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Har Gobind Khorana
Har Gobind Khurana
January 9, 1922 Raipur, Punjab, British India November 9, 2011 (aged 89) Concord, Massachusetts, U.S. India, United States, United Kingdom United States 
Residence Citizenship Fields Institutions
Molecular biology MIT (1970–2007) University of Wisconsin, Madison (1960–70) University of British Columbia (1952–60) Cambridge University (1950–52) Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich (1948–49) University of the Punjab University of Liverpool First to demonstrate the role of nucleotides in protein synthesis Nobel Prize in Medicine (1968), Gairdner Foundation International Award, Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize, Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research, Padma Vibhushan Signature
Known for Notable awards
Har Gobind Khorana also known as Hargobind Khorana (January 9, 1922 – November 9, 2011) was a biochemist who shared the 1968 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine with Marshall W. Nirenberg and Robert W. Holley for research that helped to show how the nucleotides in nucleic acids, which carry the genetic code of the cell, control the cell’s synthesis of proteins. Khorana and Nirenberg were also awarded the Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize from Columbia University in the same year. He became a naturalized citizen of the United States in 1966, and subsequently received the National Medal of Science. He served as MIT's Alfred P. Sloan Professor of Biology and Chemistry, Emeritus and was a member of
 Subsequent research He extended the above to long DNA Polymers using non-aqueous chemistry and assembled these into the first synthetic gene. One merely needs to send the genetic sequence to one of the companies to receive an oligonucleotide with the desired sequence. combined with the Nirenberg and Leder experiment.  With this. This invention of Khorana has become automated and commercialized so that anyone now can order a synthetic gene from any of a number of companies. In 1952 he went to the University of British Columbia. died 1979). Lahore. He earned his B. His father was the village "patwari" (or taxation official). or ACU ACU ACU. currently Pakistan. of Swiss origin. 1954. . he spent two years at Cambridge University. in 1952. UAA and UGA are stop codons.D in 1948. as well as methods that anticipated the invention of PCR. Vancouver and in 1960 moved to the University of Wisconsin–Madison. 1968.Har Gobind Khorana the Board of Scientific Governors at The Scripps Research Institute. Subsequently. British India in 1945. Their Nobel lecture was delivered on December 12. Lahore. using polymerase and ligase enzymes that link pieces of DNA together. cloning and engineering new plants and animals. he began studying at the University of Liverpool. UAA. 2 Early life and education Khorana was born to Hindu parents in Raipur village in West Punjab. is spelled out in three-letter words: each set of three nucleotides codes for a specific amino acid. showed that UCU codes for Serine and CUC codes for Leucine. Khorana and his team had established that the mother of all codes. and Dave Roy (born July 26.  Khorana married Esther Elizabeth Sibler. he continued his postdoctoral studies in Zürich (1948–1949). These custom-designed pieces of artificial genes are widely used in biology labs for sequencing. in 1943. produced only dipeptides and tripeptides thus revealing that UAG. In 1970 Khorana became the Alfred Sloan Professor of Biology and Chemistry at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology where he worked until retiring in 2007. This. He was home schooled by his father until high school. or UGA. RNAs with four repeating units including UAG. 1958). 1953). RNAs with three repeating units (UACUACUA → UAC UAC UAC. Research work Ribonucleic acid (RNA) with three repeating units (UCUCUCU → UCU CUC UCU) produced two alternating amino acids. His lab has since mid 1970s  studied the biochemistry of the membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin responsible for converting photon energy into proton gradient energy and most recently studying the structural related visual pigment rhodopsin. Khorana was the first scientist to synthesize oligonucleotides. They had three children: Julia Elizabeth (born May 4. Emily Anne (born October 18.Sc from Punjab University. or CUA CUA CUA) produced three different strings of amino acids.Sc from Punjab University. In 1945. After earning a Ph. and his M. British India. the biological language common to all living organisms.
