Family Poeciliidae

This group of live-bearing toothcarps (native to Central and South America, as well as southern North America) displays obvious sexual dimorphism. Males are usually much smaller and often more brightly coloured. Their anal fins are modified into a moveable, elongated tube (gonopodium) used for transferring packets of sperm to the female's cloaca for internal fertilisation, an uncommon feature in the world of fishes.

Anal fins of male Gambusia

Anal fins of female Gambusia

The fertilised eggs continue to develop in the body of the female until the fry hatch and are discharged into the water (live birth).

Many species are favourite aquarium fish, being hardy, colourful and easy to breed. They are widely cultured and bred into numerous artificial colour varieties to suit the tastes of different aquarists. In this respect, they are very valuable, forming the essence of the local aquarium fish industry. Others, however have been deliberately brought around the world to combat mosquitoes. At least three species have been introduced and become firmly established in Singapore.

Specially bred guppy Photo: Tan Bee Hong

Genus Poecilia

Another specially bred guppy Photo: Yip Hoi Kee

Euryhaline; ovoviviparous; omnivorous; gregarious; pelagic. Typical livebearers which consists of well known species like guppies and mollies. Although considered freshwater fish, they are also equally at home in brackish and even full strength marine water (especially mollies).

Poecilia reticulata Ikan Parit, Mata Lalat,
Wild strain of Guppy Photo: Tan Bee Hong

3 cm (males), 6 cm (females). Feral, abundant.

Widespread in water channels throughout Singapore except in forest streams. The diminutive but extremely prolific guppy was originally introduced for mosquito control (probably sometime in the early 1900s), and has since colonised many of Singapore's disturbed freshwater bodies. It is a very successful little fish, being able to survive in conditions which few other fishes can tolerate, e.g., polluted canals and even sewage tanks. They are also an all time favourite with aquarists, with numerous fancy and colourful strains having been selectively bred as part of a multi-million

dollar industry. Rejected fish also provide a useful and convenient source for the subsidiary feeder fish industry. The common name is derived from the Reverend J L Guppy of Trinidad, who obtained early samples of the fish in its native land. Lesser Sailfin Molly
Poecilia latipinna Ikan Parit,

Male Lesser Sailfin Molly Photo: Yip Hoi Kee

10 cm (males), 12 cm (females). Feral, brackish waters. Canals, drains, ponds and estuarine waters.

The Lesser Sailfin Molly is native to Mexico and the southern United States. The males of this species have sail-like dorsal fins and make attractive aquarium pets. Many colour varieties have been bred, ranging from multi-coloured to jet-black. They tend to thrive better in brackish water. In the aquarium, mollies seem to be rather prone to fungal infection if kept for long periods in pure fresh water. The presence in Singapore of a larger and very similar species, the Yucatan or Greater Sailfin Molly, Poecilia velifera from Southeastern Mexico is suspected. Poecilia velifera tends to grow larger, the males reaching 15 cm and the female 18 cm in length. The dorsal fin of P. velifera has more fin rays (18 to 19) compared to P. latippina (13 to 16).
Sailfin Molly (male) Photo: Tan Bee Hong

Black Sailfin Molly Photo: Tan Bee Hong

Golden Molly

Piebald Molly

Common Molly
Female Common Molly

Poecilia sphenops Ikan Parit,

12 cm. Feral, common in brackish water. Rural streams, canals, drains and ponds. Not as colourful asP. velifera or P. latipinna, but more common. The males of this species do not possess large, sail-like dorsal fins. It is mainly used to feed predatory pet fish.
Male Common Molly Photos: Yip Hoi Kee

Genus Gambusia

Mosquito Fish
Gambusia holbrookii Ikan Parit,
Female Mosquito Fish

Euryhaline; 3 cm (males), 6 cm (females); ovoviviparous; omnivorous; gregarious. Feral, common. Rural streams, canals, drains and ponds. Native to southern United States and Mexico, this unassuming little fish has been brought round the

Male Mosquito Fish Photos: Yip Hoi Kee

world (previously known as Gambusia affinis) to combat mosquito larvae, hence its name. It is highly adaptable and prolific. Although seldom kept as an ornamental fish due to its drab colours, it is collected for the feeder fish industry.

Species Name:
Common Name: I. TAXONOMY
Kingdom Animalia Phylum/Division: Chordata

Poecilia latipinna
Sailfin Molly

Class: Actinopterygii
Superclass Osteichthyes

Order: Cyprinodontiformes

Family: Poecilidae

Genus: Poecilia

Species Name: Poecilia latipinna Lesueur 1821 Common Names: Sailfin Molly Topote Velo Negro (Spanish) Species Description: The sailfin molly, Poecilia latipinna, is one of three species in the IRL belonging to the family Poeciliidae. Members of this family are viviparous, giving birth to live young instead of spawning or laying eggs. These fishes are further characterized by: a single, spineless dorsal fin; a squared off or rounded caudal fin; and an anal fin in males modified into a copulatory organ, called a gonopodium (Robins & Ray 1986). Both sexes of P. latipinna have rows of dark spots along each scale row, but are otherwise dimorphic (Robins & Ray 1986). The dorsal fin in males is long and sail-like, with an orange edge, a series of black bars toward the outer half, and dark lines and spots near the base. The caudal fin is orange and blue with dark lines and spots, and the upper body is blue. Females lack nbright coloration, most markings, and the elongated dorsal fin.

The sailfin molly, Poecilia latipinna, eating microscopic organisms off a mangrove leaf. Photo L. Holly Sweat, Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce.

Poecilia latipinna feeding on detritus floating on the surface of the water. Photo L. Holly Sweat, Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce.

Potentially Misidentified Species: As mentioned above, two other poeciliids are found in the IRL: the mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis; and the mangrove gambusia, G. rhizophorae. Both species are much smaller than the sailfin molly, reaching a maximum length of 4 and 5 cm, respectively (Robins & Ray 1986). The mosquitofish is silvery, with pigmented borders on the scales forming a dark diamond pattern. The body and caudal fin usually bear rows of small black spots, and a dark bar is present below the eye. The lining of the body cavity, or peritoneum, is black and visible through the abdomen. The mangrove gambusia is similar toG. affinis, but lacks the dark bar below the eye and the spots on the caudal fin. Small but conspicuous black spots line the upper side, and the fins are yellowish in color. A third species that may be mistaken for P. latipinna is the invasive guppy, P. reticulata (Ferriter et al. 2006), which most likely was introduced to Florida waters via the aquarium trade. The guppy reaches lengths of approximately 6 cm, with females larger than males. Males also have large, colorful caudal fins.


including estuaries and freshwater tributaries (Burgess 1980. and the cave and basin hotsprings of the Banff National Park in Alberta. Meffe & Snelson 1989. from southeast North Carolina to the Yucatan. Canada (Nelson 1983). including closed and restored mosquito impoundments (Klassen 1998.Regional Occurrence & Habitat Preference: The sailfin molly is native to the coastal waters of the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean. Lin & Beal 1995). latipinna has been introduced throughout the world (Courtenay & Meffe 1980) to locations such as: California. the free encyclopedia Green swordtail Conservation status Secure (NatureServe) Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata . mosquito impoundments) (Williams et al. most populations are concentrated in mangroves and salt marshes. and large populations inhabit areas were water flow has been altered (eg. Because of its wide environmental tolerances and popularity as an aquarium fish. P. Robins & Ray 1986). Green swordtail From Wikipedia. 1998). Individuals have been found in shallow marsh areas. However. IRL Distribution: The sailfin molly is found throughout the IRL in many habitats. including the Salton Sea (Zedler 2001).

