Scientific English  Scientific method: Concept, hypothesis, theory, law; Design of experiment; Inductive and deductive reasoning.

(2L) Types of presentation: Oral, poster, written, audio-visual. Aids for presentation. (1L) Preparing the manuscript. Guidelines for authors. The IMRAD format. (1L)

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Title; Byline; Abstract and Summary; Keywords. (1L) Introduction: Defining the problem; Literature survey; Justification of study. (2L)

Materials and Methods: Contents, sources, procedures, techniques, reproducibility. Units of measurements, metric system and SI units. Basic statistical techniques, confidence limits, tests, probability, significance. (2L) Results: Text; How to present data; Tables and illustrations. Writing captions, labels and legends. (2L) Discussion: Components and sequence. Analysis, comparison and integration of data. Likely sources of errors in Results; Conclusions and significance. Implications for further study. (2L) Acknowledgements. Literature citation systems. Sources of references: Journals, books, bibliographies, abstracting journals; Databases. (2L)

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Preparing and submitting the manuscript. Revising, editing, proofreading. (2L)


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Barrass R (2002): Scientists Must Write. Edn. 2. Routledge, Oxon, UK. Day RA & BA Gastel (2006): How to Write and Publish a Scientific Paper. Edn. 6. Greenwood Press, Westport, CT, USA. Goodman NW & MB Edwards (2006): Medical Writing: A prescription for clarity. Edn. 3. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. Hailman JP & KB Strier (2006): Planning, Proposing and Presenting Science Effectively. Edn. 2. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. Hawkins D (2005): Biomeasurement: Understanding, Analysing and Communicating Data in Biosciences. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK. International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (1993): Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals. J Am Med Assoc, 269: 2282 – 2286. Mathews JR & RW Mathews (2008): Successful Scientific Writing: A step-by-step guide for the biological and medical sciences. Edn. 3. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. McMillan VE (2006): Writing Papers in the Biological Sciences. Edn. 4. Bedford Books/ St Martins.

Pechenik JA (2006): A Short Guide to Writing About Biology. Edn. 6 Longman, New York.
(Turabian KL), WC Booth, GG Colomb, JM Williams & University of Chicago Press Staff (2007): A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses and Dissertations. Edn. 7. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, USA.

Some important references for technical writing

Booth WC, Colomb GG & Williams JN (2008): The Craft of Research. Edn 3. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, USA.
Coghill AM & Garson LR (Eds) (2006): The ACS Style Guide: Effective Communication of Scientific Information. Edn 3. Oxford University Press.

4. 5. 6. 7.

Ebel HF, Bleifert C & Russey WE (2004): The Art of Scientific Writing: From student reports to professional publications in chemistry and related fields. Edn 2. Wiley-VCH, Wertheim, Germany.
Kotyk A (1999): Quantities, Symbols, Units and Abbreviations in the Life Sciences: A guide for authors and editors. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, USA. Matthews JR & Matthews RW (2008): Successful Scientific Writing: A step-by-step guide for the biological and medical sciences. Edn 3. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. Pechenik JA (2006): A Short Guide to Writing About Biology. Edn 6. Longman, New York. Robinson MS, Stoller FL, Constanza-Robinson M & Jones JK (2008): Write Like a Chemist: A guide and resource. Oxford University Press.

Some important web sites for technical writing
02. 03. 04. 05. http://abacus.bates,edu/~bioslabs/tools/reportrtform.html 06. 07.

Charles Darwin (12 Feb 1809–19 Apr 1882)
Fifth of 6 children of Dr Robert & Susannah Darwin. Married (29 Jan 1839) first cousin Emma Wedgwood. Ten children: 6 boys, 4 girls. Died at 73 yrs age and buried at Westminster Abbey, London, near the grave of Sir Isaac Newton. EDUCATION: Oct. 1825 to University of Edinburgh to study Medicine: Failure; learnt taxidermy from a freed slave John Edmonstone. Brief stint in studying Law. Jan. 1828 joined Christ College, Cambridge for B.A. in Theology. Passed in 1831. Mentors: Rev John Henslow & Rev Adam Sedgwick.

CAREER: Naturalist (27 Dec 1831 – 02 Oct 1836) on HMS Beagle, a survey ship of the Royal Navy, commanded by Capt. Robert FitzRoy (later Vice-Admiral). Charles Darwin HONOURS: 1838: Secretary, Geological Society of London. 24 Jan. 1839: Elected Fellow of the Royal Society. 1853: Royal Medal of the Royal Society. 1859: Wollaston Medal (Highest award of Geological Society of London). 1864: Copley Medal (Highest honour of the Royal Society). 1877: Hon. LL.D. of Univ. of Cambridge (for contributions to the Natural Sciences: Anatomy, Biology, Geography, Geology & Palaeontology).

The Voyage Of the Beagle

Terms commonly associated with Charles Darwin: 1. “Struggle for existence”: Rev. Thomas Robert Malthus. 2. “Survival of the fittest”: Herbert Spencer (Economist, after reading Darwin‟s 1859 book: “On the Origin of Species…..”. 3. “Evolution by natural selection”: Alfred Russel Wallace.

Major Publications of Charles Darwin 1837-1856(?) : Transmutation of Species (Journal) 1838-1843 : Zoology of the Voyage of HMS Beagle (5 volumes) 1839 : The Voyage of the Beagle – Journal & Remarks 1842 : The Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs 1844 : Geological Observations on South America. : Volcanic Islands. 1859 : On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection. 1862 : Fertilization of Orchids. 1865 : The Movements and Habits of Climbing Plants. 1868 : The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication. (1875: Revised Edition). 1871 : The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex. 1872 : The Expression of Emotion in Man and Animals. 1875 : Insectivorous Plants. 1876 : Effects of Cross and Self Fertilization in the Vegetable Kingdom. 1877 : The Different Forms of Flowers on Plants of the same Species. 1881 : The Formation of Vegetable Mould, through the Action of Worms. 1887 : Autobiography of Charles Darwin: Recollections of the Development of My Mind and Character. Edited by Sir Francis Darwin.

Dalton‟s Atomic theory. discover (new) information or reach new understanding and conclusions. Oparin-Haldane hypothesis on „Origin of Life‟. Laws of thermodynamics. Newton‟s law of gravity. A supposition made as a starting point for further investigation from known facts. notion. Hardy-Weinberg law). the volume of a gas is directly proportional to the number of moles of that gas”. who. Mendel‟s laws.Scientific Method  RESEARCH: Detailed.g. Gas laws of Avogadro.e. but may have very little evidence to support it (e. when. QUESTIONS: What. an abstract thought (e. where. It is an explanation of some observation. THEORY: A set of organised thoughts stated formally to explain a fact or an event.. but has not yet been proven to be true. It is a tentative explanation for something that is based on known facts. suggestion. why and how. Cell theory of Schleiden & Schwann). (b) learn something. the concept of evolution).. Avogadro‟s hypothesis: “Equal volumes of gases.    CONCEPT: A general notion. establish facts. systematic investigation into a subject. feeling. intuition.g. A law is thus a general rule which states what always happens when the same conditions exist.. Boyle. to gain insight. IDEA: A belief. which. purpose. Frank-Starling‟s law of the heart. Scientific research often involves doing experiments. at identical temperature and pressure will contain equal numbers of molecules”). Darwin‟s theory of Organic Evolution.. It has the property of predictability. a mental picture. based on some observation. THOUGHT: A piece of reasoning produced by mental activity. .   EXPERIMENT: A procedure undertaken to (a) demonstrate a known fact. or when a given set of conditions is repeated ( e. Dalton. Graham and Henry.   LAW: A regularity of natural occurrences especially as seen in particular instances. (c) make a discovery and (d) test a hypothesis.g. Gay-Lussac. Charles. a new or unexplored idea). It is usually supported by a considerable amount of evidence and is generally accepted to be true ( e.  HYPOTHESIS: A (baseless) assumption.g. a postulate ( i. Avogadro‟s law: “At a constant temperature and pressure. impression. an educated guess.

