International Sales: 1-281-441-4400 Order Online: ScienceLab. DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY: Not available.0 0 Material Safety Data Sheet Water MSDS Section 1: Chemical Product and Company Identification Product Name: Water Catalog Codes: SLW1063 CAS#: 7732-18-5 RTECS: ZC0110000 TSCA: TSCA 8(b) inventory: Water CI#: Not available. Non-sensitizer for lungs. Non-hazardous in case of inhalation. Section 4: First Aid Measures Eye Contact: Not applicable. call: 1-703-527-3887 For non-emergency assistance. Potential Chronic Health Effects: Non-corrosive for skin. Non-sensitizer for skin. Non-permeator by skin. Non-irritant for lungs. 14025 Smith Rd. Non-hazardous in case of ingestion.

Flash Points: Not applicable. or absorb with an inert dry material and place in an appropriate waste disposal container. Ingestion: Not Applicable Serious Ingestion: Not available. Flammable Limits: Not applicable. Section 8: Exposure Controls/Personal Protection Engineering Controls: Not Applicable Personal Protection: Safety glasses. Serious Skin Contact: Not available. Special Remarks on Explosion Hazards: Not available. Lab coat. Large Spill: Absorb with an inert material and put the spilled material in an appropriate waste disposal. Serious Inhalation: Not available. Section 5: Fire and Explosion Data Flammability of the Product: Non-flammable. Section 9: Physical and Chemical Properties Physical state and appearance: Liquid. Section 6: Accidental Release Measures Small Spill: Mop up. 2 .Skin Contact: Not applicable. Special Remarks on Fire Hazards: Not available. Section 7: Handling and Storage Precautions: No specific safety phrase has been found applicable for this product. Auto-Ignition Temperature: Not applicable. Inhalation: Not applicable. Fire Hazards in Presence of Various Substances: Not applicable. Storage: Not applicable. Personal Protection in Case of a Large Spill: Not Applicable Exposure Limits: Not available. p. Products of Combustion: Not available. Explosion Hazards in Presence of Various Substances: Not Applicable Fire Fighting Media and Instructions: Not applicable.

Ionicity (in Water): Not available. Other Toxic Effects on Humans: Non-corrosive for skin.3 kPa (@ 20°C) Vapor Density: 0. Dose: > 90 ml/kg LC50: Not available. Critical Temperature: Not available. Taste: Not available. Corrosivity: Not available. Section 11: Toxicological Information Routes of Entry: Absorbed through skin. Instability Temperature: Not available. Non-permeator by skin. Specific Gravity: 1 (Water = 1) Vapor Pressure: 2. Molecular Weight: 18.Odor: Odorless. Eye contact.62 (Air = 1) Volatility: Not available. Water/Oil Dist. Conditions of Instability: Not available. Non-hazardous in case of inhalation. Non-sensitizer for lungs. Chronic Effects on Humans: Not available. pH (1% soln/water): 7 [Neutral. p. Polymerization: Will not occur. Coeff.] Boiling Point: 100°C (212°F) Melting Point: Not available.Route: oral. Non-corrosive to the eyes. Incompatibility with various substances: Not available.: Not available. Toxicity to Animals: LD50: [Rat] . 3 . Odor Threshold: Not available. Non-hazardous in case of ingestion. Special Remarks on Reactivity: Not available. Special Remarks on Toxicity to Animals: Not available. Non-irritant for lungs. Dispersion Properties: Not applicable Solubility: Not Applicable Section 10: Stability and Reactivity Data Stability: The product is stable. Non-sensitizer for skin. Non-irritant for skin. Special Remarks on Corrosivity: Not available. Noncorrosive for lungs.02 g/mole Color: Colorless.