Hawaii. edged in black below. for the aquarium hobby. The green swordtail prefers swift-flowing. The male green swordtail grows to a maximum overall length of 14 cm (5.5 in) and the female to 16 cm (6. insects. Feral populations have established themselves in southern Africa. The wild form is olive green in color. Captive breeding has produced many color varieties. It is native to an area of North and Central America stretching fromVeracruz. Mexico. Sexual dimorphism is moderate. with a red or brown lateral stripe and speckles on the dorsal and. hellerii Binomial name Xiphophorus hellerii Heckel. hellerii has become a nuisance pest as an introduced species in a number of countries. sometimes. It has caused ecological damage because of its ability to rapidly reproduce in high numbers. it is closely related to the southern platyfish or "platy" (X. see Swordtail (disambiguation). Omnivorous. to northwestern Honduras. its diet includes both plants and small crustaceans. The green swordtail (Xiphophorus hellerii) is a species of freshwater fish in family Poeciliidae of order Cyprinodontiformes. The name "swordtail" is derived from the elongated lower lobe of the male's caudal fin (tailfin). heavily-vegetated rivers and streams. A live-bearer.3 in). and many patterns thereof. and annelid worms. red. but lacking the "sword". maculatus) and can crossbreed with it. For other uses. caudal fins. X. but is also found in warm springs and canals. including black. including Natal. Madagascar and easternTransvaal in South . The male's "sword" is yellow. 1848 "Swordtail" redirects here.Class: Actinopterygii Order: Cyprinodontiformes Family: Poeciliidae Genus: Xiphophorus Species: X. with the female being larger than the male.

see Guppy (disambiguation). while it inhibits the maturity of juvenile males in the vicinity of the well-endowed male. The males' beautiful. helleri (with one "i"). Due to interbreeding with the southern platyfish or "platy".Africa and Otjikoto Lake in Namibia.[citation needed] One of the most popular tropical aquarium fish. elongated caudal fins have been found to significantly affect their chances at mating. Guppy Female and male adults . most swordtails in the aquarium are hybrids to some degree.[citation needed] It is often designated X. the free encyclopedia For other uses. but authorities consider this an orthographic error and the spelling with two "i"s is the valid specific epithet.[1][2][3] Cultivated form of X. the green swordtail has been bred into various hybrid forms for the aquarium hobby due to its hardiness and suitability for community tanks. hellerii Guppy From Wikipedia. The presence of a well-endowed male spurs the maturity of females. Significant populations have also established themselves along the east coast ofAustralia.

reticulatus Girardinus guppii G. petersi G. reticulatus Poecilia poeciloides . reticulata Binomial name Poecilia reticulata Peters. poeciloides G. 1859 Synonyms Acanthocephalus guppii A.Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Actinopterygii Order: Cyprinodontiformes Family: Poeciliidae Genus: Poecilia Species: P. reticulatus Haridichthys reticulatus Heterandria guppyi Lebistes poecilioides L.

5 centimetres (1.4 in) long] and like all other members of the family is livebearing.4 in) long.5–3. although Poecilia reticulata is the name currently considered to be valid. slowing the spread of malaria.[1] is one of the most popular freshwater aquarium fish species in the world.S. the U. the common name "guppy" still remains. Although Girardinus guppii is now considered a junior synonym of Poecilia reticulata. and the fish was named Girardinus guppii in his honour by Albert Günther later that year. Sometimes this has occurred accidentally. the fish had previously been described in Germany.0–1.6–2. In many cases. It is a small member of the Poeciliidae family [females 4–6 centimetres (1. the Netherlands Antilles.[2] Contents [hide]          1 Taxonomy 2 Distribution 3 Ecology and behavior 4 Reproduction 5 Genetics 6 In the aquarium 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links [edit]Taxonomy Robert John Lechmere Guppy discovered this tiny fish in Trinidad in 1866. these guppies have had a negative impact on native fish faunas.[3] [edit]Distribution Guppies are native to Antigua and Barbuda. Barbados.[citation needed] Over time. also known as the millionfish. males 2. Trinidad and Tobago. Virgin Islands andVenezuela. the hope being that the guppies would eat the mosquito larvae.[6] . but most often as a means of mosquito control. Guyana. However.[4][5] However. Brazil. guppies have been given a variety of taxonomic names.Poecilioides reticulatus The guppy (Poecilia reticulata). guppies have been introduced to many different countries on all continents. except Antarctica.

or stripes that can be any of a wide variety of colors. While wild-type females are grey in body colour.[7] [edit]Reproduction A pregnant guppy at about 26 days A guppy fry in an aquarium at one week old Guppy standards .[edit]Ecology and behavior Guppies exhibit sexual dimorphism. males have splashes. spots.

such as the snakeskin and grass varieties. However. e. the older. The guppy has been successfully hybridised with various species of molly (Poecilia latipinna or velifera). Live plants may be used as hiding places for the fry. the same amount as humans. Guppies have the ability to store sperm up to a year. they are usually fed finely ground flake foods. After giving birth. The male will approach a female and will flex his gonopodium forward before thrusting it into her and ejecting these balls. so the use of a breeder box. Males possess a modified tubular anal fin. Guppies prefer water temperatures of about 26 °C (79 °F) for reproduction. .[10] Selective breeding has produced many different strains.. which is flexed forward and used as a delivery mechanism for one or more balls of spermatozoa. [edit]Genetics Guppies have 23 pairs of chromosomes. Guppies have been selectively bred to produce a variety of colors and patterns. typically ranging between 5 and 30. If not kept separate. unless they are put in a separate tank. each fry is fully capable of swimming. male guppy and female molly. the eyes of fry may be seen through the translucent skin in this area of the female's body. or a separate 20–40 litres (4–9 imp gal. individual offspring are dropped in sequence over the course of an hour or so. they nibble on algae. eating. will enlarge and darken. From the moment of birth. In the wild. the gonopodium. Just before birth. so the females can give birth many times without depending on the presence of a male. When birth occurs. After the female guppy is inseminated. uneaten food from the adults. the hybrids are always males and appear to be infertile. the female is ready for conception again within only a few hours. known as the gravid spot. and avoiding danger.g. In addition. varying according to water temperature. male guppies are dull black or brown in colour.Guppies are highly prolific livebearers.[9] The guppy has also been hybridised with the Endler's livebearer (Poecilia wingei) to produce fertile offspring. with some coloured spots. dark areas near the anus. Young fry take roughly three or four months to reach maturity. net breeder. In the aquarium. 5–11 US gal) tank is recommended. including one pair of sex chromosomes.[8] The gestation period of a guppy is 21–30 days. while females are fully dull grey. mature guppies will eat the fry. located directly behind the ventral fin. baby brine shrimp or. with an average of 28 days. The female guppy has drops of between 2 and 50 fry at a time. The wild guppies that showed the most colours in each generation were bred to produce the "fancy guppies" seen in pet stores and guppy shows today. A strain is defined as a population of guppies that show the same characteristics.

water sprite. it may cause her to have a miscarriage. as well as in freshwater tropical tanks.[11] They can withstand levels of salinity up to 150% that of normal seawater. such as angelfish. Guppies are generally peaceful. Its most famous characteristic is its propensity for breeding. and are usually found in large groups in the wild. Specially designed livebearer birthing tanks.5 and 27. because the males will sometimes attack the females while they are giving birth. if a female is put in the breeder box too early.2 imp gal). the free encyclopedia "Mollies" redirects here. and occasionally other fish with prominent fins.duckweed. which is important. Guppy grass. Poecilia . water wisteria. and it can breed in both fresh water and marine aquariums. These also serve to shield the pregnant female from further attention from the males.[edit]In the aquarium The guppy prefers a hard water aquarium with a temperature between 25. though nipping behaviour is sometimes exhibited between male guppies or towards other top swimmers like platys and swordtails. 4. Well-planted tanks that offer a lot of barriers to adult guppies will shelter the young quite well. see Mollies (disambiguation). It also provides a separate area for the newborn young as protection from being eaten by their mother. Guppys shouldn't be kept as a single fish in an aquarium because both males and females show signs of shoaling. For other uses. such as Daphnia. A continuous supply of live food.[13] Guppies bred by aquarists produced variations in appearance ranging from colour consistency to various tail forms.8 °C (78 and 82 °F) and salt levels equivalent to one tablespoon per 5 US gallons (19 l. are available from aquatic retailers. or Brine Shrimp will keep adult fish full and may spare the fry when they are born. However.[12] which has led to them being occasionally included in marine tropical community tanks. Well-fed adults do not often eat their own young. which can be suspended inside the aquarium. although sometimes safe zones are required for the fry. [14] [edit]References Molly (fish) From Wikipedia. and java moss are all excellent choices.

