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**Algorithm for establishing the control variables of the welding process based on
**

heat flow imposed restrictions. .......................................................................................2

The optimization of the welded spatial structures concerning structure and

technological optimization. ......................................................................................... 10

Design, Reliability and Optimization

CIFMA03 – IFCAM03, 21-23 Avril/April 2008 Design, Reliability and Optimization

Algorithm for establishing the control variables of the welding process based on

heat flow imposed restrictions.

Dr. Eng. Ioan Sorin Leoveanu, Eng. Mircea Darolti

University Transilvania Brasov, Romania, leoveanui@yahoo.co.uk

Abstract: The aim of the paper consist in the establishment of the control variables and optimum criteria needed to give

the maximum quality to the automatic welded joints. The complexes phenomena that governs the welding processes

was considerate in three distinctness classes: a) the optimum welding principals parameters given by the welding arc

power, welding arc speed and the electrode speed and there of perturbations during the activation process. In the paper

the chemical perturbations of the bass and added metal are not included. b) The identification of the welding power

source system characteristics and there dynamics for the electrode advanced system. c).The synthesis of the algorithm

for digital filtering of the feedback signals. The governing lows of the process steps was established in the limits of

geometry of the welding pool accepted errors and in the conditions imposed to the time of cooling between the

temperatures of austenite and martensite quenching transformations, (for the case of low alloyed steel welding).

Keywords: Welded pool geometry, Heat flow, Processes Parameters.

Introduction.

The determination of the principal welding parameters and the capability of control and adjustment of them

is one of the priorities of the welding technology. The success of uses the robots in the most various

problems of welding consist in the mode of solving this problems for guaranty the quality of the welded

joints. For the conception of a them algorithm the control of the welding equipment and the welding speed

can be solved bay established the objective function. In these paper on consider that the quality of the

welded joints is depending only of the thermal history of them, in two cases:

1 - The welding of materials with low quenching.

2 - The welding of materials width quenching.

The algorithm adopted is based on two stages:

a - Determining of the welding parameters in the presence of the process disturbances

b - Established the action on the welding equipment for obtaining the joints quality.

This paper, considers the solution of the first problem in terms of the temperature field stabilization, and

determine the disturbance from the needed temperatures and the real temperature. Then is possible to

established the instant welding parameters that can minimize this difference.

1. Statement of problem.

The objective function can be determinate by imposing that the difference between the instant temperature

in a number of control points n (Τ

i

*) from one three-dimensional rectangular domain D, and the

technological temperatures imposed in this points ( Τ

i

) to be minimum.

( ) n i T T f

i i t t Z i

,.., 1

* 2

) ), ( (

· − · (1a)

then we can consider the condition of minimum as:

∑

· ·

i

t t Z i t t Z

n i f F ,.., 1 ) min(

2

) ), ( (

2

) ), ( (

(1.b)

were:

i - Represent the index of current control point

Z(t) - Represent the vector of the variation in time of the difference

t - Represent the current time

CIFMA03 – IFCAM03, 21-23 Avril/April 2008 Design, Reliability and Optimization

The established of the thermal field is under the following constraint in the form of non-linear differential

equation. If the phase’s modifications process in the heating and cooling of the domain D is considered then

the equation and the limits conditions are represented in the well known equations.

The welding by fusion is an important manufacturing technique that is using more and more frequent in the

modern manufacturing of various areas. In the last decade, the knowledge about fusion welding processes

has attained the level of maturity that imposes a special attention. The physical processes that take place

during fusion welding, are in the field of Magneto Hydro Dynamics for the Shield Arc Modeling and in the

area of heat transfer, melting, Marangoni convection, electromagnetic and buoyancy forces for the welded

pool in the fluid state. The primary solidification and solid-state transformations give the properties of the

weldment and finally the properties of all the structure. In the actual approach, the models of establishing the

weldments characteristics are appear well documented in papers [1],[6]. Microstructure and macrostructure

of the weldments, which determines the mechanical properties of the welded structure, is understood in terms

of microstructure and phase formation as a function of processing parameters.[8]. Several computational

studies have also successfully shown insights into the physical processes that occur during welding.[1],[6].

