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T a b l e o f Co n t e n t s

A b s t r a c t / S u m m a r y ............................................................................................................... 2 I n t r o d u c t i o n ............................................................................................................................... 2 A i m s / O b j e c t i v e s .................................................................................................................... 3 T h e o r y .......................................................................................................................................... 4 A p p a r a t u s .................................................................................................................................... 7 E x p e r i m e n t a l P r o c e d u r e ....................................................................................................... 8 R e s u l t s ......................................................................................................................................... 9 S a m p l e C a l c u l a t i o n s ............................................................................................................. 19 D i s c u s s i o n s .............................................................................................................................. 20 C o n c l u s i o n s ............................................................................................................................. 21 R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s ................................................................................................................. 21 R e f e r e n c e s ................................................................................................................................ 22 A p p e n d i c e s ............................................................................................................................... 22

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A B S TR A C T / S UM M A R Y

The main purpose of this experiment is to investigate the validity of the Bernoulli equation when applied to the steady flow of water in a tapered duct and to measure the flow rate and both static and total pressure heads in a rigid convergent/divergent tube of known geometry for a range of steady flow rates. The apparatus used is Bernoullis Theorem Demonstration Apparatus, F1 -15. In this experiment, the pressure difference taken is from h1- h5. The time to collect 3 L water in the tank w a s d e t e r m i n e d . L a s t l y t h e f l o w r a t e , v e l o c i t y, d yn a m i c h e a d , a n d t o t a l head were calculated using the readings we got from the experiment and from the data given for both convergent and divergent flow. Based on the r e s u l t s t a k e n , i t h a s b e e n a n a l ys e d t h a t t h e v e l o c i t y o f c o n v e r g e n t f l o w i s increasing, whereas the velocity of divergent flow is the opposite, whereby the velocity decreased, since the water flow from a narrow area to a wider area. Therefore, Bernoullis principle is valid for a steady flow in rigid convergent and divergent tube of known geometry for a range of steady flow rates, and the flow rates, static heads and total heads pressure are as well calculated. The experiment was completed and successfully conducted.

I NT R OD UC TI ON
I n f l u i d d yn a m i c s , B e r n o u l l i s p r i n c i p l e i s b e s t e x p l a i n e d i n t h e application that involves in viscid flow, whereby the speed of the moving fluid is increased simultaneously whether with the depleting pressure or t h e p o t e n t i a l e n e r g y r e l e v a n t t o t h e f l u i d i t s e l f . I n v a r i o u s t yp e s o f f l u i d flow, Bernoullis principle usually relates to Bernoullis equation.
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T e c h n i c a l l y, d i f f e r e n t t yp e s o f f l u i d f l o w i n v o l v e d i f f e r e n t f o r m s o f Bernoullis equation.

Bernoullis principle complies with the principle of conservation of e n e r g y. I n a s t e a d y f l o w , a t a l l p o i n t s o f t h e s t r e a m l i n e o f a f l o w i n g f l u i d is the same as the sum of all forms of mechanical energy along the streamline. It can be simpli fied as constant practices of the sum of p o t e n t i a l e n e r g y a s w e l l a s k i n e t i c e n e r g y.

Fluid particles core properties are thei r pressure and weight. As a matter of fact, if a fluid is moving horizontally along a streamline, the increase in speed can be explained due to the fluid that moves from a region of high pressure to a lower pressure region and so with the inverse condition with the decrease in speed. In the case of a fluid that moves h o r i z o n t a l l y, t h e h i g h e s t s p e e d i s t h e o n e a t t h e l o w e s t p r e s s u r e , w h e r e a s the lowest speed is present at the most highest pressure.

A I M S / OB J E C TI VE S
1. To investigate the validity of Bernoulli equation when applied to a steady flow of water in a tapered duct.

2. To measure flow rate and both static and total pressure heads in a rigid convergent / divergent tube of known geometry for a range of steady flow rates.

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T H E OR Y
T h e s p e c i f i c h yd r a u l i c m o d e l u s e d i n t h i s e x p e r i m e n t i s B e r n o u l l i s Theorem Demonstration Apparatus, F1 -15.

The test section, which is provided with a number of hole-sided pressure tapings, connected to the manometers housed on the rig, is i n d e e d a n a c c u r a t e l y m a c h i n e d c l e a r a c r yl i c d u c t o f v a r yi n g c i r c u l a r c r o s s section. The tapings allow the measurement of static pressure head s i m u l t a n e o u s l y.