wingei) and the famous guppy (P. hellerii). 1801 Species See text. vivipara.Sailfin molly (Poecilia latipinna) Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Actinopterygii Order: Cyprinodontiformes Family: Poeciliidae Genus: Poecilia Bloch & Schneider. which includes the southern platyfish or "platy" (Xiphophorus maculatus). reticulata). and the green swordtail (X.[1] The type species is P.Live-bearers. Members of this genus are members of the family Poecilidae. Mollies (Poecilia) are a genus of euryhaline brackish water fish in family Poeciliidae of order Cyprinodontiformes. . with the exception of Endler's livebearer (P. the Poecilia species are collectively known as mollies.

such as black. 2003. They feed on smaller insects. and a wide range of other conditions. Poecilia gillii (Kner. Amazon molly. P. sulphuraria. orange. Poecilia hispaniolana Rivas. 1975. 2000. in reference to the fishes' coloration. [edit]Species FishBase lists 33 species. Poecilia butleri Jordan. 1913). 1978. latipunctata.Contents [hide]     1 Aquaria 2 Species 3 References 4 External links [edit]Aquaria Along with their platy cousins. Poecilia chica Miller. 1859). . black and white spots. Elegant molly. 1975. Mollies need to live in water that is 25 to 28 °C (77 to 82 °F). Orange and white spots. Catemaco molly. the sulphur molly. 1948). Poecilia formosa (Girard. Cauca molly. The generic name Poecilia derives from the Greek ποικίλος (variegated). Dwarf molly. the mollies are part of a pivotal aquaculture group of livebearers. IUCN list two of the species. Poecilia dauli Meyer & Radda.[3] bringing the total to 34 species:             Poecilia amazonica Garman. P. Pacific molly. as Critically Endangered. 1895. 1863). 1889. 1880). Poecilia caudofasciata (Regan. white. which can live in water from fresh to fully marine. Poecilia catemaconis Miller. Poecilia elegans (Trewavas. Poecilia boesemani Poeser. Hispaniola molly.[2] Recently one new species was added. Mollies come in several different colors and spot patterns. Poecilia caucana (Steindachner. and vegetation. and the broadspotted molly. animals.

1887. N. Yucatan molly. May 2006 version.[4] [edit]References 1. Manfred Schartl. 1801 (Teleostei. ^ "Poecilia". Poecilia reticulata Peters. Klaus Schneider & Brigitta Wilde (November 2004). 4. from upper río Cahabón system. Poecilia marcellinoi Poeser. Shortfin molly. Mountain molly. Isbrücker (2005). Venezuela. sp. Poecilia sulphuraria (Alvarez. Peten molly. Poecilia wingei Isbrücker. 1904.                      Poecilia koperi Poeser. Ed. Radda. 2002. Integrated Taxonomic Information System. 3. Poecilia nicholsi (Myers. H. Radda. Poecilia latipunctata Meek. Guatemala.: FishBase. 2002. Poecilia mexicana Steindachner. Endler's livebearer. 1914). Poecilia kykesis Poeser. Sailfin molly. 1801. Poecilia latipinna (Lesueur. Poecilia vivipara Bloch & Schneider. 1995. 2003. Sulphur molly. Guppy. 1866 (Teleostei: Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae)". Meyer. . including notes on AcanthophacelusEigenmann. 1983. 1990. 2006. ^ a b Manfred K. 1931). Molly. Schneider & Wilde. Poecilia wandae Poeser.p. Cyprinodontiformes. Contributions to Zoology 74: 97–115. Poecilia teresae Greenfield. Broadspotted molly. ISSN 0375-5231. with remarks on the Nomenclature of Mollienesia petenensis Günther. Poecilia orri Fowler. Balsas molly. Poecilia velifera (Regan. Alfred C. Isaac J. Poecilia mechthildae Bork. Retrieved June 8. from the Paria Peninsula. 2003.[3] Poecilia salvatoris Regan. Poecilia petenensis Günther. ^ Poecilia FishBase. Poecilia rositae Meyer. Ranier Froese and Daniel Pauly. 1943. Poecilia vandepolli Van Lidth de Jeude. 1907. subgenus Mollienesia. Zoologische Abhandlungen 54: 145–154. 1948). 1821). 1907 and other subgenera of Poecilia Bloch and Schneider. ^ Fred N. 1866. Etzel & Meyer. 2. black molly Poecilia sphenops Valenciennes. 1863. 1859. Kempkes & Poeser. Poecilia maylandi Meyer. 1846. Mangrove molly. Poecilidae)". Schartl. 2004. 2005. Poeser. Michael Kempkes. "Description of Poecilia (Acanthophacelus) wingei n. "A new species of Poecilia. 2006.

the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Gold fish) This article is about the ornamental fish.[edit]External  links Poecilla care information Goldfish From Wikipedia. For other uses. see Goldfish (disambiguation). Goldfish Conservation status Domesticated Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Actinopterygii Order: Cypriniformes .

testosterone specifically recruited additional preoptic gonadotropin- . The present study examined neurons immunolabeled for gonadotropin-releasing hormone and arginine vasotocin in the brain of the goldfish Carassius auratus to determine if these neurons are sexually dimorphic. orange. ishwar@nms. brown. Goldfish breeds vary greatly in size. and is one of the most commonly kept aquarium fish. A relatively small member of the carp family (which also includes the koi carp and the crucian carp). and black are known). body shape. Sex differences in the brain of goldfish: gonadotropinreleasing hormone and vasotocinergic neurons. Nippon Medical gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons of the terminal nerve and midbrain tegmentum did not differ between sexually mature males. It was one of the earliest fish to bedomesticated. Parhar IS. Similarly. Kobayashi Abstract The differences between male and female behaviors are reflected in sexual dimorphism of brain structures and are found throughout the nervous system in a variety of vertebrates. 1758) The goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) is a freshwater fish in the family Cyprinidae of order Cypriniformes. Sakuma Y. the goldfish is a domesticated version of a less-colorful carp (Carassius auratus) native to east Asia. Tokyo 113-8602. Bunkyo-ku. females and maturing females replaced with sex steroids with respect to distribution. Japan. Sendagi 1-1-5. Tosaki H. There was no sex difference or influence of sex steroids on the neuronal volume and optical density of staining of arginine vasotocin neurons. optical density of staining. Source Department of Physiology. or gross morphology. and several distinct breedshave since been developed. In maturing females. fin configuration and coloration (various combinations of white. yellow. auratus Subspecies: C. red. auratus Trinomial name [2] Carassius auratus auratus (Linnaeus. a. numbers.Family: Cyprinidae Genus: Carassius [1] Species: C. It was first domesticated in China more than a thousand years ago.