E. Pisum sativum. He did not know about genes and chromosomes: what he termed as “factors” are now known as genes. 2008).g. Mendel also knew nothing about mitosis and meiosis and did not have any idea about cell division. All biological phenomena obey/ are consistent with the laws of chemistry and physics. 2.Fundamental Laws of Biology 1. Law of independent assortment: For two characteristics the genes are inherited independently. the copies of a gene (=alleles) separate so that each gamete receives only one copy. The cell is the fundamental unit of life and all living organisms consist of membrane-encased cells. 2006. aB and ab. 2. Ab. (Reference: A. Life is continuous across generations. 3. Trevors & Saier. blue and brown eye colour) only one can be represented in a gamete.. tall and short pea plants or smooth and wrinkled skin of pea seed.O. . He did a number of experiments on inheritance in pea plant. 1. Wilson. 2006. All phenomena of life have arisen by evolution through natural selection. 4. Some other Laws of Biology Mendel‟s Laws: Gregor Johann Mendel (1822-1884) was an Austrian monk. the greater will be the volume of blood ejected during the subsequent systole”. there will be four kinds of gametes: AB. Law of segregation of characters: Of a pair of characters (e. Thus. Frank-Starling‟s Law of the Heart: “The more the heart is filled with blood during diastole. This law is however true only for genes that are not linked to each other. for a genotype AaBb. What he meant was that when any individual produces gametes. Uzman.

“For a given quantity of electricity the amount of substance produced is proportional to the weight of the substance. the amounts of one element that combine with a fixed amount of the other element are in the ratio of small whole numbers or simple multiple of it. which is the measure of disorder in a closed system. but can be neither destroyed nor created”. These principles govern the chemical (=metabolic) processes in all biological systems.” 2.” Proust‟s Law of Definite Proportions (Also known as the Law of Definite Composition): “A given chemical compound always contains the same elements in the same fixed proportions by weight.” Boyle‟s Law: “At constant temperature.” Law of Constant Composition: “All samples of a given chemical compound have the same elemental composition. Law of Conservation of Energy: “The total energy of the universe is constant. the volume of (an ideal) gas is inversely proportional to its pressure”. “When energy is transferred. the rate of chemical reactions increases between two.” Law of Conservation of Mass: “The total mass of all products of a chemical reaction is equal to the total mass of all reactants of that reaction.and three-fold.” Van‟t Hoff‟s Law: “For every 100C rise in temperature. Periodic Law: “Chemical and physical properties of elements recur periodically when the elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number. “The quantity of a substance produced by electrolysis is proportional to the quantity of electricity used. Due to entropy. It may change from one form to another.” Dalton‟s Law of Multiple Proportions: “If two elements combine to form more than one compound.Fundamental Laws of Chemistry Thermodynamics: The laws of thermodynamics are important unifying principles for biology. 3. Entropy increases as energy is transferred”. there will be less energy available at the end of the transfer process than at the beginning.” Faraday‟s Laws of Electrolysis: 1.” . “It is impossible to create a perfectly efficient thermodynamic process. 1. 2. all of the available energy will not be useful to the organism.

” (This is normally taken as the definition of inertia). A force will cause a change in velocity. though it can change from one form to another. A large number of laws in Chemistry and Physics are common.” In other words. likewise. “Every object will remain in a state of rest or move in uniform motion in a straight line unless it is compelled to change that state by the action of an external force. for an object with a constant mass m.Fundamental Laws of Physics Law of Conservation of Matter: “Matter can be neither created nor destroyed. 2. This law explains the generation of lift by a wing. the degree of change in velocity depends on the mass of the object. the force F is the product of the object‟s mass and its acceleration a. if object A exerts a force on object B.” Newton‟s Laws of Motion: 1. . then object B also exerts an equal force on object A. For an external applied force. a change in velocity will generate a force. “Force is equal to change in momentum (mass times velocity: m x v) per change in time.” Invariance of the Speed of Light: “In a vacuum the speed of light is constant. 3.” Thus. Thus. F = m x a.” Newton‟s Law of Gravity: “Every particle of matter in the universe attracts every other particle with a force that is directly proportional to the product of the masses of the particles and inversely proportional to the square of distance between them. The equation works both ways. “For every action (force) in nature there is an equal and opposite reaction.

He pioneered the practice of performing controlled experiments. in turn. The animals in the centre. Generality  Coral atolls are formed as coral animals secrete deposits. die and sink. breaks up to form a circle of islands.  Coral animals without direct access to fresh seawater tend to die. lacking nutrient-laden water.  Coral animals need contact with fresh seawater. breaks apart to form a circle of islands. Deduction  Coral atolls will have a sunken centre. Controlled Experiment Robert Boyle (1627-1691): A founder of modern chemistry. . The animals in the centre. Lagoon Deductive reasoning Generality  Coral atolls are formed as coral animals secrete deposits. in turn.  Seawater contains something that coral animals need. He was also one of the founders of the Royal Society in London. This leaves a ring that. die and sink. He proposed the famous gas law.Formation of coral atoll An example of Inductive and Deductive reasoning Inductive reasoning Observation  Coral atolls usually consist of a circle of islands. This leaves a ring that. lacking nutrient-laden water.  The interior of an atoll seems to consist of sunken coral.  Coral atolls composed of nearly complete rings of land are probably recently formed.  Coral atolls form from the deposits of living animals.

The second experiment (b) utilizes three groups that are treated differently and one that is untreated. plus a drink of barley water. Lind thus showed that citrus fruits were substantially superior to the other treatments in curing scurvy. but by then the two sailors were quite recovered. Twenty-five drops of sulphuric acid thrice a day on an empty stomach. giving each pair different supplements to their basic diet for two weeks. Apart from that. 6. Dr. of a certain herbicide on bird development. . an uncontrolled experiment. Uncontrolled vs. 5. The first (a).Controlled experiment on scurvy: A clinical trial In 1747. all suffering from scurvy. Two spoonfuls of vinegar three times a day. mustard and horseradish in a nutmeg-sized lump. A litre of cider every day. The treatments were all remedies that were said to be cures for scurvy: 1. 3. Lind selected 12 sailors from the ship. while serving as a surgeon on HMS Salisbury. A paste of garlic. Two oranges and one lemon every day. James Lind carried out a controlled experiment to develop a cure for scurvy. He divided them into six pairs. Controlled Experiment Both experiments are intended to determine the effect. The treatment of group 5 stopped after six days when they ran out of fruit. only the first group of scorbutic subjects improved a little. Note the list of potential errors. 4. What are the reasons for the use of each group? How does each helps to answer the criticisms listed in (a). A quarter litre of seawater every day. 2. if any. involves a few eggs treated with a herbicide.

These are incubated and studied at certain stages for undesirable effects. . Does piercing affect development? 2. Could the result be due to chance? 4. Potential sources of error: 1.(a) Uncontrolled experiment Herbicides injected into a number of fertilized eggs. All four groups are treated alike in all other ways. Does adding alcohol affect development? 3. Pierced Test herbicide added in alcohol solution Sealed and incubated Group 3 Control: A number of eggs pierced but nothing added. What if the incubator malfunctions? Group 4 Control: A number of eggs untreated but handled in identical ways. Group 2 Control: Alcohol solution added to a number of eggs. (b) Controlled experiment Sealing Wax Group 1 Experiment: Herbicide in alcohol solution added to a number of eggs.

Communication in Science    Oral presentation Poster presentation Written communication – Short notes – Preliminary report – Rapid communication – Letter to the editor – Research paper – Dissertation – Thesis – Review article – Monograph – Books – Proceedings of symposia – Laboratory workbooks/manuals Audiovisual programmes – Audio tapes – Video tapes – Films – Radio Parts of a Research Paper 1. Abstract 4.head or foot 2. Citations/References  . Introduction 6.1 Running title . By-line 3. Results/Observations 8. Title 1. Materials & Methods 7. Discussion 9. Key words 5. Acknowledgements 10.