A flow control valve is incorporated downstream of the test section. Flow rate and pressure in the apparatus may be varied independently by adjustment of the flow control valve, and the bench supply control valve.

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C o n s i d e r a s ys t e m w h e r e b y C h a m b e r A i s u n d e r p r e s s u r e a n d i s connected to Chamber B, which is as well under pressure. The pressure in Chamber A is static pressure of 689.48 kPa. The pressure at some point, x along the connecting tube consists of a velocity pressure of 68.95 kPa exerted 10 psi exerted in a direction parallel to the line of flow, plus the unused static pressure of 90 psi , and operates equally in all directions. As the fluid enters chamber B, it is slowed down, and its velocity is changed back to pressure. The force required to absorb its inertia e q u a l s t h e f o r c e r e q u i r e d t o s t a r t t h e f l u i d m o v i n g o r i g i n a l l y, s o t h a t t h e static pressure in chamber B is equal to that in chamber A.

From the above illustration, Bernoullis principle relates much with incompressible flow. Below is a common form of Bernoullis equation, where it is valid at any arbitrary point along a streamline when gravity is constant.

...............(1)

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where: is the fluid flow speed at a point on a streamline, is the acceleration due to gravity, is the elevation of the point above a reference plane, with the positive z-direction pointing upward so in the direction opposite to the gravitational acceleration, is the pressure at the point, and is the density of the fluid at all points in the fluid. I f e q u a t i o n ( 1 ) i s m u l t i p l i e d w i t h f l u i d d e n s i t y, , it can be rewritten as the followings;

...........(2) Or ........(3)

where: i s d yn a m i c p r e s s u r e , i s t h e p i e z o m e t r i c h e a d o r h yd r a u l i c h e a d ( t h e s u m o f the elevation z and the pressure head and is the total pressure (the sum of the static p r e s s u r e p a n d d yn a m i c p r e s s u r e q ) . The above equations suggest there is a flow speed at which pressure is zero, and at even higher speeds the pressure is negative. Most often, gases and liquids are not capable of negative absolute pressure, or even zero pressure, so clearly Bernoulli's equation ceases to be valid before zero pressure is reached. In liquids, when the pressure becomes too low , cavitations occur. The above equations use a linear relationship between flow speed squared and pressure.

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Generally in many applications of Bernoulli s equations, it is common to neglect the values of g z term, since the change is so small compared to other values. Thus, the previous expression can be simplified as the following; .......(3) w h e r e p 0 i s c a l l e d t o t a l p r e s s u r e , a n d q i s d yn a m i c p r e s s u r e , w h e r e a s p usually refers as static pressure. Thus, T o t a l p r e s s u r e = s t a t i c p r e s s u r e + d yn a m i c p r e s s u r e . . . . . . . ( 4 ) However, a few assumptions are taken into account in order to achieve the objectives of experiment, which are as the fo llowings: The fluid involved is incompressible The flow is steady The flow is frictionless

A P PA R A TU S
Venturi meter Pad of monometer tubes Pump Stopwatch Water Water tank equipped with valves water controller Water hosts and tubes

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E X P E R I M E N TA L P R O C E DU R E
1. The test section tube is set to be converging in the direction of flow. 2. The pump switch is opened. The flow control valve is then opened and the bench valve is adjusted to allow the flow through the manometer. 3. The air bleed screw is opened and the cap is removed from the adjacent air valve until the same level of water in manometer is reached. The bench valve is adjusted until the h1 h5 head difference of 50mm water is obtained. 4. The ball valve is closed and the time taken to accumulate a known volume of 3L fluid in the tank is measured to determine the volume flow rate. 5. The whole process is repeated using (h1 h5) 100 and 150 mm water. 6. Next, the experiment is repeated for divergent test section tube.