Section 15: Other Regulatory Information Federal and State Regulations: TSCA 8(b) inventory: Water Other Regulations: EINECS: This product is on the European Inventory of Existing Commercial Chemical Substances.A. 4 . Products of Biodegradation: Possibly hazardous short term degradation products are not likely. BOD5 and COD: Not available. DSCL (EEC): This product is not classified according to the EU regulations.Special Remarks on Chronic Effects on Humans: Not available. HMIS (U. long term degradation products may arise. Section 13: Disposal Considerations Waste Disposal: Waste must be disposed of in accordance with federal. Section 14: Transport Information DOT Classification: Not a DOT controlled material (United States). Other Classifications: WHMIS (Canada): Not controlled under WHMIS (Canada). Section 12: Ecological Information Ecotoxicity: Not available. Not applicable. Special Provisions for Transport: Not applicable.S.S.): Health Hazard: 0 Fire Hazard: 0 Reactivity: 0 Personal Protection: a National Fire Protection Association (U. Special Remarks on other Toxic Effects on Humans: Not available. Toxicity of the Products of Biodegradation: The product itself and its products of degradation are not toxic.A. Special Remarks on the Products of Biodegradation: Not available. Identification: Not applicable. However.): Health: 0 Flammability: 0 Reactivity: 0 Specific hazard: p. state and local environmental control regulations.

with respect to such information. be liable for any claims. Other Special Considerations: Not available. Section 16: Other Information References: Not available. even if ScienceLab. Not applicable. Created: 10/10/2005 08:33 PM Last Updated: 06/09/2012 12:00 PM The information above is believed to be accurate and represents the best information currently available to us. or damages of any third party or for lost profits or any special. we make no warranty of merchantability or any other warranty.Protective Equipment: Not applicable. 5 . p. Safety glasses. Lab coat. In no event shall ScienceLab. express or has been advised of the possibility of such damages. howsoever arising. indirect. Users should make their own investigations to determine the suitability of the information for their particular purposes. and we assume no liability resulting from its use. However. consequential or exemplary damages. losses.

3 2
Material Safety Data Sheet
Ethyl Alcohol 190 Proof MSDS
Section 1: Chemical Product and Company Identification
Product Name: Ethyl Alcohol 190 Proof Catalog Codes: SLE1036, SLE1609, SLE1288 CAS#: Mixture. RTECS: Not applicable. TSCA: TSCA 8(b) inventory: Water; Ethyl alcohol 200 Proof CI#: Not applicable. Synonym: Ethyl Alcohol 190 Proof Chemical Formula: Not applicable. Contact Information:, Inc. 14025 Smith Rd. Houston, Texas 77396 US Sales: 1-800-901-7247 International Sales: 1-281-441-4400 Order Online:

He a lt h

2 3 0 H


Fire Re a c t iv it y P e rs o n a l P ro t e c t io n

CHEMTREC (24HR Emergency Telephone), call: 1-800-424-9300 International CHEMTREC, call: 1-703-527-3887 For non-emergency assistance, call: 1-281-441-4400

Section 2: Composition and Information on Ingredients
Composition: Name Water Ethyl alcohol 200 Proof CAS # 7732-18-5 64-17-5 % by Weight 5 95

Toxicological Data on Ingredients: Ethyl alcohol 200 Proof: ORAL (LD50): Acute: 7060 mg/kg [Rat]. 3450 mg/kg [Mouse]. VAPOR (LC50): Acute: 20000 ppm 8 hours [Rat]. 39000 mg/m 4 hours [Mouse].

Section 3: Hazards Identification
Potential Acute Health Effects: Hazardous in case of skin contact (irritant), of eye contact (irritant), . Slightly hazardous in case of skin contact (permeator), of ingestion. Non-corrosive for skin. Non-corrosive to the eyes. Non-corrosive for lungs. Potential Chronic Health Effects: Slightly hazardous in case of skin contact (sensitizer) CARCINOGENIC EFFECTS: Classified PROVEN by State of California Proposition 65 [Ethyl alcohol 200 Proof]. Classified A4 (Not classifiable for human or animal.) by ACGIH [Ethyl alcohol 200 Proof]. MUTAGENIC EFFECTS: Mutagenic for mammalian somatic cells. [Ethyl alcohol 200 Proof]. Mutagenic for bacteria and/or yeast. [Ethyl alcohol 200 Proof]. TERATOGENIC EFFECTS: Classified PROVEN for human [Ethyl alcohol 200 Proof]. DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY: Classified Development toxin [PROVEN] [Ethyl alcohol 200 Proof]. Classified Reproductive system/toxin/female, Reproductive system/toxin/male [POSSIBLE] [Ethyl alcohol 200 Proof]. The substance is toxic to blood, the reproductive system, liver, upper respiratory tract, skin, central nervous