Edn. From The Indian Express: “The Christeria School in Nigdi aims to impart quality education to the students by giving personal attention to each of them individually. accuracy (correctness or exactness) is the degree of closeness of the measurement of a quantity to its actual (true) value. repeat again. “Beating about the bush”. REPEATABILITY: The closeness of agreement among a number of consecutive and independent results obtained with the same method on identical test material under the same conditions (same operator. true fact. 2. redundancy. arrive in succession one after the other. Precision is the degree to which repeated measurements under constant conditions show the same results. 7 a. collaborate together. For a measurement system. error or mistake. SUCCINCTNESS: Economy of words (avoid circumlocution.. Tautology: To needlessly repeat something in different words. same apparatus.General Principles of Scientific Writing 1. different apparatus. REPRODUCIBILITY: The closeness of agreement between a number of repeated and independent results obtained with the same method on identical test material but under different conditions (different operators. (Adapted from: IUPAC Compendium of Chemical Terminology. past history. different laboratories. repeatability and reproducibility. It is the closeness of repeated measurements to each other and denotes the ability of a measurement to be consistently reproduced. and/or after different intervals of time). The measurement of reproducibility is „reproducibility standard deviation‟. . Circumlocution: A style of speaking/writing that involves the use of unnecessarily wordy and indirect language. same laboratory and after a short interval of time). Freedom from defect.m. The measure of repeatability is shown as „repeatability standard deviation‟. necessary essentials. 1997). Verbosity denotes use of many words where fewer would do. prioritise in order of importance. Effective writing: ACCURACY: Use of exact words. end result. i. tautology and hedging). positive benefits.e. PRECISION: Use of terms and phrases consistently. Examples: Adequate enough. in the morning.

Remove „their‟. In the first sentence. Too many words and avoidable phrases obscure meaning and waste the readers‟ time and patience.. Verbosity: „The mode of action of anti-lympholytic serum has not yet been determined by research workers in this country or abroad‟ (20 words). sexually mature albino rats weighing 150-200 g were used…”.” 3. Brevity also saves valuable publication space. SIMPLE LANGUAGE: Use familiar words. 1.g. Medline. 2. Change “The effect of intravenous streptokinase and/or oral aspirin. He/she. oral aspirin or both…. “… young mature albino rats (175 g) were used…”. use of the plural form can be avoided: “The manuscript was submitted to the editor for their consideration”. The following examples are more precise: 3. barley with and without hulls incubated with 40 g water/100 g cereal at 550C for 24 hours was 45. “Diabetes in 40-45 years old Indian men: Prevalence and risk factors” and 4. Occasionally. rye.. 48% in barley with hulls and 77% in barley without hulls. Use specific terminology (e. 56.. respectively…. Brevity: „We do not know how anti-lympholytic serum works‟ (8 words). for easy understanding. HOW OLD IS YOUNG? Consider the following statements: 1. and/or. Change “Each subject was examined at his/her home” to: “All subjects were examined at their homes”. 48 and 77% respectively” to “After incubation with 40 g water/100 g cereal at 550C for 24 hours phytate reduction was 45% in wheat. Change “Phytate reduction in wheat. “Effect of beedi smoking on lung function of the adolescent urban poor”.” to “The effect of intravenous streptokinase. •BREVITY (Conciseness): Exclusion of every nonessential word from writing. how old are the athletes? In the second statement it is better to say “… 100 days old. 56% in rye.CLARITY: Of thought and in writing. . 2. AVOID: 1. “In this study we examined the effect of exercise on the metabolism of 20 young athletes” and 2. 2007) to report subjects‟ ages. 3.

filtrate: clarified liquid/ residue? dialysate. symbols.from the point of view of numbers‟…. unincubated: thoughtless. . rehydrolyse. Anthropomorphism: Do not confer human attributes on other life forms and inanimate objects. Example: Sharad Yadav takes on government & Sibal. Consistency: In the use of names. Persuasiveness: Convince the reader by forceful presentation of your evidence and well thought-out arguments. (From The Indian Express. reincubate: nonsense. numbers. abbreviations. shockate. sonicate: not understandable. • • • • • • E.. 2. Use of grammar: Carefully use nouns. preincubate. Logic: Writing should be such that your thoughts. redissolve. prewarmed. adverbs. punctuation marks. technical terms. do not write: „The results suggest. . preheat. Thus. adjectives. Sharad Yadav takes on government & Sibal says corruption is like opium... spellings. units and in spelling & punctuation. 23 February 2011) Ensure syntax in sentence construction. centrifugate: confusion is compounded. 3.g. says corruption is like opium. . pronouns. washate.JARGON: Shorthand/ slang of technical language. or „. verbs and tenses. voice (active/ passive). Avoid it.‟.supernate: supernatant fluid. 6. statements and arguments develop coherently and step-by-step. 4. abbreviations and symbols. 5.

estrogen • pipet • practise (noun & verb) • program • liter . practise (verb) • programme • litre AMERICAN ENGLISH • acknowledgment • analyze • biologic • buret • color • focused. analog • labeled. analogue • labelled.Spelling differences BRITISH ENGLISH • acknowledgement • analyse • biological • burette • colour • focussed. focussing • foetus • histological technique • homologue. license (verb) • moult • oestrous (adj). labeling • license (noun & verb) • molt • estrous. labelling • licence (noun). estrus. focusing • fetus • histologic technic • homolog. oestrus (noun) • pipette • practice (noun).

  Plan the methodology.   Survey the previous work to find gaps in knowledge. SEEK HELP OF STATISTICIAN! Phylum vacuum phyllum vaccum albumin anaerobic compared with desiccation gelatin Krebs cycle photomicrograph radioautograph van der Waals albumen anerobic compared to dessication gelatine Kreb‟s / Krebs‟ cycle microphotograph autoradiograph Van der Walls / Waal‟s . Ask questions and formulate hypothesis.Spelling & usage of some common words CORRECT accommodation aquarium brain stem deoxyextracellular haemocoele petri dish WRONG accomodation acquarium brainstem desoxyextra-cellular haemocoel Petri dish Design of the experiment  Decide what you want to do.

Avoid the use of chemical formulae. accurate. Identify all the key terms from your write-up and construct the title from these. Write down brief answers to the following questions: What was I trying to do? Why did I think it was worthwhile to do it? How did I do it?   What did I show? What do I need to emphasize?   What excuses do I need to make? What is my message?  What would I like to do next? B. Your objective: “Will the reader understand the title at its first reading?” Try to achieve this. The title may reflect your most important findings and your purpose in doing the research. Read “Instructions to Authors”.Writing of the paper    A. or ATP. Do not use a highly technical language. proprietary names of substances and abbreviations except those that are widely known: DNA. clear. RNA. . concise and interesting. TITLE       A good title should be: specific. adequate.

Declarative/ Informative title 4. For example: “Students who smoke score lower grades”. “Studies on…” and “Contributions to…” .The other characteristics of a well-written title are:  It should consist of about 10-12 words or up to 90-100 characters and spaces. “The nature of…”. Preliminary/ Working title 2. Hanging title 3. For example: “Does smoking affect academic performance?” or “When are bed nets most effective in preventing mosquito bites?” . or “Bed nets prevent mosquito bites most effectively in the rainy season”. Interrogative title 5.   Avoid unnecessary “the‟s” and redundant openings such as “Investigations on…”. Preliminary/ Working title: This is usually tentative in nature. in brief. For example: “Effect of smoking on academic performance”.  It should not say more than what the research paper contains. The title should be written in a grammatically correct format. Interrogative title: This is constructed as a question. 4. Declarative/ Informative title: It states the result and conclusion or both. Descriptive/ Indicative/ Job title 3. 1. Descriptive/ Indicative title: It states the subject matter of the research but gives no idea about the result or conclusions. Types of Title 1. When finally composed. the title may be any one of the following types: 2. or “The effectiveness of bed nets in preventing mosquito bites at different seasons of the year”. Title-Subtitle/ Series title 6.

Omit superfluous or “waste” words that usually appear at the start of a title. for a paper entitled “Detection and expression of dominant lethal genes in Drosophila”. LENGTH A paper was submitted to the Journal of Bacteriology with the title “Studies on Brucella”. Concise title: “Sperm transfer. Thus. Do not identify a publication as No. I.g. Third year students” or “The effect of bed nets on mosquitoes.1 (e. It is usually a shortened title: up to 50 letters and spaces. informational content. Plasma membrane of the human cardiac muscle cell”). Wordy title: “Studies on the reproductive biology of Drosophila. Their effectiveness when used only in the rainy season”. Thus: “Effect of smoking on academic performance. Make every word count. or part 2 is rejected. Hanging title: Similar to series title. and syntax. . Preparing a Title Pay attention to the length. “Investigations into …” and “Observations concerning …”. Wordy title: “Preliminary observations on the primary productivity and phytoplankton diversity in four lakes of Marathwada”. storage and utilization in Drosophila”. A structure for deoxyribose nucleic acid”. For example: “Effect of smoking on academic performance: Third year students”..5. specificity. 1. Is this a good title? Long titles are often less meaningful than the short ones. “Electron microscopy of cardiac muscle. Moreover. I. sperm storage and sperm utilization”. the running title could be “Lethal genes in Drosophila”. words such as “Studies on …”. avoidable confusion can be created in case part 4 is published before part 3. but the subtitle is not numbered. Problem: Whether all the publications with one main title be considered separate papers or a single paper? 6. or “The effect of bed nets on mosquitoes: Their effectiveness when used only in the rainy season”. with reference to sperm transfer. Watson and Crick (1953): “Molecular structure of nucleic acids. Title-Subtitle/ Series title: It consists of a main title followed by a sub-title. Running Title It is placed at the top (= Running head) or bottom (= Running foot) of each right hand page of the printed article. unless the publication of a second paper in the series is assured and it also shortens the complete title.