Convection in the weld pool is recognized as one of the important processes that determine weld pool

characteristics such as size and shape.[1][2][5]. Recent advances in manufacturing industry require the

powerful welded sources that drive to complexes welded pool geometry, and the estimation made with

classical computation [1, 2] give errors not only for dissimilar metals and alloys joined but even for similar

joins. The studies in the area of that type of sources are limited. That new shape is known in literature as

keyholes and his mathematical estimation with classical methods give errors unacceptable. Studies of those

types of sources are made in the last time using numerical methods. The analyze of that type of sources need

the consideration of heat and fluid flows to get the temperature and speed gradients in the fusion and

solidification areas. Other aspects of that phenomenon consist in the droplet input of added metal/alloy in the

welded pool and in chemical differences between droplet and base material. The Marangoni condition takes

a great complexity, given by gradients of temperature and concentration too. In the current paper, we use

matrix-distributed point sources to establish the heat flow and give the key-hole formation. The heat flow is

given in a three-dimensional approach and the temperature field obtained in the melt is used to establish the

heat and fluid advection. In addition with a Gaussian distribution of arc pressure and shield gazes pressure on

the face of the free surface. The pressures of arc and gazes are considerate stationary and have not variations

in the process analyzing. The experimental verification made based on various welded joins give rice to

consider that this approach of the complex process is in agreement with the model proposed. The speeds and

concentrations maps in the beginning of the solid interface are not yet experimental established.

2. Numerical Analysis.

Figure 1 shows the model for the present study. The inlet position is located at welding arc point in the

section where the droplets arrive in the welded melt pool. The staggered grid is adopted in the finite volume

approach, which forms the basis of the MAC method.

a) b) c)

Figure 1. The geometry and limits conditions of the simulation’s process.

a) The aspect of the welded pool, b) the transversal key-hole shape, c) geometrical distribution of the point sources.

2.1. Governing Equations.

a) The liquid phase equations.

To analyze the fluid flow and thermal characteristics of molten metal in the welded pool formed process, are

following the hypothesis:

l) The flow is 2-D, incompressible, and laminar.

2) Each thermal property of molten metal is constant.

CIFMA03 – IFCAM03, 21-23 Avril/April 2008 Design, Reliability and Optimization

3) The heat dissipation and the turbulent indices are calculated only in the fluid control volume.

Then the general differential equation for conservative lows can be give as followings.

( )

( )

S

x x x x x

v

x

v

t

j j i i j

j

i

i

+

,

_

¸

¸

∂

∂

Γ

∂

∂

+

,

_

¸

¸

∂

∂

Γ

∂

∂

·

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+

∂

∂ φ φ

φ

φ φ

(2a)

The definitions of the letters, φ, Γ and S are done in the table 1.

Table 1.

Φ Γ S

Continuity 1 0 0

Moment

v

i

velocity on x

i

direction

µ

i i

mx x

i

f g

x

+ +

∂

∂

−

f

v

j

velocity on x

j

direction

µ

j j

mx x

j

f g

x

+ +

∂

∂

−

f

Energy T

temperature

c ⋅ ?

?

q&

The f

mx

represent the electromagnetic acceleration induced by the electric arc and the ascension buoyancy

forces and in the analysis are induced by the arc pressure term:

( )

m b

T T g B J F − − × · ?ß and ( )

,

_

¸

¸

− ·

2

2

2 2

2

0

2

exp

4

,

j j

arc

r I

y x p

s s p

µ

(2b,c)

The phase fraction f

s

is considerate as temperature function according the expression:

( )

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

'

¹

≥

< <

−

−

≤

·

1

1

1

, 1

,

, 0

T T if

T T T if

T T

T T

T T if

T f

s

s

s

s

(3)

b) The solid state phase governing equation.

In the solid parts of the joint, the heat flow governing equation considerate is:

s

s

s i

L

t

f

z

T

y

T

x

T

Q

t

T

C

∂

∂

+

,

_

¸

¸

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+ ·

∂

∂

∑

? ? ?

2

2

2

2

2

2

(4)

2.2. Boundary Conditions.

Heating and cooling is supposed to arise by convection and radiations on the entire internal and external

boundary. For fluid flow analysis either the slip wall condition or the no-slip wall condition is adopted [9,19]

according to the size of a cell and the magnitude of velocity. It's because, only when the width or the height

of a cell is small enough considering low velocity and high viscosity, no-slip wall condition gives reasonable

fluid motion. When the alloy is melted, the convection coefficient between melt and solid boundary alloy is

calculate based on Re

x

and Pr numbers by solving with modified Cellular Automata Method the fluid flow

and heat flows system of equations in the neighboring of the surface.

x

u

y

u

x

T

y

T

v u

∂

∂

>>

∂

∂

∂

∂

>>

∂

∂

>> ; ; can

CIFMA03 – IFCAM03, 21-23 Avril/April 2008 Design, Reliability and Optimization

be write in the next table and the convection coefficients expression for VFM can be calculated aimed of

Nusselt number.