p. 1

Section 4: First Aid Measures
Eye Contact: Check for and remove any contact lenses. Immediately flush eyes with running water for at least 15 minutes, keeping eyelids open. Cold water may be used. Get medical attention. Skin Contact: In case of contact, immediately flush skin with plenty of water. Cover the irritated skin with an emollient. Remove contaminated clothing and shoes. Cold water may be used.Wash clothing before reuse. Thoroughly clean shoes before reuse. Get medical attention. Serious Skin Contact: Wash with a disinfectant soap and cover the contaminated skin with an anti-bacterial cream. Seek medical attention. Inhalation: If inhaled, remove to fresh air. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Get medical attention if symptoms appear. Serious Inhalation: Evacuate the victim to a safe area as soon as possible. Loosen tight clothing such as a collar, tie, belt or waistband. If breathing is difficult, administer oxygen. If the victim is not breathing, perform mouth-to-mouth resuscitation. Seek medical attention. Ingestion: Do NOT induce vomiting unless directed to do so by medical personnel. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Loosen tight clothing such as a collar, tie, belt or waistband. Get medical attention if symptoms appear. Serious Ingestion: Not available.

Section 5: Fire and Explosion Data
Flammability of the Product: Flammable. Auto-Ignition Temperature: The lowest known value is 363°C (685.4°F) (Ethyl alcohol 200 Proof). Flash Points: CLOSED CUP: 18.5°C (65.3°F).(estimated) Flammable Limits: The greatest known range is LOWER: 3.3% UPPER: 19% (Ethyl alcohol 200 Proof) Products of Combustion: These products are carbon oxides (CO, CO2). Fire Hazards in Presence of Various Substances: Highly flammable in presence of open flames and sparks, of heat. Slightly flammable to flammable in presence of oxidizing materials. Non-flammable in presence of shocks, of reducing materials, of combustible materials, of organic materials, of metals, of acids, of alkalis. Explosion Hazards in Presence of Various Substances: Slightly explosive in presence of open flames and sparks, of heat, of oxidizing materials, of acids. Non-explosive in presence of shocks. Fire Fighting Media and Instructions: Flammable liquid, soluble or dispersed in water. SMALL FIRE: Use DRY chemical powder. LARGE FIRE: Use alcohol foam, water spray or fog. Special Remarks on Fire Hazards: Containers should be grounded. CAUTION: MAY BURN WITH NEAR INVISIBLE FLAME Vapor may travel considerable distance to source of ignition and flash back. May form explosive mixtures with air. Contact with Bromine pentafluoride is likely to cause fire or explosion. Ethanol ignites on contact with chromyl chloride. Ethanol ignites on contact with iodine heptafluoride gas. It ignites than explodes upon contact with nitrosyl perchlorate. Additon of platinum black catalyst caused ignition. (Ethyl alcohol 200 Proof) Special Remarks on Explosion Hazards: Ethanol has an explosive reaction with the oxidized coating around potassium metal. Ethanol ignites and then explodes on contact with acetic anhydride + sodium hydrosulfate (ignites and may explode), disulfuric acid + nitric acid, phosphorous(III) p. 2

oxide platinum, potassium-tert-butoxide+ acids. Ethanol forms explosive products in reaction with the following compound : ammonia + silver nitrate (forms silver nitride and silver fulminate), iodine + phosphorus (forms ethane iodide), magnesium perchlorate (forms ethyl perchlorate), mercuric nitrate, nitric acid + silver (forms silver fulminate) silver nitrate (forms ethyl nitrate) silver(I) oxide + ammonia or hydrazine (forms silver nitride and silver fulminate), sodium (evolves hydrogen gas). Sodium Hydrazide + alcohol can produce an explosion. Alcohols should not be mixed with mercuric nitrate, as explosive mercuric fulminate may be formed. May form explosive mixture with manganese perchlorate + 2,2-dimethoxypropane. Addition of alcohols to highly concentrate hydrogen peroxide forms powerful explosives. Explodes on contact with calcium hypochlorite Vapor may explode if ignited in an enclosed area. Containers may explode when heated or involved in a fire. (Ethyl alcohol 200 Proof)