com/ India-news/ Chandigarh/ Chandigarh-mourns-death-of-Nobel-laureate-Hargobind-Khorana/ Article1-767916. PDF (http://www. Elsevier Publishing Company. Sakmar (2012).Har Gobind Khorana 3 Legacy The University of Wisconsin-Madison.1371/journal.  Death Khorana died of natural causes on November 9. 1972  Har Gobind Khorana. aspx) External links • The Khorana Program (http://www. html)  Chandigarh mourns death of Nobel laureate Hargobind Khorana (http:/ / www. he was survived by his children Julia and Davel.pbio.edu/faculty/ansari/khorana_program/) • 33rd Steenbock Symposium (http://www. 1963–1970. doi: 10. aged 89.pbio. com/ 2011/ 11/ 12/ 2498822/ har-gobind-khorana-nobel-prize.edu/seminars/steenbock/symposium33/) • Thomas P.wisc. plosbiology.biochem. 2011 in Concord. and India. In 2009. dies at 89 (http:/ / www. the Government of India (DBT Department of Biotechnology). Nobel Prize-winning biologist. Massachusetts.org/article/fetchObjectAttachment. Physiology or Medicine. PLoS Biology 10 (2). hindustantimes.pbio. engaging partners in rural development and food security.1371/journal.biochem. miamiherald. and the Indo-US Science and Technology Forum jointly created the Khorana Program in 2007.org/10.1001273& representation=PDF) . Wisconsin.S.action?uri=info:doi/10.1001273 (http://dx.1371/journal. The mission of the Khorana Program is to build a seamless community of scientists. and social entrepreneurs in the United States and India. The program is focused on three objectives: Providing graduate and undergraduate students with a transformative research experience. Khorana was hosted by the Khorana Program and honored at the 33rd Steenbock Symposium in Madison. References  Nobel Lectures. industrialists.1001273).doi.wisc. and facilitating public-private partnerships between the U. Amsterdam. A widower. "Har Gobind Khorana (1922–2011): Pioneering Spirit".
Generalit85. Shomat. Rjwilmsi. Bakasuprman.jpg Source: http://en.php?title=File:Har_Gobind_Khorana_signature. Peter johnson4.org/w/index. Elockid. Girmitya. Racklever. Duncan. Jay. Woohookitty. Ktr101.tejasvi. Snowolf. Spongebobsqpants. RichardF. Indian50. Znkp. Polarlys.wikipedia. EJohn59. Soetermans. C. Hannes Röst. George Church. Linguisticgeek. MWaller. Hongooi. Bender235. Keith D. Miaers. Amillar. Maximus Rex. Pdecat2. RashmiPatel. Sgt Pinback. Anthony. Michael Hardy. Dystruction.Selvakumar. Unara. Jahnavisatyan. Vinwe. Jacopo Werther. Ocean57. 222 anonymous edits Image Sources. Joey80. The wub. Ricochet17. Debashish. Winnebagan. Maltmomma. Migelot. Etacar11.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Har Gobind Khorana License Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3. Brutannica. Abhishek3kumar. Omnipaedista. Ka Faraq Gatri. Andycjp. Fraggle81. Saifu77. Scarian. Davshul.jpg Source: http://en. Bharat.Hull. JeanneMish. Sourav. Joao Xavier. MZMcBride. Akarkera. Gcm. ImpuMozhi. Extra999. Richiez. Nikhilmn2002. Tockwith. DonSiano. Utcursch. Falcon007. Meiskam. Jeltz. Dewan357. Flewis. Savitr. Pitaara. Pascal666.0 Unported //creativecommons. NKul. Rockpocket. Eastfrisian.wikipedia. Gareth Griffith-Jones. Eleventh1. Dannown. Rajat Ghai. Rms125a@hotmail. Haphar. John. Chinimilli. Karlovely. Sidhu Jyatha. Jing-hai Huang. Drappel. Dravecky. Eustress.naresh. Sir John Sack-and-Sugar. Sylvain Mielot. Johnpacklambert. PatialaPeg. Schmiteye. Hurricane111. Middayexpress. Giftlite.php?oldid=566425224 Contributors: 3swordz. Titodutta. RogDel. Rsrikanth05. Raytracer42. Kkm010. Mikejuinwind123. Chemist234.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Materialscientist File:Har Gobind Khorana signature.org/w/index.php?title=File:Har_Gobind_Khorana_nobel. Everyking. Ceancata. Simon Shek.Article Sources and Contributors 4 Article Sources and Contributors Har Gobind Khorana Source: http://en. Rzafar. Sitush. Randhirreddy.org/w/index. Dangerous-Boy. Jivecat. Dcirovic. Multixfer.vik. Edwy.0/ . Turnstep. Altetendekrabbe. IP Singh. Trabelsiismail. Tigga. RJASE1. PDH. Rcasbury. T. Indopug.wikipedia. DaveBorman. Rj. Neoweb. Rustyview. CommonsDelinker. Nishkid64. Vojvodaen. RyanGerbil10. Klemen Kocjancic. Omicronpersei8.org/licenses/by-sa/3. Udzu. Tuncrypt. Mjsabby. Cribananda. Tentinator. G716. MKar. Rsabbatini. Magnus Manske. ChauriCh. Ppntori. Capricorn42. Materialscientist. D6. InverseHypercube. Irate. Kirisutogomen. Licenses and Contributors File:Har Gobind Khorana nobel. Ironboy11.com. Bensaccount.R. Spasage. Hebrides. JMBurke1791. સતિષચંદ્ર. Dastane. DBigXray. Alansohn.
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