Specifically. orange or yellow color mutations.[3][4] . the preoptic gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal size was significantly larger in sexually mature males than females.1 Chinese goldfish classification 5 In ponds 6 In aquaria 7 Feeding 8 Behavior 9 Intelligence 10 Reproduction 11 Mosquito control 12 Controversy over proper treatment 13 See also 14 Notes and references 15 External links History Starting in ancient China. Further. Since estrogen had no effect. Some of these normally gray or silver species have a tendency to produce red. Our results show that the sexually dimorphic preoptic gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal size is determined by factors (genetic) other than gonadal steroids. this was first recorded in the Jin Dynasty (265–420). we propose the hypothesis that phenotypic and behavioral sex differences need not be accompanied by structural differences in gonadotropin-releasing hormone and arginine vasotocin in the brain. the influence of testosterone on gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal numbers appears to be independent of aromatization. various species of carp (collectively known as Asian carps) have been domesticated and reared as food fish for thousands of years.releasing hormone neurons to equal those in sexually mature individuals. 11-Ketotestosterone-replacement to ovariectomized maturing females induced male-typical secondary characters and male-type courtship behavior but did not masculinize the preoptic gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal size. Contents [hide]    1 History 2 Related species 3 Varieties of domesticated goldfish o             4 Size 3.

[8][dead link] During the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644). the empress of the Song Dynasty ordered the construction of a pond to collect the red and gold variety. the domestication of goldfish was firmly established. People began to breed the gold variety instead of the silver variety.[5] The occurrence of other colors (apart from red and gold) was first recorded in 1276. This is probably the reason why there are more orange goldfish than yellow goldfish.[9][10] .[5] where the Ryukin and Tosakin varieties were developed. as a symbol for the prosperous years to come.[5] During the 1620s. The first occurrence of fancy-tailed goldfish was recorded in the Ming Dynasty. losing their status. In 1611. In 1603. goldfish were highly regarded in southern Europe because of their metallic scales. even though the latter are genetically easier to breed. as goldfish became more available. goldfish were introduced to Portugal and from there to other parts of Europe. goldfish also began to be raised indoors.[5][6] By the Song Dynasty (960–1279). yellow being the imperial color. and symbolized good luck and fortune. This tradition quickly died. By this time. keeping them in ponds or other bodies of water. it was popular to raise carp in ornamental ponds and watergardens.[7] In 1162. A natural genetic mutation produced gold (actually yellowish orange) rather than silver coloration.[4] which led to the selection for mutations that would not be able to survive in ponds.A western aquarium of the 1850s of the type that contained goldfish among othercoldwater species During the Tang Dynasty (618–907). goldfish were introduced to Japan. On special occasions at which guests were expected they would be moved to a much smaller container for display. people outside the imperial family were forbidden to keep goldfish of the gold (yellow) variety. It became tradition for married men to give their wives a goldfish on their one-year anniversary. Goldfish were first introduced to North America around 1850 and quickly became popular in the United States.

However. while crucian carps are always golden bronze. carassius is well rounded. such as common carp and tench. and they remain the closest wild relative of the goldfish. The mutation that gave rise to the domestic goldfish is also known from other cyprinid species. C. the vast majority of the hybrid spawn revert to their natural olive color. some sources claimed the Crucian carp (Carassius carassius) as the wild version of the goldfish. Introduction of goldfish into the wild can cause problems for native species. Common and comet goldfish can survive. auratus have a more pointed snout while the snout of a C. Koi may also interbreed with the goldfish to produce a sterile hybrid fish. and even thrive. gibelio often has a grey/greenish color. Within three breeding generations.[11][12] Previously. auratus have fewer than 31 scales along the lateral line while crucian carp have 33 scales or more. C. however the hardier varieties such as the Shubunkin may survive long enough to breed with wild cousins. When found in nature. in any climate that can support a pond. Juvenile crucian carp have a black spot on the base of the tail which disappears with age. In C.Related species A wild Prussian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) A Crucian carp (Carassius carassius) Goldfish were bred from Prussian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) in China. they are differentiated by several characteristics. C. Fancy goldfish are unlikely to survive in the wild because of their bright fin colors. Goldfish can hybridize with certain other species of carp. C. gibelio are olive green. auratus this tail spot is never present. . There are many different varieties of domesticated goldfish.

and no shoulder hump. kuro demekin in Japan and dragon-eye in China. the Prussian carp. some of them far removed from the "golden" color of the originally domesticated fish. deeply forked tail. some variations are hardier. The comet or com et-tailed goldfish is the most common fancy variety in the United States. fin and eye configurations. except slightly smaller and slimmer. Common goldfish come in a variety of colors including red. a long quadruplecaudal fin. The small. a high dorsal fin. telescope eyes with pupils gazing skyward. Celestial Eye Comet (goldfish) Fantail (goldfish) Fancy Celestial eye goldfish or Choten gan has a double tail and a breeddefining pair of upturned. It is also referred to as popeye. there are about 300 breeds recognized in China. The Fantail goldfish is the western form of the Ryukin and possesses an egg-shaped body. telescope. Lionhead (goldfish) Oranda Pearlscale . black and yellow or 'lemon' goldfish. Some extreme versions of the goldfish live only in aquariums—they are much less hardy than varieties closer to the "wild" original. white.[4] The vast majority of goldfish breeds today originated from China. There are also different body shapes.[4] Some of the main varieties are: Common goldfish Black Moor Bubble Eye Common goldfish differ only in color from their closest relative. Currently. and is mainly distinguished by its long. However.Varieties of domesticated goldfish Selective breeding over centuries has produced several color variations. It is similar to the common goldfish. The Black moor is a telescopeeyed variety of fancy goldfish that has a characteristic pair of protruding eyes. orange/gold. fancy Bubble Eye has upward pointing eyes accompanied by two large fluidfilled sacs. such as the Shubunkin.

Fancy and hardy Japanese Shubunkins(朱文 金?) (translated literally as "red brocade") have a single tail withnacreous scales. It is also known as globe eye or dragon eye goldfish. is spherical-bodied with finnage similar to the fantail. The fancy oranda is characterized by a prominent raspberry-like hood or (also known aswen or headgrowth) that encases the whole head except for the eyes and mouth. Pompom (goldfish) Ryukin Shubunkin The fancy Pompoms or pompon or hana fusahave bundles of loose fleshy outgrowths between the nostrils. This fish is theprecursor to the ranchu. The fancy panda moor has a characteristic black-and-white color pattern and protruding eyes. Veiltail Butterfly tail (goldfish) Meteor goldfish . and a pattern known as calico. TheJapanese refer to it as the "king of goldfish".The fancy lionhead has a hood. on each side of the head. The fancy pearlscale or chinshurin inJ apanese. deep body with a characteristic shoulder hump. The fancy ryukin has a short. Telescope eye Ranchu Panda Moor The fancy telescope eye or demekin is characterized by its protruding eyes. The fancy Japanese ranchu is hooded.

also known as the peacock-tail. has a The imperial is an extremely uncommon experimental goldfish . Curled-gill goldfish Tamasaba Tosakin The Curled-gill or Reversedgill goldfish is another uncommon variety of fancy goldfish that has been developed by specialist enthusiasts. Mackerel Ta il.The fancy veiltail is known for its extra-long. as in a wedding veil for a bride.[13][14] Lionchu Egg-fish goldfish Shukin The Lionchu or lionheadranchu is a fancygoldfish that has resulted from crossbreedinglionheads and r anchus. hence its name. Wakin goldfish Jikin goldfish Imperial goldfish The wakin is a common goldfish with a divided. It owes its name to the outturned appearance of its gill covers. It has no tail fin. the two halves are attached at the center/middle forming a single fin. flowing double tail. Modern veiltail standards require little or no indentation of the trailing edges of the caudal fins. flowing.[15][16] The eggfish goldfish is an artificial creation of specialist fancy goldfish bree ders which lacks adorsal fin and has a pronounced eggshaped body. The Butterfly Tail Moor or Butterfly Telescope is of the telescope-eye lineage.[13][19] The Tamasaba or S abao is an uncommonJapanes e variety of goldfish with a body shaped similar to the Ryukin and a very long.[17][18] The Shukin is Ranchulike goldfishdeveloped from Ranchu and Oranda at the end of the 19th century in Japan. The Tosakin or curly fantail goldfish is a very distinctive breed of goldfish with a large tail fin that spreads out horizontally (like a fan) behind the fish. single tail that is similar to that of a mackerel. Though technically a divided tail. with twin tails best viewed from above. The spread of the caudal fins mimics butterflies underwater. fantail-like tail and is the The jikin. hence its other name. The Meteor goldfish is a strangelooking variety that has been developed by specialist breeders of fancy goldfish.