Section 6: Accidental Release Measures
Small Spill: Dilute with water and mop up, or absorb with an inert dry material and place in an appropriate waste disposal container. Large Spill: Flammable liquid. Keep away from heat. Keep away from sources of ignition. Stop leak if without risk. Absorb with DRY earth, sand or other non-combustible material. Do not touch spilled material. Prevent entry into sewers, basements or confined areas; dike if needed. Be careful that the product is not present at a concentration level above TLV. Check TLV on the MSDS and with local authorities.

Section 7: Handling and Storage
Precautions: Keep locked up.. Keep away from heat. Keep away from sources of ignition. Ground all equipment containing material. Do not ingest. Do not breathe gas/fumes/ vapor/spray. Wear suitable protective clothing. In case of insufficient ventilation, wear suitable respiratory equipment. If ingested, seek medical advice immediately and show the container or the label. Avoid contact with skin and eyes. Keep away from incompatibles such as oxidizing agents, acids, alkalis, moisture. Storage: Store in a segregated and approved area. Keep container in a cool, well-ventilated area. Keep container tightly closed and sealed until ready for use. Avoid all possible sources of ignition (spark or flame). Do not store above 23°C (73.4°F).

Section 8: Exposure Controls/Personal Protection
Engineering Controls: Provide exhaust ventilation or other engineering controls to keep the airborne concentrations of vapors below their respective threshold limit value. Ensure that eyewash stations and safety showers are proximal to the work-station location. Personal Protection: Splash goggles. Lab coat. Vapor respirator. Be sure to use an approved/certified respirator or equivalent. Gloves. Personal Protection in Case of a Large Spill: Splash goggles. Full suit. Vapor respirator. Boots. Gloves. A self contained breathing apparatus should be used to avoid inhalation of the product. Suggested protective clothing might not be sufficient; consult a specialist BEFORE handling this product. Exposure Limits: Ethyl alcohol 200 Proof TWA: 1900 (mg/m3) from OSHA (PEL) [United States] TWA: 1000 (ppm) from OSHA (PEL) [United States] TWA: 1900 (mg/m3) from NIOSH [United States] TWA: 1000 (ppm) from NIOSH [United States] TWA: 1000 (ppm) [United Kingdom (UK)] TWA: 1920 (mg/m3) [United Kingdom (UK)] TWA: 1000 STEL: 1250 (ppm) [Canada] Consult local authorities for acceptable exposure limits.

Section 9: Physical and Chemical Properties
Physical state and appearance: Liquid. p. 3