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R E S U LT S
Convergent Flow

Pressure difference = 5 0 mm water Volume (m3) = 0.003 Time (s) = 46 Flow rate (m3/s) = 6.522x10-5 Distance Pressure No 1 head, h h1 into duct (m) 0.00 Duct area, A (m ) 490.9 x10-6 2 h2 0.0603 151.7 x10 3 h3 0.0687
-6 2

Static Velocity (m/s) 0.1329 head h, (m) 145x 10-3 0.4299 135 x 10 0.5961
-3

D yn a m i c head, (m) 0.0009

Total head ho (m) 0.1459

0.0094

0.1444

109.4 x10-6

125 x 10-3

0.0181

0.1431

h4

0.0732

89.9 x10
-6

0.7255

110 x 10
-3

0.0268

0.1368

h5

0.0811

78.5 x10-6

0.8308

95 x 10-3

0.0352

0.1302

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Pressure difference = 100 mm water Volume (m3) = 0.003 Time (s) = 31 Flow rate (m3/s) = 9.677x10-5 Distance Pressure No 1 head, h h1 into duct (m) 0.00 Duct area, A (m2) 490.9 x10 2 h2 0.0603
-6

Static Velocity (m/s) 0.1971 head h, (m) 170 x 10 0.6379


-3

D yn a m i c head, (m) 0.0020

Total head ho (m) 0.1720

151.7 x10-6

145 x 10-3

0.0207

0.1657

h3

0.0687

109.4 x10
-6

0.8846

125 x 10
-3

0.0399

0.1649

h4

0.0732

89.9 x10-6

1.0760

100 x 10-3

0.0590

0.1590

h5

0.0811

78.5 x10
-6

1.2330

70 x 10
-3

0.0775

0.1475

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Pressure difference = 1 50 mm water Volume (m3) = 0.003 Time (s) = 25 Flow rate (m3/s) = 1.200x10-4 Distance Pressure No 1 head, h h1 into duct (m) 0.00 Duct area, A (m2) 490.9 x10-6 2 h2 0.0603 151.7 x10 3 h3 0.0687
-6

Static Velocity (m/s) 0.2444 head h, (m) 190 x 10-3 0.7910 160 x 10 1.0970
-3

D yn a m i c head, (m) 0.0030

Total head ho (m) 0.1930

0.0319

0.1919

109.4 x10-6

125 x 10-3

0.0613

0.1863

h4

0.0732

89.9 x10
-6

1.3350

90 x 10
-3

0.0908

0.1808

h5

0.0811

78.5 x10-6

1.5290

40 x 10-3

0.1192

0.1592

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Divergent Flow Pressure difference = 50mm water Volume (m3) = 0.003 Time (s) = 30 Flow rate (m3/s) = 1.000x10-4 Distance Pressure No 1 head, h h1 into duct (m) 0.00 Duct area, A (m2) 490.9 x10-6 2 h2 0.0603 151.7 x10-6 3 h3 0.0687 109.4 x10-6 4 h4 0.0732 89.9 x10-6 5 h5 0.0811 78.5 x10-6 1.2740 1.1120 0.9141 0.6592 Velocity (m/s) 0.2037 Static head h, (m) 155 x 10-3 130 x 10-3 120 x 10-3 115 x 10-3 105 x 10-3 0.0827 0.1877 0.0630 0.1780 0.0426 0.1626 0.1403 0.2703 D yn a m i c head, (m) 0.0021 Total head ho (m) 0.1571

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Pressure difference = 100 mm water Volume (m3) = 0.003 Time (s) = 23 Flow rate (m3/s) = 1.304x10-4 Distance Pressure No 1 head, h h1 into duct (m) 0.00 Duct area, A (m2) 490.9 x10-6 2 h2 0.0603 151.7 x10 3 h3 0.0687
-6

Static Velocity (m/s) 0.2657 head h, (m) 175 x 10-3 0.8596 135 x 10 1.1920
-3

D yn a m i c head, (m) 0.0036

Total head ho (m) 0.1786

0.0377

0.1727

109.4 x10-6

85 x 10-3

0.0724

0.1574

h4

0.0732

89.9 x10
-6

1.4510

80 x 10
-3

0.1073

0.1873

h5

0.0811

78.5 x10-6

1.6610

75 x 10-3

0.1406

0.2156

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Pressure difference = 150 mm water Volume (m3) = 0.003 Time (s) = 20 Flow rate (m3/s) = 1.500x10-4 Distance Pressure No 1 head, h h1 into duct (m) 0.00 Duct area, A (m2) 490.9 x10 2 h2 0.0603
-6

Static Velocity (m/s) 0.3056 head h, (m) 185 x 10 0.9888


-3

D yn a m i c head, (m) 0.0048

Total head ho (m) 0.1898

151.7 x10-6

135 x 10-3

0.0498

0.1848

h3

0.0687

109.4 x10
-6

1.3711

55 x 10
-3

0.0958

0.1508

h4

0.0732

89.9 x10-6

1.6685

45 x 10-3

0.1419

0.1869

h5

0.0811

78.5 x10
-6

1.9108

35 x 10
-3

0.1861

0.2211

Using Bernoullis Equation Pressure Head (convergent flow) Total Head, h

Using Continuity Equation

Difference

Static Head, hi(m)