2.3. Free Surface and Phase Change.

On free surface, the sum of tangential stresses must be zero and the sum of normal stresses must be equal to

the applied stresses or pressures. So, the tangential and the normal stress condition are applied on free

surface [9,10] as followings:

Tangential stress condition:

t

T

x

v

m n

x

v

x

v

m n m n

x

v

m n

T

j

j

x x

i

j

j

i

x x x x

i

i

x x

i j i j j i j i

∂

∂

·

1

1

]

1

¸

∂

∂

+

,

_

¸

¸

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+ +

∂

∂

γ µ 2 ) ( 2 (11)

Normal stress condition:

a

j

j

x x

i

j

j

i

x x

i

i

x x

x

v

m n

x

v

x

x

n n

x

v

m n

j j j i i i

ϕ µ ·

1

1

]

1

¸

∂

∂

+

,

_

¸

¸

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

2 (12)

Where v

i

, v

j

are the x

i

, x

j

component of velocity and m, n are the unit vectors which refer to the local

tangential and normal direction of the surface. The definition of ϕ follows the expression, that is, ϕ

a

=

(p

ext

)/ρ + γ

Τ

/R

m

, while µ represents kinematics viscosity, γ

Τ

is the surface tension function of temperature, p

ext

is the pressure of welding arc in the area of contact between arc and welded pool and the protection gas

pressure for the rest of surface pool geometry and R

m

the mean radius of the free surface.

2.4. Weld Pool Shape Estimation from Initial heat flow conditions.

The heat source model is bas on the Myhr–Grong method [1],[5]. The heat source is divided in many

horizontal and vertical points sources that are included in the welded area. This method makes possible the

modeling of different welded geometry (like key-hole) without using the heat flux distribution. The establish

of the points heat sources, in agreement with the welded pool geometry coordinates, consist in mathematical

shape, in the solving of the optimization problem.

Minimom ) I U q (

S a

nP

1 s

s

⋅ + −∑

·

(13)

With conditions:

Mass 0

~

~

~

~

·

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

y

v

x

u

(5)

x- momentum

2

2

2

2

~

~

Re

1

~

~

~

~

~

~

~

~

y

u

y

u

u L y

v

v

x

u

u

L

∂

∂

⋅ ·

∂

∂

⋅

⋅

·

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

∞

µ

(6)

Heat

y

T

y

T

v

x

T

u

L

~

~

Pr Re

1

~

~

~

~

~

~

2

∂

∂

⋅

⋅

·

∂

∂

+

∂

∂

(7)

Solution

shape:

L

Nus

h

f x

x

λ ⋅

· (8)

for melt-sand interface the solution of the system

have shape function:

n

L

m

x

a Nus Re Pr ⋅ ⋅ · (9)

for melt-solidified alloy the shape function is:

( )

2

1 1

1 1

1

Pr Re Pr

m n

L

m

x

c b a Nus ⋅ + − ⋅ · (10)

CIFMA03 – IFCAM03, 21-23 Avril/April 2008 Design, Reliability and Optimization

0 ≥

i

q (14a)

impus

is

s

is

T T ≤

∑

(14b)

S a

s

s

I U q η ≤

∑

(14c)

Where:

[ ]

pus

PN Pi P

us

P

T T T T

Im

1

Im

... ... · - The value of temperature at weld boundary.

[ ]

T

i i i

z y x Pi · -The coordonates of boundary points.

[ ]

T

S S S s

z y x S · -The coordonates vector of source points:

[ ]

nP S S

q q q Q ... ...

1

· -The unknown vector of sources point intensity:

Cis

q

T

nP

s

s pus

is ∑

·

·

1

Im

2πλ

-The expresion of the imposed boundary points.

∑ ∑

∞

−∞ ·

⋅

−

⋅

−

·

⋅ ·

i

a

R V

i

a

x V

nP

s

i S

S

ext

e

R

e Cis

2

2

1

1

- For sources points on the sourface, q

H

1

1

]

1

¸

+ ·

∑ ∑ ∑

∞

−∞ ·

∞

−∞ ·

⋅

−

⋅

−

⋅

−

· j k

a

R V

k

a

R V

j

a

x V

nP

s

k S j S

S

e

R

e

R

e Cis

2 2

2

1

1 1

i nt

- For point sources inner, q

V

In the figure (1b) and (1c) is presented the heat source model from a key-hole shape welded pool.

2.5. Cell Automata Model.

Based on the 2D analysis in xOz (longitudinal) and yOz (transversal) sections of the welded pool the

geometry of the free surface is create at every time step of 2D analysis. The results of that work are used in

the 2D Lattice Boltzmann Models with a constant distribution of speed for evaluate the value of collision

forces between the particles on each direction. Those values are used extrapolated in the 3D Lattice

Boltzmann model.

2.6. Results of Finite Volume Model.

In the Figure 2, the fluid flow speed obtained by the model is presented in the plane xOz of the welded pool.

The heat generated by the viscous effect of flow and the function for estimate the turbulence of flow are

presented. In the Figure 3, the heat flow aspect in the section yOz is presented and the heat flow in the case

of 3D welded model is presented.

a) b) c)

Figure 2. The sectional fluid flow characteristics. a) Vx, b) Vz, c) Heat dissipated by viscous flow.