Black Moor. and very hardy. colorful. kept as a pet in a tank in Folkestone. Fantails and Veiltails ("Wen" is also the name of the characteristic headgrowth on such strains as Oranda and Lionhead)   Dragon Eye—Goldfish have extended eyes. the largest goldfish in the world was believed by the BBC to measure 19 inches (48 cm). perhaps in ornamental lakes". England. e. Bubble Eye.[20] At the time.[20] The secretary of the Federation of British Aquatic Societies (FBAS) stated of Goldie's size that "I would think there are probably a few bigger goldfish that people don't think of as record holders. since they are small. inexpensive.g. divided tail which is splayed outwards. Lionhead (note that a Bubble Eye without a dorsal fin belongs to this group) Size As of April 2008. a goldfish measuring 16 inches (41 cm) and 5 pounds (2.  Ce (may also be called "grass")—Goldfish without fancy anatomical features.. and Telescope Eye Egg—Goldfish have no dorsal fin. London and . Common goldfish. being developed by the GSGB.g. they may even survive for brief periods if ice forms on the surface.  Wen—Goldfish have a fancy tail. comet goldfish and Shubunkin.[20] In July 2010.. e. (July 2010) Chinese tradition classifies goldfish into four main types.. This fish was developed in Japan from the wakin.3 kg) was caught in a pond in Poole. These classifications are not commonly used in the West.[21] In ponds Goldfish are popular pond fish. and named as the second largest in the world behind the Netherlands fish.common goldfish of the Far East. It is one of the most difficult varieties to breed to the standard.g. was measured as 15 inches (38 cm) and over 2 pounds (0. e. These include the common goldfish. In an outdoor pond or water garden. England. as long as there is enough oxygen remaining in the water and the pond does not freeze solid. a goldfish named "Goldie". Chinese goldfish classification This section does or not cite anyreferences sources. and be living in the Netherlands.91 kg). thought to have been abandoned there after outgrowing a tank. and usually have an 'egg-shaped' body.

comet and some hardier fantail goldfish can be kept in a pond all year round in temperate and subtropical climates. Fancy goldfish (which are smaller) should have about 10 US gallons (38 l. Ramshorn snails are helpful by eating any algae that grows in the pond.3 imp gal) per goldfish.093 m2). and often stay on the bottom of the pond. Temperatures under about 10 °C (50 °F) are dangerous to fancy varieties. A filter is important to clear waste and keep the pond clean. A general rule is have 1 square foot (0. Moor. releasing harmful chemicals into the water. This is completely normal. However. The goldfish is classified as a coldwater fish. though commons and comets can survive slightly lower temperatures. Plants are further beneficial since they raise oxygen levels in the water. During winter. rapid changes in temperature (for example in an office building in winter when the heat is turned off at night) can kill them. and can easily cause a goldfish's death. Without some form of animal population control. each goldfish should have about 20 US gallons (76 l. tench. Compatible fish include rudd. The water surface area determines how much oxygen diffuses and dissolves into the water. and in more tropical climates. veiltail.Bristol shubunkins. filter or fountain effectively increases the surface area. In aquaria A Fantail goldfish Like most carp. 17 imp gal) of water. stop eating. oranda and lionhead can be kept safely in outdoor ponds only in the summer. Small to large ponds are fine though the depth should be at least 80 centimeters (31 in) to avoid freezing. and can live in unheated aquaria at a temperature comfortable for humans. wakin. Active aeration by way of a water pump. as well as a food source for the fish. Care must also be taken when adding water. Plants are essential as they act as part of the filtration system. they become active again in the spring. higher temperatures may help . but the latter require specialized care. jikin. especially if the tank is small. Fish such as orfe consume goldfish eggs. However. goldfish ponds can easily become overstocked. Build-up of this waste to toxic levels can occur in a relatively short period of time. goldfish become sluggish. 8. as the new water may be of a different temperature. goldfish produce a large amount of waste both in their faeces and through their gills. orfe and koi. For common and comet varieties. Extremely high temperatures (over 30 °C (86 °F) can also harm goldfish.

[citation needed] Feeding Various types of prepared fish food See also: Fish food This section does or not cite anyreferences sources. touching a goldfish can endanger its health. and whether the pigment is grouped inside the cell or is spaced throughout the cytoplasm.[22] Like all fish. The optimum temperature for goldfish is between 20 °C (68 °F) and 22 °C (72 °F). they are opportunistic feeders and do not stop eating on their own accord. The reputation of goldfish dying quickly is often due to poor care. can survive around goldfish. [citation needed] Goldfish produce pigment in response to light. The color of a goldfish is determined by which pigments are in the cells. but they require special attention so that they are not uprooted. how many pigment molecules there are. exposing the fish’s skin to infection from bacteria or water-born parasites. Because goldfish eat live plants. If left in the dark for a period of time. because it can cause the protective slime coat to be damaged or removed.fight protozoan infestations by accelerating the parasite's life-cycle—thus eliminating it more quickly. and give the fish coloration. goldfish respond to people by surfacing at feeding time. but the branches can irritate or harm a fish that touches one. However.(October 2011) In the wild. Plastic plants are often more durable. In fact. Like most fish. in a similar manner to how human skin becomes tanned in the sun. the diet of goldfish consists of crustaceans. goldfish do not like to be petted. and various plant matter.[23] The lifespan of goldfish in captivity can extend beyond 10 years. goldfish gradually change color until they are almost gray. Only a few aquarium plant species for example Cryptocoryne and Anubias. Overfeeding can be deleterious to their . Fish have cells called chromatophores that produce pigments which reflect light. and can be trained or acclimated to taking pellets or flakes from human fingers. insects. their presence in a planted aquarium can be problematic.

both as groups and as individuals. This happens most often with selectively bred goldfish. displaying schooling behavior. It is sold in two consistencies—flakes that float. The only real threat that goldfish present to each other is competing for food. As a result. and bloodworms. Goldfish may display similar behaviors when responding to their reflections in a mirror. As with all animals. comets. sometimes months. Goldfish have strong associative learning abilities. and predator avoidance behaviors that contribute to their success. They are a generalist species with varied feeding. goldfish learn to associate their owners and other humans with food. they produce more waste and faeces. Goldfish-specific food has less protein and more carbohydrate than conventional fish food. often "begging" for food whenever their owners approach. When excess food is available. breeding. Commons. and because their behavior can be conditioned by their owners. as well as social learning skills. Very rarely does a goldfish harm another goldfish. blanched green leafy vegetables. Young goldfish benefit from the addition of brine shrimp to their diet. their visual acuity allows them to distinguish between individual humans. and going to the surface mouthing for food) while hiding when other people approach the tank. it becomes possible to feed a goldfish by hand without it shying away. [citation needed] Goldfish that have constant visual contact with humans also stop considering them to be a threat. typically by blocking the intestines. Behavior Behavior can vary widely both because goldfish live in a variety of environments. Enthusiasts may supplement this diet with shelled peas (with outer skins removed). swimming rapidly around the tank. which have a convoluted intestinal tract. care should be taken to combine only breeds with similar body type and swim characteristics. and other faster varieties can easily eat all the food during a feeding before fancy varieties can reach it. Over time. After being kept in a tank for several weeks. goldfish preferences vary. Owners may notice that fish react favorably to them (swimming to the front of the glass. that stem from native carp behavior. Overfeeding can sometimes be diagnosed by observing faeces trailing from the fish's cloaca. as well as displaying the same types of feeding behaviors. As fish they can be described as "friendly" towards each other. In addition. nor do the males harm the females during breeding.[citation needed] Goldfish are gregarious. .health. This can lead to stunted growth or possible starvation of fancier varieties when they are kept in a pond with their single-tailed brethren. partly due to incompleteprotein digestion. Goldfish have learned behaviors. and pellets that sink.