Va = [2g(hhi)]

Duct Area, Ax10 (m2)


6

Vb = Flow rate Q/ A 0.1329 0.4299 0.5961 0.7255 0.8308

(Va-Vb) /Vb, %

(m) h1 h2 h3 h4 h5 0.1459 0.1444 0.1431 0.1368 0.1302 0.145 0.135 0.125 0.110 0.095 0.1329 0.4295 0.5959 0.7251 0.8310

490.9 151.7 109.4 89.9 78.5

0 -0.09 -0.03 -0.06 0.02

Pressure Difference = 50mm


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Using Bernoullis Equation Pressure Head (convergent flow) Total Head, h

Using Continuity Equation

Difference

Static Head, hi(m)

Va = [2g(hhi)]

Duct Area, Ax10 (m2)


6

Vb = Flow rate Q/ A 0.1971 0.6379 0.8846 1.0760 1.2330

(Va-Vb) /Vb %

(m) h1 h2 h3 h4 h5 0.1720 0.1657 0.1649 0.1590 0.1475 0.170 0.145 0.125 0.100 0.070 0.1981 0.6373 0.8849 1.0759 1.2331

490.9 151.7 109.4 89.9 78.5

0.51 -0.09 0.04 -0.009 0.008

Pressure Difference = 100mm

Using Bernoullis Equation Pressure Head (convergent flow) Total Head, h

Using Continuity Equation

Difference

Static Head, hi(m)

Va = [2g(hhi)]

Duct Area, Ax10 (m2)


6

Vb = Flow rate Q/ A 0.2444 0.7910 1.0970 1.3350 1.5290

(Va-Vb) /Vb, %

(m) h1 h2 h3 h4 h5 0.1930 0.1919 0.1863 0.1808 0.1592 0.190 0.160 0.125 0.09 0.04 0.2426 0.7911 1.0967 1.3347 1.5293

490.9 151.7 109.4 89.9 78.5

-0.74 0.013 -0.03 -0.02 0.02

Pressure Difference = 150mm

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Using Bernoullis Equation Pressure Head (divergent flow) Total Head, h (m) Static Head, hi(m) Va = [2g(hhi)]

Using Continuity Equation Duct Area, Ax106 (m )


2

Difference

Vb = Flow rate Q/ A 0.2037 0.6592 0.9141 1.1120 1.2740

(Va-Vb) /Vb, %

h1 h2 h3 h4 h5

0.1571 0.1521 0.1626 0.1780 0.1877

0.155 0.130 0.120 0.115 0.105

0.2030 0.6585 0.9142 1.1118 1.2738

490.9 151.7 109.4 89.9 78.5

-0.34 -0.11 0.01 -0.02 -0.02

Pressure Difference = 50mm

Using Bernoullis Equation Pressure Head (divergent flow) Total Head, h (m) h1 h2 h3 h4 h5 0.1786 0.1727 0.1574 0.1873 0.2156 0.175 0.135 0.085 0.080 0.075 0.2658 0.8600 1.1918 1.4509 1.6609 Static Head, hi(m) Va = [2g(hhi)]

Using Continuity Equation Duct Area, Ax106 (m2) 490.9 151.7 109.4 89.9 78.5 Vb = Flow rate Q/ A 0.2657 0.8596 1.1920 1.4510 1.6610

Difference

(Va-Vb) /Vb, %

0.04 0.05 -0.02 -0.01 -0.01

Pressure Difference = 100mm

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Using Bernoullis Equation Pressure Head (divergent flow) Total Head, h (m) Static Head, hi(m) Va = [2g(hhi)]

Using Continuity Equation Duct Area, Ax106 (m2) Vb = Flow rate Q/ A 0.3056 0.9888 1.3711 1.6685 1.9108

Difference

(Va-Vb) /Vb, %

h1 h2 h3 h4 h5

0.1898 0.1848 0.1508 0.1869 0.2211

0.185 0.135 0.055 0.045 0.035

0.3069 0.9885 1.3710 1.6686 1.9108

490.9 151.7 109.4 89.9 78.5

0.43 -0.03 -0.01 0.01 0

Pressure Difference = 150mm

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Total Head versus Pressure Head for Convergent Flow


0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0

Total Head (m)