Be careful about the usage of affect / effect concentration / level discrete / discreet illusive / elusive it‟s / its • • • complement / compliment dependant / dependent gender / sex ADJECTIVE NOUN Envelope VERB Envelop Juvenile Juvenile Licence Maximum Mucus License Maximize • • • • • in depth / in detail. All these are Descriptive or Indicative Titles. thorough liter / litter measure / monitor method / methodology noted / noticed (Brit. or “Action of various antifungal antibiotics on Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus”. However. For example. neomycin and tetracycline on gram positive bacteria”. it is no better. This makes the title Declarative or Informative. Maximum Mucous loose / lose meiosis / miosis new / novel principal / principle ileum / ilium Oestrous / Estrous Optimal. Is this a good title? Even if we change it to: “Preliminary observations on the effects of certain antibiotics on various species of bacteria”. if “Action of” is defined.) Maximal. because it lacks specificity. For example: “Action of antibiotics on bacteria”. “Action of streptomycin on Mycobacterium tuberculosis”.SPECIFICITY Short titles are not necessarily good titles. Optimum Oestrus / Estrus Optimum Phagocytosis Optimize Phagocytize Loose Practise • • • possible / probable theory / hypothesis titrand / titrant Loose Loose Practice prevalence / incidence usually / generally Protozoan x-ray Protozoon X-ray x-ray . or “Action of streptomycin. “Inhibition of growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by streptomycin”. the meaning would become clearer. “Action of polyene antibiotics on plant-pathogenic bacteria”.

Pronunciations Cuvier Cysteine diastole Ramon y Cajal Cystine systole Lavoisier Ranvier Szent-Gyorgyi Tyrosine data gyrase Methionine memoire Serine reservoir Tryptophan coccyx (kok‟six) fascia (fa‟shee‟ah) concha (kon‟ka) fibulare (fibu‟lay‟ree) gyrus (jy‟russ) ischium (iss‟ki‟yum) hypophysis (he‟po‟fee‟sis) meninges (mee‟nin‟gees) nuchal (nu‟kal) pineal (pin‟ee‟yal) oblongata (ob‟long‟ayta) rachis (ray‟kis rami (ray‟mee) sulci (sul‟sigh) ureter (yu‟ree‟ter) zygapophysis (zye‟gapo‟ffee‟sis) stratum (stray‟tum) symphysis (sym‟fee‟sis) velum (vee‟lum) .

with your permission. offer some brief observations plants exhibited good growth Concise May I say a few words plants grew well they are similar halves if apparently to after treatment is called this probably is they are both very much similar two equal halves in the event that it would thus appear that in order to the treatment having been performed goes under the name of there can be little doubt that this is As already stated Concerning this observation it may mind that It is interesting to note that It has long been known that It has been found that It has been shown that It may be said that Typical results are shown was shown to be With respect to the occurrence of these types. it has been found that be borne in Omit such introductory phrases .Wordy I shall.

. Correction The intravenous injection of only 3 ml of XXX kills a dog within 5 min.Good examples of bad habits Here are some imperfections and possible corrections Abuse Our research. to contain significant inconsistencies. In the experiments. Of the utmost importance is the need to examine quantitatively the various instars which have not reached maturity. . which was found to be expedient and not very difficult to accomplish and which possessed a high degree of accuracy in its results. . I could not identify it. XXX proved fatal. a relatively small quantity. and it seems to be so distinct that it is probable that additional examples could be recognized without difficulty. was carried out by intravenously introducing the drug. 3 cubic centimeters. . accurate way to . The quantitative findings reported by Smith were analyzed and seemed. . designed to test the fatal effects of XXX on dogs. Our reasons for attaining this diverse opinion are . To test Przibram‟s hypothesis. A method. in order to evaluate and determine the validity of the theory advocated by Przibram. was devised whereby…. was administered to each animal. but it is so distinct that additional specimens could easily be recognized. An easy. In each case. all immature instars must be measured. all dogs expiring before a lapse of five minutes after the injection. . We think Smith‟s measurements are questionable because . . It has not been possible to identify it with any of the described forms. according to our interpretation.

both genus and specific epithet. It carried the title: “Characterization of bacteria causi ng mastitis by gas-liquid chromatography”.   The title should have read: “Mechanism of suppression of nontransmissible pneumonia induced in mice by Newcastle disease virus”. e. specify this clearly in the title.NONSENSE SENSE On August 2. Precise Title: “Paternity assurance in the mating behaviour of a giant water bug Abedus herberti (Heteroptera. a brown bear was brought to the laboratory by a wildlife biologist in a moribund condition. Importance of syntax  A paper was submitted to the Journal of Bacteriology with the title: “Mechanism of suppression of non -transmissible pneumonia in mice induced by Newcastle disease virus”. Escherichia coli and Drosophila are so well known by their scientific names that further explanation in the title may not be required. Vague Title: “Paternity assurance in the mating behaviour of Abedus herberti”. 1983.  A manuscript was submitted to the Journal of Clinical Microbiology. WORDY an innumerable number of tiny veins as can be seen from the following table / fig. . CONCISE innumerable tiny veins data in table / fig. …. Some species. ….g. Belostomatidae)”. a wildlife biologist brought a moribund brown bear to the laboratory. show bright blue lenticular inoculated Taxonomic Information If your work features a particular species or larger taxonomic group. Another paper submitted to Journal of Bacteriology was titled: “Isolation of antigens from monkeys using complement -fixation techniques”.. Species should be described by their full Latin names. This improper syntax suggests that the mice were induced and not pneumonia. bright blue in colour lenticular in character conducted inoculation experiments on … On 02 August 1983..

what were the main results. It is always written in passive voice and mostly in the past tense. main results and principal conclusions.By-line Contains two elements: 1. . without „by‟. It does not contain any data (tables/figures). Abstract     This includes brief description of the background and objective of the study. 1. their significance and conclusions drawn. and 2. The present address of each author is given usually as a footnote with indication of the corresponding author giving full details of contacting him. Both Informative and Descriptive abstracts are written between 100-250 words or no more than about 3% of the length of the article. how the study was done. without the prefix „from the‟. Used in Reviews. while the third follows the IMRAD format. the name(s) of the institution where the research was done. Written as an outline of the subjects covered in a research article. Descriptive: Also called Indicative or Topical. symbols. Part of a research paper. Structured. as seen from a table of contents. the method of study. 2. It should not be more than about 3% of the length of the article. the name(s) of the author(s). Informative. The history of communicating the research article. and its acceptance usually accompanies the by-line. Informative: Brief statement of the problem. units and references. 2. Identify an article based upon a dissertation or thesis in a footnote. Types of Abstract 1. the nature of the problem. Conference reports etc. The first two are written as a paragraph. abbreviations. Descriptive and 3.

such as the problem. Results and Conclusion”. we examine the effect of the bacterium Rhizobium on the growth of leguminous plants supplied with organic manure”. Zoological Record. methods. Gradually orient the reader towards the specific purpose or aim of the study. findings and conclusions. Intervention and Measurement. with the methods section split into. Key / Index Words  These are the small number of most important words or short phrases (usually 3-10) for orienting the reader to the contents of a research article. Summary Research papers in a few journals. This variety can be up to 400 words.  Introduction  A well written Introduction should have a pyramidal structure. PubMed. Index Medicus. It serves as an aide memoire for people who have already read the research paper. Structured: It differs from the other abstracts by having a heading for each section. Excerpta Medica. Patients. Pollution Abstracts. They are used as guiding points for indexing documents. The abstract on the other hand is written for persons who may read it before deciding whether to read the complete article or not. Current Contents. Medline. Setting. for example. The problem may be outlined as an experimental approach:  “In this study. name(s) of organism(s) studied. Point out the lacunae and explain how your study may fill the gap. many review articles and chapters in a number of text books contain a Summary instead of an abstract. Methods. such as “Background. It is placed almost at the end of an article and written as short numbered statements. . Start with a broad base of background information that outlines the general nature of a problem within the subject. Design. Science Citation Index. In several clinical journals the structured abstract is more detailed. Chemical Abstracts.3. for creation of subject directories and are often printed with Abstracts in computerised data bases such as: Biological Abstracts. This includes a reference to previous studies and areas of disagreement.