until then they are a metallic brown like their wild ancestors. Within a week or so. like all cyprinids. Males chase gravid female goldfish (females carrying eggs). although a year may pass before they develop a mature goldfish color. The artificial breeding method called "hand stripping" can assist nature. The eggs hatch within 48 to 72 hours. Most goldfish breed in captivity. In their first weeks of life. Their eggs are adhesive and attach to aquatic vegetation. particularly in pond settings. adults may also eat young that they encounter. often in spring. Goldfish. colors and sounds. [26]By using positive reinforcement. Reproduction Goldfish may only grow to sexual maturity with enough water and the right nutrition. and prompt them to release their eggs by bumping and nudging them.[28] Fish respond to certain colors most evidently in relation to feeding. Breeding usually happens after a significant temperature change. goldfish can be trained to recognize and to react to light signals of different colors[27] or to perform tricks. typically dense plants such as Cabomba or Elodea or a spawning mop.[citation needed] Fish learn to anticipate feedings provided they occur at around the same time every day. are egg-layers. but can harm the fish if not done correctly.[24][25] Goldfish vision is among the most studied of all vision in fishes. In captivity. the fry begins to assume its final shape. the fry grow quickly—an adaptation born of the high risk of getting devoured by the adult goldfish (or other fish and insects) in their environment.[citation needed] Some highly bred goldfish can no longer breed naturally due to their altered shape.Intelligence Goldfish have a memory-span of at least three months and can distinguish between different shapes. Goldfish eggs showing cell division Goldfish fry just hatched (Ryukin) .

Sometimes bouncy balls are substituted for goldfish. such as the guppy.[citation needed] Because of their large oxygen needs and high waste output. in which a player scoops goldfish from a basin with a special scooper.[32][33] though this has since been amended to only prevent goldfish being given as prizes to unaccompanied minors. However. carnival and fair operators commonly give goldfish away in plastic bags as prizes.[29] Controversy over proper treatment The Japanese game of Goldfish scooping Some countries ban the sale of traditional fishbowls under animal welfare legislation due to the risk of stunting. Rome has also banned the use of "goldfish bowls".[35] The practice gradually fell out of popularity over the course of several decades and is rarely practiced today.[31] In the United Kingdom. deoxygenation and ammonia/nitritepoisoning in such a small environment. . goldfish are rarely eaten. a traditional game called goldfish scooping is played.Mosquito control Like some other popular aquarium fish. introducing goldfish has often had negative consequences for local ecosystems. during summer festivals and religious holidays (ennichi). Although edible. They are used to prevent the spread of West Nile Virus. goldfish and other carp are frequently added to stagnant bodies of water to reduce mosquito populations. The first recorded instance was in 1939 at Harvard University. such bowls are no longer considered appropriate housing for goldfish.[34] In Japan. on animal cruelty grounds. In late 2005 Rome banned the use of goldfish and other animals as carnival prizes.[30] In many countries. which relies on mosquitoes to migrate. A fad among American college students for many years was swallowing goldfish as a stunt and as a fraternityinitiation process. thegovernment proposed banning this practice as part of its Animal Welfare Bill.

Tank Size: 20 when spawning (15 and gaurding fry cm) gallon Size: 6 . or a suitable substitute. gaurds eggs and fry Temperament: Normally Adult Minimum peaceful. accepts most aquarium scalare America (22-30°C) Feeding: Easy foods Breeding: Egglayer. but gets aggressive in.See also Angelfish By Clint Norwood © Leslie Grossheim Species/genus: Pterophyllum Origin: South Temp: 72-86°F pH: 6-7.5 dH: Soft to feed. attaches eggs to plant leaves.

Comments: Angelfish are one of the most popular Aquarium fish available. More if they're mated pairs. (on while the the males left) is a has straight more line.99 to $9. interesting and beautiful. They are exceptionally hardy. They are fairly easy to spawn. usually by removing the eggs after spawning and raising the fry artificially. These are medium sized angels a little bigger than a quarter.A Spawning Pair. there's . Larger angels go for about $15. A lot of mated pairs from fish farms are older breeders past their prime. much like Discus. early 90's. But occasionally you'll find a pair that will raise fry on their own. female lower profile. © Clint Norwood the fry would eggs for me raise on in the the the fry driftwood. Harris Commercially raised silvers. The This following was taken information from is the message © board and John added here. Buying mated pairs is no guarantee that the fish will pair off and spawn again. Adult angels (the size of a tea saucer or bigger) are in the $30-$40 range. themselves. marbleds. Note that the of a curve in her This is a good way to sex Angels. golds and HB angels are sold for $4. These are the size of a half dollar.00 for the same color strains. I call it the "Natural Method". If you want to eventually breed these fish. This is preferable because you get to watch the pair protect and care for their fry.99 each in local pet shops around my neck of the crick. One note of behavior that I have personally witnessed but haven't seen mentioned is the fact that Angel fry will feed off of the body slime coating of the parents. Notice This pair raised thousands of They were a pair that the "Natural Method".

The egg sac will prevent them from freely swimming around the tank. I like hikari frozen BBS cubes). To breed them. If she's a good mom. If she's a bad mom. Feed them heavily to encourage rapid growth and change the water on the tank as often as you can manage (30-50% a day if you can). They can also eat vinegar eels and microworms. Angels have no sexual dimorphism and can only be sexed by their genital tubes when mating. etc. or Liquifry for egg layers. she'll pick it up and spit it back into the wiggling mass. When the egg sac has been absorbed. then feed with a medicine dropper. eat dead or fungused eggs and help the hatchlings emerge when they're ready to hatch. daphnia. Her job is done and she's likely to start feeding on them. When they reach sexual maturity. to prevent predators from picking them off. will take about three days to absorb their egg sacs. they'll start to look like little baby angelfish and can be graduated to daphnia and larger flakes/foods. thinner genital tube that's tapered at the end than the female) and put him back into the tank with the school. After spawning. remove the male (he'll have a shorter.). she'll pay constant attention to them. minced earthworms and a little spirulina raises little angelfish into adults rapidly. mouth them to clean them. © Plecosaurus Wiggly little baby angelfish fry are larger than most FW egg layer fry. Use a smaller siphon tube by using airline instead of a gravel washer to suck off the uneaten food and mulm off the bottom without sucking out curious little baby fish. Once they're free swimming (about 3 days). You can start feeding them commercially prepared finely ground beefheart foods (discus foods) at this way to sex them until they pair off anyway. save some money and buy a school of six to twelve small angelfish and raise them to adulthood on meaty foods for small mouthed fish. If one strays or falls out of the pack. Bloodworms. Baby angelfish need about eight feedings a day. beefheart frozen foods. Earthworm paste is also a great size booster. and a good mom will tend to the babies by keeping them in a tight little sqirming mass of baby fish until they're free swimming. and the pairs can be removed to empty 20 gallon tanks with established sponge filters and a piece of vertical slate rock at a 45 degree angle. Artificial rotifers/plankton. and once they hatch. Let the female raise the first clutch of eggs to determine her parenting skills. Angels can be good parents or bad parents. and do well on BBS (baby brine shrimp. You can also put a mesh net . Egg yolk from hard boiled eggs can also be fed. they'll pair off all by themselves. Hikari first bites. the fry will be eyelash sized and not at all angefish shaped. fan them with fresh water. you should remove the mom back to the school of angel tank. At six weeks. flakes. Push it through some muslin cloth and mix in water until dissolved. she'll turn on the eggs and eat all of them or ignore them. I've had both. powdered flake foods (Tetra Baby "E".