hot water. nitric acid nitrosyl perchlorate. acids.5°C (173. peroxodisulfuric acid. Can react vigorously with oxiders. Instability Temperature: Not available. Polymerization: Will not occur. disulfuryl difluoride. cyanuric acid + water. aluminum. sulfuric acid + sodium dichromate. potassium dioxide. chromyl chloride. fluorine nitrate. Dispersion Properties: See solubility in water. Ethanol reacts violently/expodes with the following compounds: acetyl bromide (evolves hydrogen bromide) acetyl chloride. ruthenium(VIII) oxide.53 kPa (@ 20°C) Vapor Density: The highest known value is 1. diethyl ether. Corrosivity: Non-corrosive in presence of glass. tetrachlorisilane + water. hydrogen peroxide + sulfuric acid. potassium perchlorate. calcium hypochlorite. The following oxidants have been demonstrated to undergo vigorous/explosive reaction with ethanol: barium perchlorate. silver & nitric acid.1°C (-173. Taste: Burning. manganese perchlorate + 2. pH (1% soln/water): Neutral. chloryl perchlorate. perchloric acid permanganic acid.2-dimethoxy propane.2°F) Melting Point: May start to solidify at -114. uranium hexafluoride. acetone.Odor: Alcohol like. perchlorates. diethyl ether.58°C (175.59 (Air = 1) (Ethyl alcohol 200 Proof). Pungent. Critical Temperature: The lowest known value is 243°C (469. heat. Specific Gravity: Weighted average: 0. uranyl perchlorate. Odor Threshold: 100 ppm Water/Oil Dist. Color: Clear Colorless. Coeff.: Not available. silver perchlorate. 4 . Reacts vigorously with acetyl chloride (Ethyl alcohol 200 Proof) Special Remarks on Corrosivity: Not available. p. potassium tert-butoxide. potassium superoxide. sodium hydrazide.7 kPa (@ 20°C) (Ethyl alcohol 200 Proof). Incompatibility with various substances: Reactive with oxidizing agents. dichloromethane + sulfuric acid + nitrate (or) nitrite. Weighted average: 5. Special Remarks on Reactivity: Ethanol rapidly absorbs moisture from the air. ammonium hydroxide & silver oxide. permanganates + sulfuric acid.4°F) (Ethyl alcohol 200 Proof). Conditions of Instability: Incompatible materials. Molecular Weight: Not applicable. vinous. Weighted average: 1. methanol. iodine + methanol + mercuric oxide. Pleasant. methanol. Solubility: Easily soluble in cold water.8 (Water = 1) Vapor Pressure: The highest known value is 5. No really safe conditions exist under which ethyl alcohol and chlorine oxides can be handled. silver peroxide. hydrogen peroxide. Like wine or whiskey.54 (Air = 1) Volatility: Not available. chromium trioxide. Weighted average: 79. Boiling Point: The lowest known value is 78. sesquibromide ethylate. bromine pentafluoride. silver perchlorate. alkalis. Section 10: Stability and Reactivity Data Stability: The product is stable.4°F) based on data for: Ethyl alcohol 200 Proof. and sodium.3°F) (Ethyl alcohol 200 Proof). chlorate. potassium permanganate. Ethereal. Ionicity (in Water): Not available. Soluble in acetone. iodine heptafluoride. chromic anhydride. dioxygen difluoride. Mild to strong. Ethanol is also incompatible with platinium. sources of ignition.

[Ethyl alcohol 200 Proof]. (Ethyl alcohol 200 Proof) Special Remarks on other Toxic Effects on Humans: Acute potential health effects: Skin: causes skin irritation Eyes: causes eye irritation Ingestion: May cause gastrointestinal tract irritation with nausea. and urinary systems. ataxia. drowsiness. Chronic Potential Health Effects: Skin: Prolonged or repeated skin contact may casue dermatitis. TERATOGENIC EFFECTS: Classified PROVEN for human [Ethyl alcohol 200 Proof]. Eye contact. May cause cancer based on animal data. state and local environmental control regulations. excreted in maternal milk. excessive talking. BOD5 and COD: Not available. Moderately toxic and narcotic in high concentrations. of inhalation. hallucinations. an allergic reaction. headache.Route: Skin. Toxicity of the Products of Biodegradation: The product itself and its products of degradation are not toxic.Section 11: Toxicological Information Routes of Entry: Absorbed through skin. and endocrine system. Ingestion. Slightly hazardous in case of skin contact (permeator). fatigue. Classified Reproductive system/toxin/female. DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY: Classified Development toxin [PROVEN] [Ethyl alcohol 200 Proof]. based on moderate to heavy consumption. hypotension). Human: passes through the placenta.) by ACGIH [Ethyl alcohol 200 Proof]. changes in mood/personality. of ingestion. Ingestion: Prolonged or repeated ingestion will have similiar effects as acute ingestion. Classified A4 (Not classifiable for human or animal. liver. Section 13: Disposal Considerations Waste Disposal: Waste must be disposed of in accordance with federal. However. coma/ narcosis. long term degradation products may arise. vomiting. Dose: 2000 mg/ kg LDL[Rabbit] . (Ethyl alcohol 200 Proof) Section 12: Ecological Information Ecotoxicity: Not available. Inhalation: May cause irritation of the respiratory tract and affect behavior/central nervous system with symptoms similar to ingestion. Toxicity to Animals: Acute oral toxicity (LD50): 3632 mg/kg (Mouse) (Calculated value for the mixture). Inhalation. Dose: 1400 mg/kg LDL[Human child] . peripherial nervous system (spastic paralysis)vision (diplopia). distorted perceptions. dizziness. May affect respiratory tract. excitation. Reproductive system/toxin/male [POSSIBLE] [Ethyl alcohol 200 Proof].Route: Oral. Products of Biodegradation: Possibly hazardous short term degradation products are not likely.Route: Oral. cardiovascular(cardiac arrhythmias.amnesia. blood. slurred speech. MUTAGENIC EFFECTS: Mutagenic for mammalian somatic cells. Chronic Effects on Humans: CARCINOGENIC EFFECTS: Classified PROVEN by State of California Proposition 65 [Ethyl alcohol 200 Proof]. Section 14: Transport Information p. respiration (dyspnea). staggaring gait. Other Toxic Effects on Humans: Hazardous in case of skin contact (irritant). 5 . somnolence. It may also affect the brain. muscular incoordination. Special Remarks on the Products of Biodegradation: Not available. and alterations in gastric secretions. diarrhea. May also affect metabolism. May affect behavior/central nervous system (central nervous system depression . Mutagenic for bacteria and/or yeast. mild euphoria. Special Remarks on Toxicity to Animals: Lowest Published Dose/Conc: LDL[Human] . [Ethyl alcohol 200 Proof]. Dose: 20000 mg/kg (Ethyl alcohol 200 Proof) Special Remarks on Chronic Effects on Humans: May affect genetic material (mutagenic) Causes adverse reproductive effects and birth defects (teratogenic) . general anesthetic).