not the free acid. Without the acidic hydrogen atoms it is not clear what forces would hold the structure together. A structure for nucleic acid has already been proposed by Pauling and Corey1. this structure is unsatisfactory for two reasons: (1) We believe that the material which gives the X-ray diagrams is the salt. and the bases on the outside. with the phosphates near the fibre axis. Another three-chain structure has also been suggested by Fraser (in the press). Molecular structure of nucleic acids A structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid We wish to suggest a structure for the salt of deoxyribose nucleic acid (D. linked together by hydrogen bonds. In our opinion. In all cases the null hypothesis is countered by an alternative hypothesis (HA). (2) Some of the van der Waals distances appear to be too small. especially as the negatively charged phosphates near the axis will repel each other. Introduction serves two functions: (1) It makes the reader familiar with the background information and (2) explains the aims and objectives of the study. They kindly made their manuscript available to us in advance of publication. This structure as described is rather ill-defined.). The topic of study can also be framed as a question: “Can the bacterium Rhizobium synergize the growth of leguminous plants supplied with organic manure?”     Convert the identified problem into a null hypothesis which can be tested.A. . Their model consists of three intertwined chains. In writing introduction (1) State the assumptions on which the study is based and (2) Be brief: up to four paragraphs! The last statement should lead to the next section: Materials & Methods. In his model the phosphates are on the outside and the bases on the inside. and for this reason we shall not comment on it. This structure has novel features which are of considerable biological interest.N. This hypothesis ( Ho) proposes that “Growth of the plants supplied with organic manure will not be affected by Rhizobium”.

noma. physiology. molecular biology. degrees. NIMHANS. volume. titles. Abbreviations are generally used for standard (SI) units of measurement (time. 3. use of short forms of technical words and terms is common. In scientific writings. . PAGE). “When a term or phrase is shortened to include only the first letters of each word and the new assemblage of letters is pronounced as a single word.” An acronym is often capitalised (Examples: AIDS. nama. The first use of any abbreviation should be made only after the full term is defined in the text and the abbreviation is immediately thereafter written in parentheses. brevis = short): A shortened form of a word or term or phrase. certain acronyms are used as common nouns and are therefore written in lower case (Examples: laser.. various scientific terms (in anatomy. 2. academic degrees. cm. taxonomy. According to some authorities. ACRONYM (Gk. PCR). dimensions. DNA. related to Latin nomen). akron = tip. They are meant to be helpful to the reader and not just a convenience to the author. acronyms are a type of initialism. but each letter is often written in lower case and pronounced separately (Examples: df. temp. In another variant. radar. peak. CONTRACTION: This is a shortening of a word or term in which either the first few letters are retained (Examples: Univ. Although they save space in writing. SOP: „standard operating procedure‟. What is TLC? A) Total leucocyte count (Haematology) B) Thin layer chromatography (Biochemistry) C) Tomato leaf curl (virus) D) Tender love and care (Sociology) 3. sol(n)}. 2. 1. 5. initialis = beginning): This is a combination of the first letters of each word in a term. addresses. ELISA. 4. genetics. mtDNA. cell biology. scuba). Rules governing the use of abbreviations 1. An abbreviated term can be used in a table or a figure even if the term is used only once. Use abbreviations minimally in the text. etc). scientific and other organizations.) or its subcategory Suspension in which all letters between the first and the last (letters) are removed (= elision). journal citations etc. Initialisms and Contractions. WHO: World Health Organisation). Abbreviate only those scientific terms or phrases that are too long or cumbersome to use. and Mr. These are called abbreviations.Abbreviations    Definition (L. mp. end. Prof. mRNA. onuma = name. also old English. Avoid the use of abbreviations in the title or abstract of an article. they should never be overused. geopolitical entities. other branches of modern biology etc) and for personal names. INITIALISM (L. There are of three types of abbreviations: Acronyms. only a few significant letters or syllables from a word or term are retained {Examples: avg. ppm).. In some cases the grouped letters are pronounceable as a word (as in the case of acronyms) but are spelt out (Examples: asap: „as soon as possible‟. PhD. it is termed an acronym. mass. Some editors will permit the use of an abbreviation only if the term is to be used at least six times in a paper (range 3 to 8 times). However. as exemplified by Dr. Many initialisms are written in all capitals even when the term itself is not capitalised (Examples: ATP.

11. Usage of abbreviations 1. academic. Never begin a sentence with an abbreviation. 9. Professional Titles: Some persons have civil. If two words have the same abbreviation. The abbreviation of a standard (SI) unit of measurement does not need to be defined at its first use. or religious titles along with their personal names. Use only standard abbreviations. Insofar as „Dr‟ is concerned. one species (sp) and many species (spp). Thus: Adv: Advocate Hon: Honourable Pres: President Dr: Doctor Capt: Captain Prof: Professor Lt Gen: Lieutenant General AVM: Air Vice Marshal Rev: Reverend 2. Personal Name: In general. 13. In general. both should AMV: Alfalfa/Arabis/Abutilon (+6 more plants) Mosaic Virus CMV: Cucumber mosaic virus (of plants) Canine minute virus (of vertebrates) Clo Mor virus (of invertebrates) be spelt out. Abbreviations in these cases are often used directly. 16. It is not necessary to italicize abbreviations. use either the abbreviation Dr before the name. or the official abbreviation for the degree. 8. 7. Be consistent in the use of abbreviations. do not coin new ones. The practice of using the „period‟ with an abbreviation is gradually dying out. in reference section. after the name.6. 12. 14. military. a person‟s first or last name is not abbreviated. an abbreviation does not change in its singular or plural forms. the citation consists of the last name followed by initialization of the first and subsequent names. exceptions are manuscript (MS) and manuscripts (MSS). However. Units of measurement are abbreviated when used with numerical values. do not abbreviate generic names when they are used alone. Both are not used together. In taxonomy. Avoid confusion. When used in the text without numerals. page (p) and pages (pp). . set off with two commas. Never split an abbreviation over lines. unless the abbreviation already contains a hyphen (Example: RT-PCR). the units are not abbreviated. 15. 10.

This system has adopted the metric (MKS) system as the international standard form of measurement. etc.m. 5. Standard system of measurement: Scientists all over the world use the International System (SI) that contains three classes of units: base units. USA. Years & Eras: These include a. such titles are conferred. water bodies. Sun. Ph. 10. NIMHANS: National Institute of Mental Health & Neuro Sciences) or Initialisms: AAAS: American Association for Advancement of Science. p. Time. Formal or Honorary Titles: These are only conferred. and M.Phil. 7. pressure and velocity. etc.P. The seven base units of this system are: the metre or meter. LA: Los Angeles. They may be Acronyms (e.: Doctor Litterarum = Doctor of Literature or Letters). Elective Titles: When a person is honoured by election to a scientific body or elected as a representative on a statutory entity.. Geopolitical Entities: Countries. cities. do not leave spaces around it. but never used.. Sq = Square. and BSI: Botanical Survey of India. mole and candela. ampere. Apr.D. MS. 4. St = Street etc.. There are two supplementary units: the radian and steradian. FNA.g. Thus: GB: Great Britain. BC = Before Christ. energy. BP = Before the present. Kelvin. Addresses: In these. 6. e.Litt. These are written in full capitals with no periods. Litt.. Months. Sept. which are written only in capital letters (BA.D. Base units can be used in combination with each other to give the derived units such as volume. others are a combination of upper and lower case letters (M. and derived units. KA: Karnataka. Appropriate prefixes are used to denote smaller or larger measurements. . supplementary units. abbreviations may be used directly: Ave = Avenue.. states. Mt Everest. Most of the derived units have special names and symbols. followed by the abbreviation in parentheses. etc. If an abbreviation contains an ampersand. Mon. Academic Degrees: Some of these are initialisms. Scientific and other Corporate bodies: Spell out the full name on first reference. for example: FRS.g. NIH: National Institutes of Health.Sc. Rd = Road. M. MYA/ mya = Million years ago. MH: Maharashtra. AD = Anno Domini.. mountains. 9.3. Days. = post meridiem (Do not combine these with „in the morning/ evening‟ or o‟clock. second. AT&T: American Telephone & Telegraph. 8.: Philosophiae Doctor. = ante meridiem. MD: Medicinae Doctor = Doctor of Medicine). Blvd = Boulevard. respectively for plane and solid angles.m. and Texas A&M University.: Litterarum Doctor= Doctor of Letters and D. USSR. For example LLD: Legum Doctor = Doctor of Laws (the degree conferred on Charles Darwin by the University of Cambridge). AIIMS: All India Institute of Medical Sciences. All units of measurements have approved and standardized abbreviations. kilogram.