CIFMA03 – IFCAM03, 21-23 Avril/April 2008 Design, Reliability and Optimization

a) b) c) d)

e) f) g)

Figure 3. The heat flow aspect in the 2D yOz section and in the 3D welded pool.

a) Vy, b) Vz, c) Stream, d) Turbulence factor in the fluid cells, e) Heat generate by viscous flow in fluid, f) Temperature

distribution in welded joint section, g) Heat distribution after the arc pressure apply.

2.7. Considerations about the optimization method.

If on imposed that at time t

0

the value of the disturbed between Τ

i

* and Τ

i

to be minimum ( min[ F

2

(Z(t),t)

] )

on obtain the function of the welding parameters Z

0

(t) that represent the solution of the problem for the time

t

0

. If on consider for Z(t) a function of the power of welding arc P and the welding speed Vs

x

, Vs

y

and Vs

z

then we can writhe Z(t) = Z(P,Vs

x

,Vs

y

,Vs

z

). If the welding joint are linear and oriented after the local axle

Ox, then

Vs

x

= Vs and Vs

y

= 0 and Vs

z

= 0.

On consider an time interval { t

j

, t

j+1

} ∈ {t

0

, t

f

} one process disturbed like:

max

0

S S

V V

j

≤ ≤ (15)

max

0 P P

j

≤ ≤ (16)

Then whit the new value Vs

j

and P

j

the thermal field equation and his conditions of limit solved for the time

interval t

j

, t

j+1

will generate the new solution T

j+1

and then with the minim condition Σ(T

j+1

*

- q

j+1

)

2

for all

the control field point generate the new function of process parameters Z

j+1

(t

j+1

) = Z

j

(P

j+1

,Vs

j+1

). We

determine the new theoretical process parameters. For a little time interval the heat field equation can be

linear, the temperature of time t

j+1

can be write as a function of temperature of time t

j

:

max 0

1

1 1 ) , , , (

P

j

P

j t z y x

T T T

j

+ +

⋅ + ·

+

a (17)

where:

Τ

Po

j+1

- is the vector of the temperature of control points when P

j+1

= 0 and T

0

= T(x,y,z,t

j

)

Τ

Pmax

j+1

- is the vector of the temperature of control points when P

j+1

= Pmax and T

0

= T(x,y,z,t

j

)

CIFMA03 – IFCAM03, 21-23 Avril/April 2008 Design, Reliability and Optimization

α - represent the rapport P

j+1

/P

j

The welding speed must be considered constant (Vs = ct).

If the welding speed is not constant then we can approximate the Τ

Po

j+1

by the relation:

( ) ( )

x

T

t t V V T T

j j S S

P

j

P

j

j j

∂

∂

⋅ − ⋅ − + ·

+ +

+

1 1

1

0 0

(18)

Wen (t

j+1

- t

j

) → 0 we can consider that Τ

Pmax

j

= T

Pmax

j+1

and the value of the temperature in the control

points becomes:

max

1

0

) ( ) (

1

P

j j j S S

P

j

T

x

T

t t V V T T

j j

⋅ +

∂

∂

− ⋅ − + ·

+

+

a (19)

The optimum condition becomes:

( ) ( )

∑

1

]

1

¸

− ⋅ +

∂

∂

− ⋅ − + ·

+

+

i

j

P

j j j j S S

P

j t t Z i

T T

x

T

t t V V T F

j j

2 * 2

1

2

) ), ( (

) ( ) (

max

1

0

a (20)

And the solution can be obtained by the system of equations:

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

·

−

·

+

−

−

+

+

0

) ( ?

?

0

?

?

1

) ), ((

), ((

1

1

j j

Vs Vs

j

Vs Vs

Vs Vs

F

F

k j j

j j j

a

a

a

(21.1; 21.2)

In this whey it can be imposed in same time the temperature needed at every moment t

j

in the control points

and the welding parameters in the limits of the welding equipment.

4. Conclusions.

The paper develops an algorithm for solving the fluid and heat flow with FVM to analyze most general

welding process.

1. The algorithm consists in solving the heat flow induced by a multipoint approximation of the weld arc

sources. The aim of that multipoint approximation consist in generate a welded pool shape and temperature

distribution most closely with the reality. Based on the free boundary known aspect and the fluid momentum

known in that two sectionals, an Cellular Automata Method was used to generate the 3D analyze of the weld.

2. The results based on considering the proposed method can be more reasonable than the results of

conventional analysis based on approximation of temperature based on models of semi-infinite body or

infinite plate, or in the approximation of heat fluxes based on analyze of MHD physics of the welded arc

sources.

3. The problem of control welding parameters can be write as a function of the welding arc intensity.

4. The welding speed can be corrective only by a direct control of the welding robot.

5. References.

[1] O. Grong. Metallurgical Modelling of Welding. Second Edition. The Institute of Materials . 1994.

[2] H.S. Carslaw and J.C. Jaeger: Conduction of Heat in Solids; 1959, Oxford, Oxford University Press.