shipping and adjusting well. at a PPM of around 180.0 and 7. Big Sterlite tupperware storage tubs and/or kiddie pools make good grow out tanks. Separating the Good Ones and Those You Don't Want To: Good. These types have proven to adapt poorly to aquarium environments for differing reasons. They don't have to be glass. how can you tell which varieties to avoid? Herein is a collection of first and second-hand observations on what the . Empty 55 gallon tanks. These and several other Butterflyfishes are well-suited for captive systems. Unknown to many aquarists the full-spectrum of hardiness is offered to the consumer. or mix 50/50 with tap water. eating all types of foods. of the some one-hundred twenty described species. and/or require obscure foodstuffs to thrive. At sixteen weeks. among others? Impoverished for sure. Where would the hobby be without the raccoon. If you prefer to keep them.4. or pretty. 50 gallon preformed pond liners. one of the best. especially with RO/DI or distilled water for the proper formation of bones and organs in the baby fish. Poor & Unknown Chaetodon Choices Bob Fenner Chaetodon auriga. Butterflyfishes . this is the time when they should be separated and moved into larger tanks. the majority of B/Fs (industry shorthand for Butterflyfishes) are best avoided by the end of the tubing to catch any baby fry you accidentally suck up. resisting disease and adapting to a wide range of water conditions. threadfin. Keep the water pH a little above neutral for the snail's health and add trace elements. Save that for putting them on display. However. since a clutch size can be from 50-300 on average fish. teardrop and the several Heniochusspecies. Some of the best loved marine aquarium specimens are Butterflyfish family members. pH between 7. Snails are always a must with these fry when they're free swimming. they'll be nickel size or larger and ready to sell or trade to your pet shop for supplies. Medium.

Your success depends at least on two considerations. Bob the Fishman's Hot/Cold List: Everyone who has been in the trade and/or hobby has their own list of best and least liked organisms. Most live in depths of less than twenty meters. copper and antibiotic treatment of all new arrivals at the wholesale/importer/retail level. Their bodies are typically palmshaped with a protruding snout of varying length tipped with their small mouths. trios etc. Subsequent infection..B/Fs are. B/Fs need adequate room in shipping bags.. and at least a week quarantine for end-users. non-feeding. though a few have been recorded to ten times deeper. and notes on how to pick out healthy specimens and maintain them. thrashed by smacking against a too-small bag. If you can't be dissuaded to pass on any but the best adapted varieties of B/Fs. This pancake body plan and apical mouth arrangement is ideal for zooming in and out of the shallow coral reef habitats where most species reside. of a given species unless they appear closely associated at the dealers. one's that generally make it and those that don't. Collectors/Transshippers/Wholesalers who use proper manipulation and bag size have very small incidental losses. Classification: Butterflyfishes make up the family Chaetodontidae ("Key-toe-don-tah-dee") meaning "bristle-tooth" a telling allusion to feeding problems with many of these fishes. spirals into a dead specimen. You are committing to support another living thing by purchasing it. or large (6"+) individuals. Skip buying pairs. These adapt poorly. the species and individuals you choose. Distribution: Tropical to cooler seas. I believe that most are lost (prematurely) due to shipping/handling damage. where the species lie left or right of being generally hardy. Abandon the whole tank if any butterfly is off-color in the system. Do not buy small (less than 2. Leave thin ones alone. Indian and Pacific (principally Indo-West Pacific) along rocky and coral reef shores. body or fin origins. Selection: General to Specific This is a threshold level decision. please do yourself and the biological world a favor by reading the following carefully: Observe the fishes offered closely. notcyanide. Make sure yours can turn around completely. Size: Adults span three to twelve inches total length depending on species. Here are my opinions re the chaetodonts . I strongly suggest wholesale routine freshwater dipping. Avoid fish showing any reddening at the mouth. Their mouths get beat from rough net-handling. Most B/F's are caught in barrier nets.3"). Atlantic.

"bad". To save download time.. Butterflyfishes of the genus Chelmon & FAQs Butterflyfishes of the genus Chelmonops & FAQs .. "good". "Bad" B/Fs have less than twenty percent survival within the same parameters. Yes. A couple of explanations. shipping modalities. but I'll gladly stand by my assessments. Medium. the 'bad' ones die easily. Common and scientific names are those most often used in the United States.after handling a few tens of thousands over the last thirty plus years. size ranges. we can place B/F species (not individuals) as such in distinct "boxes". the Butterflyfishes may be demarcated this didactically. the 'good' ones generally live. "Good Butterflyfishes" I'll define as those that have been found to have a survival of fifty plus percent for three plus months (decent specimens shipped properly. they are borne out of many individuals being examined from many origins. no apology or vain attempt at completeness is offered.. passing alive wholesale through to the "end-user"). For the purpose of our discussions here. for now. I know there is going to be no absolute agreement on what I'm putting forth here. click on the genera and FAQs links below. Poor & Unknown Chaetodon Choices pages: Split up to save download time. Butterflyfishes of the genus Amphichaetodon & FAQs Butterflyfishes of the Genus Chaetodon & FAQs To: Good. "medium" and "unknown"..

the Barber Butterflyfish & FAQs Butterflyfishes of the genus Parachaetodon & FAQs Butterflyfishes of the genus Prognathodes & FAQs . the genus Forcipiger & FAQs Butterflyfishes of the Genus Hemitaurichthys & FAQs Heniochus Butterflyfishes & FAQs Johnrandallia nigrorostris.Longnose Butterflyfishes.

. but tanks that are six months and older enjoy greater survivability. one or more cave hideaways. the system should be as large as possible. so you'll want to investigate prospects before purchasing. Next. You want to duplicate this scenario.g. decompress. current brisk and temperature high. but just as critically important. chemical anomaly(?).Collecting Your Own Collecting Your Own can be done if you're in the area. They will show signs first and foremost when water quality is on a slide. Many authors cite lack of success with newly setup systems and B/Fs. the rough and tumble coral shallows: In this bright nook and cranny world the pH is high. think of the circumstances of where most of the good. The same cannot be said for the 'bad' others. 8. Who knows why. Place a barrier/mist net in a prospective channel and 'drive' the butterflies against it. Heniochus species) are tolerant to . Filtration: A vigorous. efficient mode whatever format is employed. Butterflies are free-ranging fishes. Some (e. temperatures of 75 to 85 degrees Fahrenheit are recommended. An important comment regarding "aged systems". they hide and are easy prey for tank bullies. with large lek territories. they need physical cover to feel secure. the water clean. with lots of current producing high dissolved oxygen concentration. Chemical/Physical These fishes are the analog equivalent to a "canary in a cave". There are cooler and deeper water types of butterflyfishes. Good water quality is a must with high. the use of a coarser coral sand for substrate is recommended for higher pH buffering capacity and ease of cleaning up meaty 'leftovers'. Display: Overall. consistent pH (8. Environmental: Conditions Habitat: First of all.. Do it like the pro's. Towards these ends an efficient skimmer is required. and ship back home. For the bulk of species. common butterflyfishes are collected. You'll never complain about the high cost of livestock ever again.2. I wouldn't have a closed marine system without one. Hand net them off. Behavior: Territoriality: Most of the 'good' butterflyfishes make fine tankmates. The use of external pH 'raisers' is encouraged.3). Also. with no worries if summer temporarily pushes this a bit higher. little to no detectable organics. algae/detritus food.