Système International d„Unités (SI Units) Base Unit Length (l) Mass (m) Time (t) Electric flow Temperature (T) Amount of substance (n) Luminous intensity (Brightness of light) Supplementary Unit (dimensionless) Plane angle Solid angle Derived Unit Frequency Force Pressure Energy. Heat Power Electric charge Electric potential Capacitance Electric resistance Electrical conductance Temperature Radioactivity Illuminance Unit metre/ meter kilogram second ampere Kelvin molemol candela Unit radian steradian Unit hertz newton pascal joule watt coulomb volt farad ohm Siemens Celsius Becquerel lux Symbol m kg s A K cd Symbol rad sr Symbol Hz N Pa J W C V F Ω S 0C Bq lx . Work.

Acronyms AIDS/Aids: acquired immune deficiency syndrome ANOVA: BASIC: ELISA: GABA: HAART: analysis of variance Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay gamma-amino butyric acid highly active antiretroviral therapy Length Commonly Used Abbreviations Abbreviation metre centimetre millimetre micrometre gram kilogram milligram microgram nanogram picogram femtogram Example m (10-2 meter) cm (10-3 meter)mm (10-6 meter) µm g (103 grams) (10-3 gram) (10-6 gram)µ (10-9 gram)ng (10-12 gram)pg (10-15 gram)fg Laser: PABA: light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation Weight p-amino benzoic acid PAGE: Radar: Scuba: Sonar: polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis radio detection and ranging self-contained underwater breathing apparatus sound navigation and ranging Volume litre l or L millilitre (10-3 liter) 37 mL microlitre (10-6 liter) 13 µl 3L ml or mL µl or µL .

Time Abbreviation Example mo wk d h 6 mo per year 4 wk 2d 24 h months weeks days hours minutes seconds Concentration milliosmolar/liter mole molar salinity (parts per thousand) parts per million parts per billion Statistics mean standard deviation standard error sample size Probability value min s 20 min 60 s mOsm L-1 ‰ S.2 g individual-1 SE = 0.3 .2 ppm copper ppb 200 ppb copper X. ppt ppm 650 mOsm L-1 mol 0.13 g mol-1 mol L-1 a 0. x SE SD N. p SD = 0. n P.8 n = 16 p < 0.01 X =27.3 mol L-1 solution 31 ‰ S seawater or 31 ppt 0.

(10-3) .g.F2. median for example (exempli gratia) frequency (Statistics) flavin adenine dinucleotide facsimile gen. median metre.F3 filial generation(s) FADH2 FAD reduced form g gravity ibid in the same place (ibidem) im intramuscular(ly) IU international unit(s) k kilo. genus. ATP ad lib as desired (ad libitum) at wt atomic weight BOD biochemical oxygen demand BTU British thermal unit(s) ca about (circa). AMP. gram calorie) central nervous system decibel(s) deciliter electroencephalogram ERG electroretinogram effective dose.(103) M molar (moles per litre) Å atm bp °C cal CNS db dL /dl EEG ED50 e.e. milli. and others (et alia/alii) F1. approximately cm centimeter CoA coenzyme A df degrees of freedom ECG electrocardiogram EMG electromyogram Erg unit of energy/ work EDTA ethylene diamine-tetra-acetate et al. new that is (id est) ip intraperitoneal(ly) intravenous Lethal dose. f FAD fax i. iv LD50 m Angstrom unit (obsolete) ATPase Spell out (all enzymes) atmosphere(s) BMR basal metabolic rate boiling point/ base pair(s) degree Celsius/ Centigrade calorie/s (small. n.A Absorbance / Absorbancy ADP.

) w/v weight/volume (conc. meq miliequivalent(s) mM mmole millimole (unit of mass) mV. MWmolecular weight mp µ micron (obsolete) µm micrometer (10-3 mm) µM µmole micromole N N./ no. mark well (nota bene) nm nanometer No. mv MLD minimum lethal dose mole Mol wt.mEq. n sample size (Statistics) n NB/ n. species new variety (-ies)(Taxonomy) v/v volume/volume (conc. x arithmetic mean (Statistics) millimolar (unit of conc. p OD optical density (obsolete) RNA hnRNA heterogeneous nuclear RNA mRNA nRNA nuclear RNA rRNA snRNA small nuclear RNA tRNA RNase Ribonuclease sc subcutaneous(ly) tris tris buffer [tris (hydroxymethyl) amino methane] UV ultraviolet var. normality nano.) millivolt(s) mole (a gram molecule) melting point µL.b. Vol volume Wt weight X crossed with (Genetics) / magnified by X.(10-9) nonprotein nitrogen probability ribonucleic acid messenger RNA ribosomal RNA transfer (soluble) RNA RQ respiratory quotient sp.) . number NPN NTP normal temperature and pressure P. n. µl microlitre (10-3 mL) micromolar normal.

Premarin of Wyeth: oestrogen. You must describe fully the organism(s) used. if an already published procedure is used. If the protocol is complicated. and their age. their technical specifications including batch no. symbols and nonstandard trivial names of chemical agents etc here. and chemicals are not used. and route(s) of administration. chemicals and media used. only the reference is to be given. controls as well as the dependent and independent variables selected for the study. If your experimental method/ technique is new (unpublished). size. 6: 26.. 1972). if any. Most of it is written in the past tense and the use of passive voice is valid. Where appropriate. to explain the procedure. Also describe the uncommon abbreviations.g. . and Clodrel+ of Unichem: clopidogrel + aspirin).. is necessary. Also give the names and if necessary. Justify the selection of the methods as well as the variables. Do not describe the principal results in this section. all microbial cultures. Write the exact names of all drugs.g. Write the procedure exactly the way in which it was carried out. In general proprietary or trade names of drugs (e. If animals were used. Also define the conditions under which the organisms were maintained before and during the experiments with appropriate precautions. You may however include preliminary findings that were used to design the main experiment. number of specimens. and therefore this part of the research article – in some journals. There is no grammatical problem with this sentence. sex. did they voluntarily consent to participate in the study? Consider the statement “Blood samples were taken from 48 informed and consenting patients… the subjects ranged in age from 6 months to 22 years” (Paediatr Res. the antiviral Virolans: Ranbaxy. However. including the scientific name. but not as a series of instructions. but.MATERIALS & METHODS This section is the easiest to write: You basically describe what you did. strains. ATCC). a flow chart or a diagram of the experimental setup. description of the equipment used. but the writing is telescopic and leaves the reader wondering just how the 6 months-old infant(s) gave informed consent. food etc. varieties etc on which the work is based must be deposited in an identified culture collection (e. dose(s). Several journals give detailed specifications which need to be stated as and when applicable. description of relevant modification(s). but generic ones are. has been called Procedure. describe it fully. You must specify the experimental design. what measures were taken to minimise pain? If you used human subjects. from where they can be obtained by the other researchers. Benadryl of Pfizer: Diphenhydramine. Mention relevant ethical considerations as applicable.. it may be helpful to include a table.