[3] R. Hultgren, R.L. Orr, RD. Anderson and K.K. Kelly: Selected Values of Thermodynamic Properties of Metals and

Alloys; 1963, New York, J. Wiley & Sons.

[4] N.N. Rykalin, A.I. Pugin and V.A. Vasil'eva: Weld. Prod., 1959, 6, 42-52.

[5] O.R. Myhr and 0. Grong: Acta Metall. Mater., 1990, 38, 449-460.

CIFMA03 – IFCAM03, 21-23 Avril/April 2008 Design, Reliability and Optimization

[6] N. Christensen: Welding Metallurgy Compendium, 1985, University of Trondheim, The Norwegian Institute of

Technology.

[7] CE. Jackson: Weld. J., 1960, 39, 226s-230s.

[8] O.M. Akselsen and G. Sagmo: Technical Report STF34 A89147, 1989, Trondheim (Norway),

[9] A. A. Amsdenand F. H. Harlow: Report L.A. 4370, Los Alamos Scientific Lab., (1970).

[10] B. D. Nichols and C. W. Hirt : J. Computational Physics, 8 (197 l), 434.

[11] B. D. Nichols, C. W. Hirt and R. S. Hotchkiss: Tech. Report L.A. 8355, Los Alamos Scientific Lab., (1980).

[12] M. Heinlein. S. Mukherjee, and O. Richmond: Acta Mech., 59 (1986), 59.

[13] N. Zabaras, Y. Ruan, and O, Richmond: J. Appl. Mech., 58 (1991), 865..6)

[14] B. H. Kangand Y. Jaluria : J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer, 7 (1 993), No. 1, 139.

[15] M. J. M. Krane and F. P. Incropera: ASME, HDT Vol.284/AMD-Vol.182 (1994), 13.

[16] J. Lee and K. Y. Hwang: Int. J. Eng. Sci., 34, (1996), No. 8, 901.

[17] J. LeeandK. Y. Hwang:J. Mater. Process. Technol., 57 (1 996), 85.

[18] S. V. Patankar: Numerical Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow, McGraw-Hill, New York, (1980), 79.

[19] A. F. Mills : Basic Heat and Mass Transfer, IRWIN, Concord, (1995), 22.

[20] Mizika, E. A.: Trans. ASME,239 (1967), 1747.

[21] Jin-hoo Lee, Jin-hoo Mok, C.P. Hong.: Straightforward Numerical Analysis of Casting Process In a Rectangular

Mold: From Filling to Solidification. ISIJ International, Vol 38, (1999).

CIFMA03 – IFCAM03, 21-23 Avril/April 2008 Design, Reliability and Optimization

The optimization of the welded spatial structures concerning structure and

technological optimization.

Dr. Eng. Ioan Sorin Leoveanu*, Prof. Dr. Eng. Gheorghe Zgura**

*Transilvania University Brasov, Romania, leoveanui@yahoo.co.uk

**Polytechnical University Bucharest, Romania, ghzgura@yahoo.com

Abstract: The method proposed is developed for the optimization of the 2D and 3D welded beam structures. The

elements of the structures can bee welded or la minate profiles. The method is based on the linearization simplex

method, according of the variant proposed by L.B.L. Karihaloo. In the case of welded profiles, the establish of welded

optimum parameters was based on a first approximation inverse problem in established the welded equivalent loading.

In this case is possible to optimize the welded technology and the structure for more complex loading and

comportments. The method can be used to establish the deflections of the welded structures, too, or for optimization of

welded technology and establishing the optimum welded layers in the joints or even optimum welded joints successions

and positions. The results of the method was checked using FEM software and in experimental measurements on

structure elements and optimized structures.

Keywords: Finite elements, equivalent forces, welded process, optimum parameters.

1. Introduction.

The dates analyzed method is use for obtain the expression of development of a powerful method able to be

use in the optimization method of welded structure based on beam. [5],[6].

In this but we propose to use an equivalent force that may give the deformations of welded girders in

agreement with the welded process and technology. In this way the equivalent force have the general

expression:

l

US S

b m S S S

k k k A p F ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ·

/

1

? (1)

where:

p

S

-The equivalent pressure of the welding process.

A

S

-The area of welded joint.

k

m

-The correction coefficient based on the number of layers and can be calculate with any

relation from the table 2.

k

S/US

b1

-The correction coefficient for fillet weld joints, symmetrical and unsymmetrical welded.

k

l

-The correction coefficient for welded not continues bead.

ψ -The correction coefficient with the degree of deformation.