Be sure to use an approved/certified respirator or equivalent. Other Classifications: WHMIS (Canada): CLASS B-2: Flammable liquid with a flash point lower than 37.No smoking.A. Splash goggles.DOT Classification: CLASS 3: Flammable liquid.Highly flammable. CLASS D-2B: Material causing other toxic effects (TOXIC).S. Vapor respirator. S7. DSCL (EEC): R11.): Health Hazard: 2 Fire Hazard: 3 Reactivity: 0 Personal Protection: h National Fire Protection Association (U.Keep container tightly closed.A. Ethyl alcohol 200 Proof Other Regulations: OSHA: Hazardous by definition of Hazard Communication Standard (29 CFR 1910. Other Special Considerations: Not available. Section 16: Other Information References: Not available. Created: 10/09/2005 05:28 PM Last Updated: 06/09/2012 12:00 PM p.8°C (100°F). 65: This product contains the following ingredients for which the State of California has found to cause cancer. Lab coat.: Ethyl alcohol 200 Proof Illinois toxic substances disclosure to employee act: Ethyl alcohol 200 Proof Rhode Island RTK hazardous substances: Ethyl alcohol 200 Proof Pennsylvania RTK: Ethyl alcohol 200 Proof Florida: Ethyl alcohol 200 Proof Minnesota: Ethyl alcohol 200 Proof Massachusetts RTK: Ethyl alcohol 200 Proof Massachusetts spill list: Ethyl alcohol 200 Proof New Jersey: Ethyl alcohol 200 Proof TSCA 8(b) inventory: Water. which would require a warning under the statute: Ethyl alcohol 200 Proof (in alcoholic beverage) California prop. HMIS (U. 65: This product contains the following ingredients for which the State of California has found to cause birth defects which would require a warning under the statute: Ethyl alcohol 200 Proof (in alcoholic beverage) Connecticut hazardous material survey. 6 . birth defects or other reproductive harm.1200).S. Section 15: Other Regulatory Information Federal and State Regulations: California prop. S16.): Health: 2 Flammability: 3 Reactivity: 0 Specific hazard: Protective Equipment: Gloves. Wear appropriate respirator when ventilation is inadequate.Keep away from sources of ignition . Identification: : Ethanol (Ethyl alcohol 200 Proof) UNNA: 1170 PG: II Special Provisions for Transport: Not available.

com be liable for any claims. indirect. and we assume no liability resulting from its use. howsoever arising. even if ScienceLab.The information above is believed to be accurate and represents the best information currently available to us. express or implied. with respect to such information. losses. consequential or exemplary damages. However. or damages of any third party or for lost profits or any special. we make no warranty of merchantability or any other warranty. 7 . Users should make their own investigations to determine the suitability of the information for their particular purposes. p. In no event shall has been advised of the possibility of such damages. incidental.