This will let a knowledgeable reader (with access to original data) to verify the reported results. this section describes exactly how the study was carried out. It answers the questions: WHAT was done. When any significance is claimed. p= 0.05). do not forget to give sufficient details of the statistical methods used for data analysis. the table(s) and figure(s) are brought to the reader‟s attention. (3) the table or figure also must have a legend that explains all symbols. i. but a trained investigator with considerable experience. As the narration develops logically and clearly. Also specify the computer software used. or comparison of several treatment levels (bar graph with error indicator markings). Also note that the parameter under measurement (total biomass) is specifically identified. abbreviations. while the same for a figure is placed below it. While describing the findings do not repeat the tabulated numerical data in the text. However. but does not interpret their meaning. or showing a regression analysis (line graph). cohesive sequence.Lastly. Writing a good Results section involves knowing which information to include or exclude. source of the data and other pertinent information. any table and a figure have the following features: 1) the title of a table appears above the data. while a figure (e. (3) the scientific name Rhizobium is italicized and (4) reference is made to the table wherein the data to support the statement are presented. .g.e. Raw data are never presented. this does not mean any researcher or reader. including qualitative data in a unified. The text describes observations and other findings. It may be necessary to define statistical terms. a table is constructed to display exact values. tabular and graphical forms. abbreviations and symbols. (2) the word “significantly” is qualified by the name of the statistical test and probability level (t test. a suitable graph) is used to highlight trends and directions of change. It must contain all the information that another researcher can use to repeat the exact procedure. Repeatability of experiments and reproducibility of results are the only guarantee that your results are acceptable. the test of significance must be mentioned and the probability level is also given. WHERE and WHEN the study was done and HOW it was carried out. Likewise. It is best to present the data in a table unless a figure gives better visual information. (2) the table or figure must be self-explanatory. Numerical data which lack statistical treatment are valueless and will not be published. Thus. p = 0. Thus. valid and reliable.05) regardless of the presence or absence of Rhizobium (Table 2). In general. but the data are summarised for writing the text and preparing tables and figures or both. the title or caption should define the contents. Consider the following statement: “The organic manure significantly increased total biomass of the legume plantation (Student‟s t test.” This is a clearly written statement because: (1) the result of adding manure (“increased”) is stated unambiguously. Results This section presents the findings of the study. a given set of data is never presented simultaneously in both.

For example. TEM). Chemical structure. Flow chart.1 Line graph.5 Pie chart. Comparison: 2. Occasional tabulation of QUALITATIVE data: e. degrees of freedom. probability levels etc) to properly evaluate the analysis. plant etc. Drawing. animal. The precision of numerical values is shown by some measure of their variation such as range and SD. 7. Exact values: Tabulation of data (Statistical Tables) 2. Use a bar chart / histogram to emphasise comparisons.g. Electrophorogram…. dental). Photograph of ecological site. the values 7. Photomicrograph of microbe. colour). Conceptual diagram. 6. 5.3 Bar diagram. Groups. 2. QUANTITATIVE / NUMERICAL DATA: 1. Trends & / or 2. 2. 3. 8. 7. 3. . If the table includes numerical values and their statistical analysis. Histological reactions.5. precision beyond two places after the decimal point is not required. Block diagram. ECG). Use a line graph to emphasise trends. electron micrograph (SEM. Experimental set-up.g. be sure to provide the information necessary for the reader (sample size.. Scientific names.00 indicate different levels of precision. Records (e. Evolutionary tree. dough-nut chart. 2. histology. B. FIGURES / QUALITATIVE DATA: 1. 2. 4. Formula (e.1 – 2.g. Use a table to emphasise specific values. trace (e. Map. chart.Presentation of data A. 2.2 Histogram. camera lucida). Above nos. sketch.4 Pictorial bar chart. Floral.. In most biological work.g.0 and 7. (B/W.

: Title BOXHEAD Units COLUMN CAPTION STUB (Row captions) FIELD (BODY) SOURCE FOOTNOTE(S) Cell .Basic structure of a Table Table 4.

. long-term culture). Denmark (partial table) . with permission from Munksgaard International Publishers Ltd.1: Maternal age. 1985. Copenhagen. size and type (avascular or vascular) of villi sampled.XXYY 4 [etc.XY 2 3 19 30 12 9 2 10 5 X X X X X 46. Maternal age (y) Gestational age (wk) Villi sampled Indication Weight (mg) Avascular Vas-cular Direct Cytogenic method 24 h culture Long term culture Karyotype Case No. method used in processing the biopsy (direct preparation. and karyotype in 80 diagnostic cases of firsttrimester chorionic biopsy.XY Source: Reproduced from Heim et al. Table 6. gestational age. 24 h culture. 1 45 12 Previous child Mb Down Hemophilia Hemophilia 10 X X 46.XY 92. indication.] 41 11 Age 8 X 46.The descriptive title Table 6.1: Details of 80 diagnostic cases of first-trimester chorionic biopsy.

with permission .58 12. g – 2500 2501 – 3000 3001 – 3500 Deliveries n 434 1395 2047 % 8.2: Increase in fractured clavicles with birth weight Birth weight.80 Source: Reproduced from a manuscript by Jojart et al.5 27.7 100.07 3.5 3.28 3501 – 4000 4001 – All 1049 193 5118 20.2: Fractured clavicles and birth weight Table 6.The declarative title Table 6.0 n 9 45 108 Fractured clavicles % 2.3 40.44 5.23 5. 1992.0 111 24 297 10.

“The drug cured 1/3 of th e infected mice. meaning or significance in this section. 9. another 1/3 remained unaffected. and will not be published. . It is not necessary to describe every step of the statistical analysis. because they can be confusing. For example. Tables generally contain summarised data such as X ± SD. However.Results contd… 1. beginning from 1 ( i. It is up to you. Also. refer to each table or figure you include in the paper. such as „random‟ (which implies a randomized device). Table 2. Avoid plotting graphs that show too many variables or trends at once. Figure 1 etc). do the actual numbering after all data are analysed. 5. Do not duplicate data in graphs and tables. do not speculate as to why something happened or did not happen. In the text. the researcher to interpret the result of a test. 11. and not raw data. Use a figure (= graph) only when the data are visualiased strikingly. Some Do‟s and Don‟ts Use past tense to write “Results” as in the case of Materials & Methods. Do not begin a statement as “The t-test/ The chi-square test/ The ANOVA showed that … . Report only what you found. 6. “Discussion”. they should not be suppressed. Each table and figure should be numbered separately. All such interpretations are to be included in the next section. Do not try to manipulate data to make it look like you did more than you actually did. Do not evaluate the results or discuss their relevance. in the research paper. However. the findings organised logically and text matter is written.” Statistical tests do not show anything. 2. Like-wise.e.” 12. It is not necessary to include all the data generated while doing the project. Table 1. 3. tabulated.. 7. 8. cite tables and figures without explaining how the data were treated. and the third mouse escaped. Avoid qualitative data in table construction. Avoid use of technical terms in Statistics. 4. Numerical data which lack statistical analysis are of no value. „significant‟. using the Arabic numerals. They just crunch the numbers in a particular way. „c orrelation‟ and „sample‟ in a non-technical sense. if some of the data do not support your hypothesis. „normal‟. 10.

Introduction and Materials & Methods are designed to explain why and how the results were obtained. Start by highlighting the most significant and interesting data from your study. some text is necessary. that through one Rhizobium-legume experiment you will discover that there is no symbiosis between the two organisms. Indeed. to which further information is added from new and relevant studies. Never make statements that are too broad: it is unlikely. It is customary to state your conclusions towards the end of the Discussion section. Show how your results and interpretations agree or disagree with previously published studies. the later part of the paper. Do not simply list the problems but provide thoughtful discussion about the implication of errors in the light of your conclusions. The two previous sections. the results must be presented with complete clarity. the results can be easily presented in only one or two paragraphs of the text. valid and interesting. Here. One may also indicate or suggest different or new directions of further research. Try to relate the Results to the background information including published research papers and review articles referred to in the Introduction. unless these can be explained. This is probably the most difficult section of any research paper. Usually however. . They may be numbered and each should be a concise and clearly written. Emphasize the principles and relationships revealed by the results. See Watson & Crick’s paper. Base the discussion on a comparison of your findings with those of other workers. Usually the Discussion takes the shape of an inverted pyramid. mainly due to the brainstorming involved in writing it. Obviously therefore. You can then proceed to speculate as to why this occurred and whether you expected this. Indeed. written or spoken. Discussion is used to explain the meaning of the Results. the word significant is in both. Can any new hypotheses be proposed? You may also include recommendations when appropriate. even if the data are both. Do the results support or go against the hypothesis presented in your Introduction? Do not hesitate to debate the theoretical implications of your findings as well as any possible practical applications. this section does not need to be long. Limit your conclusions to those actually supported by your data. It should therefore consist of interpretation -rather than restatement. In that case you may need to suggest likely explanations why this was so. this section is sometimes the longest and always the most difficult part of the research paper. Point out if there were problems in the methods and explain anomalies in the data and your assumptions. Thus. Thus. you may …”not find a significant effect of Rhizobium inoculate on legume biomass in this experiment”. However. it is in the Discussion that the questions raised in the Introduction are addressed. a statistical sense (= deviating from the null hypothesis) and the dictionary sense (= having special meaning and importance). precise statement. What does need more intellectual input is the Discussion. Many papers are rejected by journal editors because of a faulty Discussion. Can the results be interpreted in any other way? Sometimes experiments do not yield expected results. Thus. Discussion and Introduction must complement each other much in the same way as the Results and Materials & Methods function as a unit. but it need not be extensive. for example. do not unduly extrapolate your results to other species or conditions. in the light of what other workers found. Therefore.Like the backbone of a vertebrate animal. Since unanticipated results can lead to new insights and interpretations. Discussion is defined as a „debate‟ and as an „examination by argument‟. never attempt to suppress or manipulate incongruent/ inconvenient data. the Results is the most important part of any research paper because this section adds new material to scientific knowledge. Also be careful of the natural human tendency to want to point out shortcomings of other investigators‟ reports. in some papers it may be possible to say “The results obtained are shown in Table 1” and that would be t he entire section. Moreover. the whole paper must stand or fall on the basis of the Results. If a judicious use is made of tables and graphs.of the results in terms of what is already known and established.