50 mm pressure difference 100 mm pressure difference 150 mm pressure difference

h1

h2

h3

h4

h5

Pressure Head

Figure 1 Graph of Total Head versus Pressure Head for Convergent Flow

0.25 0.2

Total Head versus Pressure Head for Divergent Flow

Total Head (m)

0.15 0.1 0.05 0

50 mm pressure difference 100 mm pressure difference 150 mm pressure difference

h1

h2

h3 Pressure Head

h4

h5

Figure 2 Graph of Total Head versus Pressure Head for Divergent Flow

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S A M P LE C A LC U L A TI O NS

Divergent Flow Pressure difference = h1 - h5 = 100 mm water

Flow rate = 0.003/23 = 1.304 10-4 m3/s

V e l o c i t y, v =

Flow rate Area into duct

= 1.304 10-4m3/s 490.9 x 10-6 m2 = 0.2657 m/s

D yn a m i c h e a d = v 2 2g = (0.2657 m/s) 2 x 9.81m/s2 = 0.0036 m


2

T o t a l h e a d = S t a t i c h e a d + D yn a m i c h e a d = (0.0036 + 1175x10-3) m = 0.1786 m

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D I S C U S S I ON
Referring back to the objectives of the experiment, which are to investigate the validity of the Bernoullis equation when applied to the steady flow of water in a tapered duct as well as to measure the flow rate and both static and total pressure heads in a rigid convergent and divergent tube of known geometry for a range of steady flow rates. As fluid flows from a wider pipe to a narrower one, the velocity of the flowing fluid increases. This is shown in all the results tables, where the velocity of water that flows in the tapered duct increases as t h e d u c t a r e a d e c r e a s e s , r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e p r e s s u r e d i f f e r e n c e a n d t yp e of flow of each result taken. F r o m t h e a n a l ys i s o f t h e r e s u l t s , w e c a n c o n c l u d e t h a t f o r b o t h t yp e of flow, be it convergent or divergent, the velocity increases as the pressure difference increases. For instance, the velociti es at pressure head h5 at pressure difference of 50 millimetres, 100 millimetres and 150 millimetres for convergent flow are 0.8308 m/s, 1.5290 m/s and 1 . 2 7 4 0 m / s r e s p e c t i v e l y, w h i c h a r e i n c r e a s i n g . T h e s a m e g o e s t o divergent flow, whereby the velocities are decreasing when the pressure difference between h1 and h5 is increased. Note that for divergent flow, the water flows form pressure head h 5 to h1, which is from narrow tube to wider tube. Next, the total head value for convergent flow is ca lculated to be the highest at pressure head h 1 and the lowest at pressure head h 5, whereas the total head for divergent flow is in a different case where it is calculated to be the highest at pressure head h 5 and the lowest at pressure head h1. There must be some error or weaknesses when taking t he measurement of each data. One of them is , the observer must have not r e a d t h e l e v e l o f s t a t i c h e a d p r o p e r l y, w h e r e t h e e ye s a r e n o t

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perpendicular to the water level on the manometer. Therefore, there are some minor effects on the calculations due to the errors.

C O NC L US I O N
From the experiment conducted, the total head pressure increases for both convergent and divergent flow. This is exactly following the Bernoullis principle for a steady flow of water and the velocity is increasing along the same channel. The second objectives, where the flow rates and both static and total head pressures in a rigid convergent / divergent of known geometry for a range of steady flow rates are to be calculated, are also achieved through the experiment.

R E C OM M E N DA T I O N
Repeat the experiment several times to get the average value. Make sure the bubbles are fully removed and not left in the manometer. T h e e ye o f t h e o b s e r v e r s h o u l d b e p a r a l l e l t o t h e w a t e r l e v e l on the manometer. The valve should be controlled slowly to ma intain the pressure difference. The valve and bleed screw should regulate smoothly to reduce the errors Make sure there is no leakage along the tube to avoid the water flowing out

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R E F E R E NC E S
B.R. Munson, D.F. Young, and T.H. Okiishi, Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics, 3rd ed., 1998, Wiley and Sons, New York . Douglas. J.F., Gasiorek. J.M. and Swaffield, Fluid Mechanics, 3rd edition, (1995), Longmans Singapore Publisher. Giles, R.V., Evett, J.B. and Cheng Lui, Schaumms Outline Series Theory and Problems of Fluid Mechanics and

Hydraulic, (1994), McGraw-Hill intl.

A P PE N DI C E S

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