PERSONAL PROTECTION 8. SECTION 7: HANDLING AND STORAGE 7.2 FLAMMABLE LIMITS: LFL: NA UFL: NA 5. 8. well-ventilated. Respirators should be selected based on the form and concentration of contaminate. Avoid prolonged or repeated contact with the skin. 7. SECTION 8: EXPOSURE CONTROLS. Get medical attention if irritation persists.3 TRANSER EQUIPMENT: Transfer product using chemical-resistant plastic or stainless steel tanks.2 SKIN PROTECTION: Neoprene rubber groves and apron should be worn to prevent repeated or prolonged contact with the liquid. Inc. administer water or milk to dilute.1200 SECTION 4: FIRST AID MEASURES 4. If not breathing. valves. Remove contaminated clothing and shoes. 8. 1 of 2 . rains or surface waterways. 5.2 LARGE RELEASES: Shut off release if safe to do so. dry chemical. Wash contaminated clothing prior to reuse.4 INHALATION: Remove victim to fresh air. Avoid smoke inhalation. carbon dioxide. DO NOT WEAR CONTACT LENSES.3 EXTINGUISHING MEDIA: Foam.4 EXPOSURE GUIDELINES: OSHA TWA N/A STEL N/A N/A N/A ACGIH 8.1 HANDLING: Avoid contact with eyes. Use only in a well ventilated area. NJ 08512 Emergency Telephone Number Telephone Number for Information Date Prepared 11/1/2011 609-448-0935 609-448-0935 SECTION 2: COMPOSITION/INFORMATION ON INGREDIENTS Hazardous Components (Specific Chemical) Identity: Common Name This product is a mixture--no specific CAS number (CAS #) #REF! OSHA PEL N/A ACGIH TLV N/A Other Limits Recommended N/A SECTION 3: HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION Black/brown liquid with typical odor. 4. etc. 4.5 FIRE FIGHTING EQUIPMENT: As in any fire. 4. or water fog.1 SMALL RELEASES: Confine and absorb small releases on sand earth or other inert absorbent. pumps.5 ENGINEERING CONTROLS: Use adequate exhaust ventilation to prevent inhalation of product vapors. If use generates an aerosol mist or respiratory irritation. If irritation occurs. 38 Hightstown-Cranbury Station Road Cranbury. seek medical attention. then induce vomiting. 20 CFR 1910. Treat remaining material as a small release (above). SECTION 5: FIREFIGHTING MEASURES 5. SECTION 6: ACCIDENTAL RELEASE MEASURES 6. Contain any liquid runoff. 6. dry place at temperatures between 40° and 95°F. Use water spray to dilute . Recover as much of the solution as possible.MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET 1. Avoid prolonged or repeated breathing of vapors. wear self-contained breathing apparatus. preferably mouth-to-mouth and get medical attention.3 EYE PROTECTION: Chemical goggles and a full face shield.Ventilation: Where air contaminants can exceed acceptable criteria.4 FIRE & EXPLOSIVE HAZARDS: Not Combustible 5. pressure demand.2 SKIN: Wash with plenty of soap and water. use NIOSH/MSHA approved respiratory protection equipment. Do not store near food or feeds. Wash thoroughly after handling.2 Manufactured For: Blackstrap Molasses SECTION 1: CHEMICAL PRODUCT AND COMPANY IDENTIFICATION Blackstrap Molasses Molasses Inverted syrup from the juice of sugar cane Plant Food Company.1 Product Name: Common Name: Chemical Description: 1.1 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION: Not normally needed. MSHA/NIOSH (approved or equivalent) and full protective gear.3 INGESTION: If conscious and alert. give artificial respiration. NEPA: Health:0 Reactivity:0 Flammability:1 Environment:0 (0=Insignificant=1 Slight 2=Moderate 3=High 4=Extreme) EMERGENCY OVERVIEW This material is not a 'health hazard' or a "physical hazard" as determined when reviewed according to the requirements of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration Hazard Communication Standard. 7. Do not give anything by mouth to an unconscious person.1 FLAMMABLE PROPERTIES FLASHPOINT: Not flammable METHOD USED: Closed Cup/NONCOMBUSTIBLE 5. Call Poison Control Center or physician immediately.2 STORAGE: Store in original container only in a cool.1 EYES: Flush immediately with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes while holding eyelids apart to ensure complete irrigation of all eye and lid tissue. Dike spill area to prevent runoff into sewers. use NIOSH-approved dust/moist respirator (such as 3M#8710). 8.