a middle and an end. Otherwise use present tense.sentence. 8. So aim to finish positively. 1985) could be as follows: 1. Draw logical conclusions from your argument. A natural order for composing the Discussion (Farr. 5. Point out deficiencies and inconsistencies in your present results or in those of others. 2. Typical results are shown… These results will be shown in a subsequent report… The most reliable results are those obtained by Sheshadri… He was my graduate assistant. A Dictionary of Useful Research Phrases Research Phrase It has long been known… A definite trend is evident… Of great theoretical and practical importance. Support this by your new results. The results of the others didn‟t make any sense.In so far as the grammar is concerned. Suggestions for further work and recommendations are to be written in future tense. 7. write in the past tense when commenting on or interpreting the previous data as well as your own. An unsuccessful experiment. 6. Compare your present results with these. 4. These data are practically meaningless. I might get around to this sometime if I‟m pushed. The best results are shown. Your work should go off with a bang. Every piece of writing requires three things: a beginning. 3. decisively and forcefully. but I still hope to get it published. Outline previous published results. Conclude by summarizing your argument or recommendations in a single –preferably short. Lastly. While it has not been possible to provide definite answers to these questions… Three of the samples were chosen for detailed study… Translation I didn‟t look up the original reference. and not fade away with a whimper. . Clearly say what you are trying to prove or disprove. State your hypothesis. Interesting to me. The Discussion is the effective end of your paper. Highlight any significant new results. And then stop writing. so pick your words and phrases carefully.

agency. a complete understanding of the phenomenon occurs… Correct within an order of magnitude… It is hoped that this study will stimulate further investigationWrong. Acknowledgement This section is used to formally thank helpful persons. in this field… This is a lousy paper.A Dictionary of Useful Research Phrases contd… Research Phrase It is believed that… Translation I think. organizations and funding agencies for facilitating various phases of the research and preparation of the article. preferably by showing them the relevant portion of the research article. etc. depending on journal style). A careful analysis of obtainable data… Three pages of notes were obliterated when I knocked over a cup of coffee. AN EXAMPLE OF ACKNOWLEDGING INSTITUTIONAL SUPPORT AND SOURCE OF FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE: “… I thank the Jayakar Library‟s interlibrary loan staff for obtaining the books and journals used in writing this article. It is generally believed that… A couple of other people think so too. Clearly but briefly mention the specific assistance received from each person. but so are all the others on this miserable topic. omit titles. Scientific ethics demand that permission of the persons who assisted with the project be taken before acknowledging them. or may not want to be associated with the article. Refer to individuals by their full names (or first initials and last name.” . Write full names of supporting institutions and funding agencies.” …”One of us (XXX) received a fellowship of the UGC/CSIR/DBT. This is because a person who helped you may not wish to be acknowledged (although this is usually unlikely). It is clear that much additional work will be required before I don‟t understand it. or may object to the wording used in referring to him. Thanks are due to Joe Roach for assistance with the experiment and to George Fink for valuable discussions… Roach did the work and Fink explained to me what it meant.

The most common sources for literature search are published research papers. Garud for giving me quality time to do the literature survey for this paper. Prof.D. The sequences of all these items will depend on the pattern adopted by each journal. Deepika Magar also gave me suggestions on how to revise this paper. Franklin and their coworkers at King‟s College. One of us (J. thanks to Mukta and Robert for their encouragement and sharing their meals with me. year. Different journals prescribe their own styles for the Literature Cited section. name of the journal. volume number and page numbers. abstracting journals and electronic data bases. I thank (Professor) Anant Garud for help with the literature review.E. We have also been stimulated by a knowledge of the general nature of the unpublished experimental results and ideas of Dr. For papers published in journals. It consists of a listing of all the published work cited in the text of the paper. London. I am indeed grateful to you.W. you need to give author(s) name(s). symposia. A PROPERLY WORDED ACKNOWLEDGEMENT SECTION: This research was supported by a summer school research grant from the University of Pune. you must write the author(s) name(s). Jerry Donohue for constant advice and criticism. Dr. only include the works you actually used and cited in the text of your paper. CRICK Literature Cited/References This is the last but essential section of a research paper. Last but not the least.F. . publisher and place of publication.H. R. reports of conferences. Vipul Sasane for data presentation and Deepika Magar for constructive comments on a previous draft of this paper. A standard format is used both to cite literature in the text and to list these studies in the References section. year. J. text.C. title of the paper.A POORLY WRITTEN ACKNOWLEDGEMENT SECTION: I received support while doing this research by a summer school grant from the University. especially on interatomic distances. edition (if any). We are much indebted to Dr. For books.and other books. reviews. M.) has been aided by a fellowship from the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis.H. And thanks to Vipul for showing me how to organise and analyse the data.D. Wilkins. WATSON F. This does not mean every article you found in your literature search. title of the book.

If the audience is absorbing ideas from a projection. Use fonts that are easy to read. Within these systems each journal has its own citation style depending on the guidelines given under “Instructions to Authors”. (g) PowerPoint presentation. Prepare visual aids in advance. 7. Do not keep the projector switched “on” for long periods. 15. Follow British Standard PD6482: 1983 “The Preparation of Visual Aids for Lectures” (British Standards Institution. use round numbers and avoid decimal points. limit yourself to a maximum of 5 rows and 5 columns. Find out what presentation facilities are available at the venue. In tables. 12. Display visual aids only while discussing their contents. (e) Video cassette recorder/ player. Do not include too much information in a frame (slide/ transparency). (d) Projector (cartridge/ carousel) for 35 mm slides.There are two models for citation of references: 1. Harvard System also called Alphabet-Year or Author-Year System. 2. Vancouver System also known as Numbers System. they cannot at the same time listen to you saying something else. 5. While planning the talk decide what to do if the equipment breaks down or is not available. 16. . 9. 4. 2. 3. Look at your audience as often as possible. (h) Exhibits/ Demonstration material. (f) Film projector. 11. (c) Overhead projection transparencies. Also. 14. 8. 10. 13. Use colour coding. 1983. 6. Never pass an exhibit around (because of distraction/ it may get damaged/ it may not come back to you). Do not use too many frames/ displays in a lecture. Visual aids include: (a) Black-/ White-board. USE OF VISUAL AIDS 1. (b) Flip chart. Do not stand in front of your writing. London. Use a visual aid only if it adds to your presentation. ISBN: 0 580 130738).

London. Goodlad (1996): „Speaking Technically‟. Imperial College Press.A comparison of some visual aids Visual Aid OHP 35 mm Video Film Computer Cost Preparation Flexibility Low Easy Easy to adjust Modest Moderate Moderate Moderate High Difficult Moderate Moderate Hard to change Moderate Dimmed Easy to ‘search’ Moderate Normal Very inflexible High Dimmed Easy to ‘search’ Moderate Dimmed Impact Lighting Moderate Normal Adapted from S. .

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