2 , 0

06525 , 15 407 , 1868 318 , 5731

p e S

R d p ⋅ + ⋅ + − · (2)

where:

d

e

-electrode wire diameter

R

p0.2

-yield strength of base material

n -number of layers

t

i

-thickness of vertical plate

t

t

-thickness of horizontal plate

l

S

-length of welded bead

l

i

-length of stopped bead

I

Z1

-momentum of inertia for first sub-structure

I

Z2

-momentum of inertia for second sub-structure

Y

S

-distance from weigh point of structure’s geometry to the weld

And the expressions of unknowns are:

CIFMA03 – IFCAM03, 21-23 Avril/April 2008 Design, Reliability and Optimization

3 13 , 2

71 , 0

1

n

n k

m

≡ ·

−

(3)

3 13 , 2

*

3 13 , 2

1

3 13 , 2

*

3 13 , 2

1

1

) 2 (

60

6 , 1

1

) 2 (

60

) 2 (

01 , 0

0 , 1

n

t t

A

t t

when

n

k

And

n

t t

A

t t

when

A

t t t

n

k

t i

S

i i

b

S

t i

S

i i

S

t i i

b

S

+

· >

·

+

· ≤

+

+ ·

3 13 , 2

*

3 13 , 2

1

3 13 , 2

*

3 13 , 2

1

1

) 2 (

60

5 , 2

1

) 2 (

60

) 2 (

015 , 0

6 , 1

n

t t

A

t t

when

n

k

And

n

t t

A

t t

when

A

t t t

n

k

t i

S

i i

b

US

t i

S

i i

S

t i i

b

US

+

· >

·

+

· ≤

+

+ ·

i S

S

i

l l

l

k

+

· (4)

Y Z

S Z Z

Y I

Y I I ) (

2 1

+

· ψ (5)

Table 1. Regressions obtained from specimens with maximum 20 layers.

Regression law proposed. Law coefficients. Correction

coefficients.

Standard error.

1 c n

m

n b a k ⋅ ⋅ ·

a = 1,0004521

b = 0,99963052

0,9999 0,0002252

The figure 1 present the sectional structure geometry and welded beam type used to statistical analyze of the

free principal deflections.

Figure 1. a) The geometry of the butt weld type used to establish the expression of “Tendon Force”. b) The geometry of

fillet weld and the symmetry of welded layers deposition.

CIFMA03 – IFCAM03, 21-23 Avril/April 2008 Design, Reliability and Optimization

2. Simulation of the heat-flow-metallurgical model, was made from the submerged arc welding model,

Figure 2. The joining geometry and layers topology.

Figure 3. The macrostructure of welded section.

Figure 4. The HAZ geometry of the joining.

Table 2. Ghemichal compozition of the Bas Metal and Layers.

ID C

[%]

Mn

[%]

Si

[%]

Al

[%]

S

[%]

P

[%]

MB.

OL52.5kf

0,18 1,39 0.37 0.052 0.011 0.022

Layer 1 0,073 1,57 0,39 0,062 0,009 0,015

Layer 2 0,060 1,59 0,41 0,063 0,007 0,012

Layer 3 0,048 1,62 0,42 0,064 0,006 0,01

Layer 4 0,037 1,64 0,43 0,065 0,0067 0,01

Layer 5 0,032 1,7 0,43 0,066 0,0068 0,0087

Layer 6 0,026 1,7 0,44 0,0,66 0,0064 0,009

Layer 7 0,026 1,73 0,44 0,067 0,0065 0,01

Layer 8 0,024 1,73 0,44 0,068 0,0062 0,0086

Layer 9 0,024 1,78 0,44 0,068 0,0065 0,008

Layer 10 0,022 1,78 0,44 0,068 0,0059 0,0085

Layer 11 0,022 1,8 0,45 0,069 0,0057 0,0086

Layer 12 0,019 1,79 0,45 0,069 0,0053 0,0085

Layer 13 0,019 1,81 0,45 0,07 0,0049 0,0087

Layer 14 0,017 1,8 0,46 0,071 0,0047 0,0084

Layer 15 0,017 1,82 0,46 0,073 0,0046 0,0083

Layer 16 0,012 1,86 0,47 0,073 0,0046 0,0085

CIFMA03 – IFCAM03, 21-23 Avril/April 2008 Design, Reliability and Optimization

Layer 1.

Layer 2.

The transverse stresses after second layer.

Layer 3.

Zoom on layer 3.

Layer 4.

Zoom on layer 4.

Layer 5.

Zoom on layer 5.

Layer 6.

Zoom on layer 6.

Layer 7.

Zoom on layer 7.

CIFMA03 – IFCAM03, 21-23 Avril/April 2008 Design, Reliability and Optimization

Layer 8.

Zoom on layer 8

Layer 9.

Zoom on layer 9

Layer 10.

Zoom on layer 10.

Layer 11.

Zoom on layer 11.

Layer 12.

Zoom on layer 12.

Layer 13.

Zoom on layer 13.

CIFMA03 – IFCAM03, 21-23 Avril/April 2008 Design, Reliability and Optimization

Layer 14.

Zoom on layer 14.