9 VOLATILE: 9.3 VAPOR PRESSURE: 9. Inc.4 N/A 5. Other Shipping Description: Not D.3 HAZARDOUS DECOMPOSITION PRODUCTS: None Known 10. especially from prolonged exposure.1 STABILITY: Stable 10.7 MELTING POINT: 9.6 REPRODUCTION: Data not available 11.4 VAPOR DENSITY: 9.1 ORAL: May cause stomach cramps and/or nausea.4 INCOMPATIBILITY: None. The user should satisfy himself that he has all current data relevant to his particular use. streams.O.4 CHORNIC/CARCINOGENICTY: Data not available 11. Regulated Fertilizing Compounds (Manufactured). and Plant Food Company. No warranty is expressed or implied regarding the completeness or continuing accuracy of the information contained herein. disclaims all liability for reliance thereon.17 EVAPORATION RATE: 9. SECTION 14: TRANSPORTATION INFORMATION D. estuaries. oceans or other waters by discharge of waste effluents or equipment washwaters.2 SARA TITLE III. consult local waste regulators for proper disposal. NMFC Item 6810 Sub 6.T. Section 313 Toxic Chemicals: None SECTION 16: OTHER INFORMATION This information was developed from information on the constituent materials. Dispose of waste effluents in accordance with state and local waste disposal regulations. clear viscous liquid Fruity sweet None Not available Highly soluble 1. May cause redness.1 Alga/Lemna Growth Inhibition: Not known.5 SOLUBILITY IN WATER: 9. clear viscous liquid 11.2 ODOR: 9. LTL Class 70 SECTION 15: REGULATORY INFORMATION 15. Keep container vented to allow release of CO produced by natural yeast in product SECTION 11: TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION 11.5 TERATOLOGY: Data not available 11.18 BOILING POINT: Blackstrap Molasses Black/brown.2 DERMAL: May cause slight irritation. 2 of 2 . 11.2 HAZARDOUS POLYMERIZATION: Will not occur.3 INHALATION: None expected but inhalation may cause mild irritation of nasal mucous membranes. Liquid.3 Toxicity to Plants: Not known 12. 12. 11.4 Toxicity in Birds: Not known SECTION 13: DISPOSAL CONSIDERATIONS Do not contaminate lakes. 10. ponds. Therefore.7 MUTAGENICITY: Data not available 11.10 COLOR: 9. SECTION 12: ECOLOGICAL INFORMATION 12.3 kg) > 1 Year N/A Not available < 32ºF Not determined 224°F SECTION 10: STABILITY AND REACTIVITY 10. chemical additions or other alterations of this product may invalidate any disposal information in this MSDS.13 PH-21C: 9.T.15 VISCOSITY: 9. Also.16 FREEZING POINT: 9.1 Not available Black/brown. 11.1 CERCLA: None 15.1 APPEARANCE 9.11 WEIGHT PER GALLON: 9.8 EYES: May cause temporary eye irritation.2 Toxicity to Fish and Invertebrates: Not known 12.12 STORAGE LIFE AT 70° F: 9.6 SPECIFIC GRAVITY (H 0 = 1): 9.O.7 lbs (5.8 pH: 9. Avoid heat over 140°F.MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET SECTION 9: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES 9.

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