See notes below concerning disease.. the end-user.appreciative of members of their own species. they get caught in nets and puncture unwary hands. suggests reducing light levels for the first day or two after arrival. In fact leave some light on at night as well.. a handful of Chaetodons) that are generalist or plankton feeders they may pick apart nearly every invertebrate in time. put in huge systems with lots of cover. Now the immortal question ala Shakespeare: "To quarantine or not? That is the question. Professional aquarists develop a sense of how and when to lift butterflyfishes (if need be) from the water when moving them. whether it is worth the trauma to suffer the further slings and arrows of extra stress from the double moving. This is a good idea. Definitely not for reef systems unless the systems are very large. Supporting the fish. Once their mouths." All good marine aquarists should have an alternative treatment. Almost all chaetodonts are fish-tank-system-only members. Mix and match with triggers. quarantine. Hunziker. Or to take up arms. refuse food and quickly expire. At least utilize a prophylactic dip to reduce the introduction of external parasites. Should you keep B/Fs (along with all other new entries) apart for a week or two? Sure you should. Reproduction. Biology/Other Some B/Fs as juveniles are celebrated 'cleaners' picking parasites and dead tissues off other species. with supple hand support behind the netting. These stout spines are important to us as aquarists as well. Predator/Prey Relations Small Butterflyfishes are readily eaten by larger predatory fishes. At some island groups I've visited the locals seek small B/Fs out as bait. bully-recovering tank. gently restraining the fish from flopping about. giving would-be predators a potentially prickly mouthful. Except for noted species (Hemitaurichthys. bodies are beat they "give up the ghost". among others. accordingly. Sexual Differentiation/Growing Your Own: . Chaetodonts bear strong dorsal and anal spines at the anterior of these fins. Tearing of flesh and fin bases is often a fatal mistake. but people who know the business of aquaristics will assure you that improper handling is without doubt the number one factor in the life/death of dealing in livestock. It may not be as sensational as "cyanide poisoning" and the advertising and enmity that goes with that topic. fins. In particular the butterflyfishes are doomed if thrashed either via netting or placed in a too-small bag. one at a time. Regarding Handling: This is a very important matter that doesn't get enough coverage.. basses et al.. Forcipiger. the vast majority fight with their own or similar kind unless crowded. Introduction/Acclimation: A routine dipping and copper treatment has already been urged for passage through collection/wholesale to you. maybe with the exception of hermit crabs.

tubificid. minced clam and prepared blends should be offered in small quantities only and removed in uneaten as they will quickly foul water. Live brine shrimp is a good starter for newcomers as are various types of worms and crustaceans available in the trade. these are quickly cured by way of traditional remedies (copper. There is little or no observable physical differences (non-fancy term for sexual dimorphism) between the sexes. Social Butterflyfishes unfortunately are very susceptible to crypt. Some folks have kept these going for a while by providing scleractinian (true. Sorry.025 down to 1. Get your marines to eat quickly and offer algae. Genetic. Frequency. I can't help myself in re-emphasizing this point. especially on first introduction. Thankfully. read up and avoid these species. others travel solitarily or in groups and either pair up or form loose temporary associations at spawning times. anemones (cheapy Condylactis). Gametes are released near nightfall at the apex of a quick swim toward the surface. malachite green treatments). Close: . Should you have a fish go on feeding 'strike' though others in the system are fine (indicating something other than water quality as the cause). stony) corals. Instead. Parasitic. I implore you. some are known to enhance feeding. if caught in time. live and frozen. Disease: Infectious. The 'secret' to maintaining these fishes is to provide foods often and varied. Other meaty foods such as squid. sustainable food mix be found ASAP and offered often. Glugea). These little tanks float about via currents for months before metamorphosing into minuscule adult versions and settling down. Butterflyfishes have a peculiar bony-armored larval 'Tholichthys' developmental stage. Once again. Feeding/Foods/Nutrition: Types. Nutritional. you should apply vitamins directly to their water (and/or food). focus on more generalized feeders. 3) Chlupaty (1978) suggests temporarily lowering the specific gravity for a few days to stimulate appetite (1. and "gill fluke" problems. velvet. 2) Live white.018) 4) Because marine fishes do "drink like a fish". or grindal worms set down in a small dish to prevent escape. 'live rocks'. No successful recordings of spawning and rearing were found in the literature. hopefully at a fortuitous location. Some species are copper sensitive so be sure to us a test kit to avoid over-treatment. bacterial infections. Amount. Wastes Even the best species of butterflyfishes can be finicky eaters. Obligate coral eaters exist in the family. try one or more of the following: 1) A fresh clam opened up and placed on the bottom. Often they are the firstfish(es) to show signs of such in a tank.g. different foods in small amounts as frequently as practical.From observations made in the wild some species of B/Fs are known to form monogamous pairs. other common protozoal complaints (e. It cannot be stressed enough that an adequate.

Bob. the butterfly from Baja. T. Atlas of Aquarium Fishes.H. Publications. Butterflyfishes of the World. 6/92. Vol 1. Marine Fishes. 1990. 1994. Fenner.Y. Vol.F. larvatus. Hans J. T. A portrait of two fishes (C.H.. T. Allen. The butterflyfishes. Pt. Tropical Fish Research/Odyssey Publishing. 2. 2. David R. Wiley & Sons. 1986. Burgess. 1998. 1. Moenich. Campbell.F. Butterflyfishes. Burgess. If you're going to try the historically less hardy species. El Barbero. Fenner. Butterfly and Angelfishes of the World. N. Bad butterflyfishes.F. 1978. W. 1995. Butterflyfishes of the Caribbean. Robert..E. Keeping Chaetodons.11/80. T. Bannerfish butterflies. 1979. 7/94. marines: Their Care & Keeping. Hunziker. Gary.H. please do not encourage their further collection by buying them. then I have accomplished what I set out for. Roger Steene & Mark Allen.F.. the genus Heniochus.F. The ten best butterflyfishes. 4/78. As a conscientious marine aquarist you should at least be aware of the odds you are facing in attempting difficult organisms. 1991. Miller.E. 832 pg. Michael. Emmens. How much range of average survivability does all this livestock demonstrate? Huge. trying to dissuade aquarists from trying fishes that are almost guaranteed to die within a few weeks in captivity is worthwhile? Are you more likely to 'cast your vote' by spending your money and efforts on historically more appropriate species as a consequence? Good. 1992. semilarvatus). FAMA 9/86. providing absolutely clean water and adequate feeding are requisite. Warren. Gerald R. 1990.. T. G. 1978. Neptune City.M. Ray.F. 1972. Scott. Keeping butterflyfishes. N. There are many varieties of sealife offered to the pet hobby. Hunziker III. Aquarium Fish Magazine 1/91. Mayland. Douglas. H. Jersey. Should you be unwilling or unable to provide these. 1985. Axelrod & R. FAMA 10.R. Chlupaty.Do you think an article of this nature. . Publications. FAMA 6/90..H. and what has and has not worked for others. Cliff W.H. 7/95. 1980. A. 5/85.J. 250pp.R. T.H. This is the advantage of reading.F. Marine Aquarist 3(5):72. Bibliography/Further Reading: Allen. selecting good specimens. Peter. A Guide to Angelfishes & Butterflyfishes.

H. Roger C. Vol. Pyle. II. 1994. 1991. Joseph S. Chaetodon daedalma Jordan & Fowler..11/83. C. Randy J. . 1973. Butterfly & Angelfishes of the World. 1990.s. Richard F.. The teardrop butterflyfish. Fishes of the World. Wiley & Sons. I.F. Germany. N.. Refano.. Siegel. T. Rare & Unusual Marines. 1993. mesoleucos Forsskal. Steene.F. FAMA 2/93. Stratton. Richard L.H.. Butterflies. FAMA 1/91. 1 Australia. 3rd ed. Rare & Unusual Marines. Mergus Publ. 6/90. The importer speaks: the butterflyfishes pt. 10. Marine Aquarist 4(2):73. 1985. Terry. The white face butterflyfish. Joe. Walker.Y. 1983. T.Nelson..