Layer 15.

Zoom on layer 15.

Layer 16.

Zoom on layer 16.

Figure 5. Compare between the residual transversal stresses obtained by FEM modelling, the experimental equivalent

loads modelling and the RX measurement on the exterior faces of welded joint. The

3. Cases analyzed of beams loading.

The opimization of a welding structure are possible when is considered all the factors that influence this

structure. This factors can bee divided in :

a) design variables, that include the section area of each element of structure and the inertia moments of the

section, variables that are freqventlly used in the optimization with the MEF methode.

CIFMA03 – IFCAM03, 21-23 Avril/April 2008 Design, Reliability and Optimization

b) technological design variables, that include the equivalent loaded, and from somme casses are presented

in the introduction of this work. In this case this variables can appear like independents casses of loads.

c) conditional works variables, that include currently the deflections and deformation maximals or the

maximum accepted stress values of each element of structure or in somme sections. In this case, on

conssider that it can be profitable to consider the ultimate energy absorbed by the structure.

Because the problem can be very complex, in this paper it is cosidered only the case of beams structures,

where the beam section are obtined with welded joining elements.

The optimization method consist in the liniarisation of the structure nodes equilibrum equation, in condition

of utilization of all the loading cases, work and technologic.

The defformations beam method are used to determine the nodal equilibrum equations, so it can be write for

one element:

[ ] { } { }

e e e

F u k · ′ Or

e

j

i

e

j

i

e

jj ji

ij ii

F

F

u

u

k k

k k

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

¹

'

¹

′

′

·

¹

¹

¹

;

¹

¹

¹

¹

'

¹

′

′

1

]

1

¸

(6)

where:

k

ii

, k

ij

, k

jj

, k

ji

– are matrix 6x6

u

i

; u

j

– are vectors of nodal deformations

F

i

; F

j

– the nodal external loads.

The e index is the current element number, and the “’” represent the privat axis system of the element.

The equilibrum equation of the beam element can be write as:

[ ] { } [ ] { } { }

A

B B

A

e

ij B e ii

P u k u k

i i

· +

∑ ∑

(7)

[ ] { } [ ] { } { }

B

A A

B

e

jj A

e

ji

P u k u k

i i

· +

∑ ∑

where A,B are the nods of the element, and the matrix and vectors are transformate in the structures global

coordinates system. The assambly of all the nodal equation of the structure give the systhem of deformations

ecuation of the structure. Solving this systhem from each condition load are the most usual wei to obtine

information about the optimality of the designed structure. If are introduced the design variables, that are the

geometrical caracteristics of elements {x

0

e

}= {A

e

, I

ze

, I

ye

, I

xye

} the problem of the optimum geometrical

caracteristics can be solved from evry loading case, so, the case wheh are used the technological loaded in

addition to the work loaded cases. Using the design variables, the equilibrus equations becomes nonlinear,

the search of linear approximation can be make using the Taylor series method, from a initial solution { }

0

x

to obtine the next optimum solutions { }

k

x . The matematical model of optimization, in the condition of

minimum weight structure becam:

To be minimizated the fonction:

( ) n j X z

j

, ... , 2 , 1 ; · (8)

with restrictions:

( ) m i X g

j i

, ... , 2 , 1 ; 0 · ·

∑

(9)

and

j j j

U X L ≤ ≤ (10)

where:

X

j

– The design and technological variables;

Z(X

j

) – The minimum scop function, initial the wheight of all the element;

g

i

(x

j

) – The equilibrus equations systhem of the nods;

L

j

– The loweres accepted values from the variables;

Uj

– The upperes acceptates values from the design variables;

CIFMA03 – IFCAM03, 21-23 Avril/April 2008 Design, Reliability and Optimization

Using the first derivativ from the Taylor series, arround the current solution {x

k

}it can be obtined the

liniarizated problem:

( )

( )

( )

∑

·

+

−

∂

∂

+

n

j

k

j

k

j

j

k

j k

j

x x

x

x z

x Z

1

1

(11)

with the linear conditions:

( )

( ) m i x x

x

x g

k

j

k

j

n

j

k

j

k

j i

, ... , 2 , 1 ; 0

1

1

· · −

∂

∂

+

·

∑

(12)

and

j j j

U X L ≤ ≤ (13)

So, the conditions equations becomes linear equation:

m n m i b x a

i j ii

≥ · ·

∑

..., , 2 , 1 (14)

where c

i

, a

ij

, b

i

are constant coefficients, obtined in the processus of the assambly of liniarizated nodal

equation for each element of the structure.

After determination the vectors and matrices used to establish the linearization algorithm, the method was

used to design a strong loaded welded structure, with a relative simple geometry, and low number of beam

elements. The geometry and experimental loads are done in Figure 2.

Figure 2. The geometry and finite element topology of the tested structure.

The method was used to the design of a protection ROSP&FOPS welded structures from a Bulldozer width

600HP power. The load condition is based on the minimum horizontal force and a minimum energy that the

structure must absorbed before the crack. The values of them can be establish using the ISO3471-79 norms

with the relations:

CIFMA03 – IFCAM03, 21-23 Avril/April 2008 Design, Reliability and Optimization

daN M F

n Deformatio Horizontal after Load Vertical

J E

N F

Weight s Bulldoser Kg M

Where

M

E

M

F

V

000 . 164 2

.

389 . 180

328 . 874

' 82000

:

10000

13000

10000

70000

min

min

25 , 1

min

2 , 1

min

· ⋅ ·

·

·

·

1

]

1

¸

⋅ ·

1

]

1

¸

⋅ ·

(18)

Table 2. The technological loads analyzed.

Welding

technology

considered

Nr. of

layers.

Layer’s

Area

[mm

2

]

Correct

Coefficien

t Kn

Equivalent

welded load

from pressure

ps1.

[10,8KN/mm

2

]

Equivalent Load from

pressure ps2

[9,6KN/mm

2

]

Equivalent

load from

ps3 [10

KN/mm

2

]

Area

[mm

2

]

Weld

Proc.

1 7 50 0,2733 1032,9 918,206 956,5 350 S.E.fpf

2 8 45 0,25 972 864 900 360 S.E.fpf

3 9 40 0,23112 898,6 798,75 832,5 360 S.E.fpf

4 10 35 0,21544 814,37 732,89 754,052 350 S.E.fpf

5 11 32 0,20218 764,24 679,32 707,63 352 S.E.fpf

6 12 29 0,190785 721,2 641,04 667,75 348 S.E.fpf

7* 20 17,5 0,13572 353,42 370,518 380,018 350 MAG

• In the MAGShortArc (MAGsha) the equivalent pressures are considerate to 7,44; 7,8; 8 KN/ mm

2

.

The welding optimization technology, using the proposed method, was giving the successful try from an area

of welded layer approximately 18 mm

2

. The result of this welded variant structure is given in the Figure 9,

and the aspect of the structure after the Horizontal try in the Figure 10.

Figure 10. The Force-Deformation structure diagram from the welded variant number 7 technology.

4. Conclusions.

The process of optimization welded structures, from assuring the maximum load capacity in the staticaly case, is a

complex process. Only the optimization of the dimensions of the sectional geometrical characteristics of the part of the

structure can mot assure the success of the work. The uses of the additional system of loads, which are given from the

welding technology, make the design process more appropriate from the optimum solution. The minimum weight, that

are the most needed criteria from the designers, in the condition of maximum energy absorbed from the structure are not

coincident with the minimum price structure.

CIFMA03 – IFCAM03, 21-23 Avril/April 2008 Design, Reliability and Optimization

Bibliography

1. Myhr O.,R and Grong O. Acta Metall. Mater. 1990, 38, 449-460

2. O. Grong. Metallurgical Modelling of Welding. The Institute of Materials

3.Leoveanu, I.S.,Zgura Gh. - Model de calcul cu elemente finite a matricii elasto-plastice în cazul ZITM a cordoanelor

de sudura. N.T.U.P.C., nr. VII. Pag. 301-307.

4.Leoveanu, I.S. - Determinarea fortelor exercitate de cordoanele de sudura asupra sectiunilor formate din bare

sudate. Revista AGIR 1998

5.Leoveanu, I.S., Iovanas R,. - Establishes of the Equivalent Longitudinal Forces products of the welded joints and use

them to the determination of the residual strains of the welded girders. Welding & Joining 2000 Conference, Tel Aviv.

Pag. 170-179

6.Leoveanu, I.S., Iovanas R,. - The optimization model from the design and technology of the welded beam structures,

in condition of maximum energy absorbed. Welding & Joining 2000 Conference, Tel Aviv, pag.180-191

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The papers consists in a successions of mathematical and statistical models used for optimization the simple welded structure, type ROPS/FOPS, for heavy machinery in the area of earth moving, parti...

The papers consists in a successions of mathematical and statistical models used for optimization the simple welded structure, type ROPS/FOPS, for heavy machinery in the area of earth moving, particularly designed for bulldozers in with 90-100 tons weight. The design and methods of optimizations was successfully developed, apply and validate. Some of the experimental validations are in the second paper. The papers was submitted, published and evaluated at Aleppo University, in the CIFMA03 Conference.

On this way i want to thank to the gentile collective of the Aleppo University for there kindness and good understanding. We want to help and kip them closely in that tragic moments. The papers was upload in the memory of Mister Professor Gheorghe Zgura. too.

On this way i want to thank to the gentile collective of the Aleppo University for there kindness and good understanding. We want to help and kip them closely in that tragic moments. The papers was upload in the memory of Mister Professor Gheorghe Zgura. too.

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