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System Owner of System

Constructs image of other through historical understandings perpetuated by poli;cs, war, media. Assumes other is inferior In the classroom this may look like - Teacher disinterest - Teacher racism - Low expecta;ons (As cited in case study) Demonstrates belief through educa;on policy and immigra;on policy which may limit par;cipa;on of the other. Uneasy with no;on of otherness, privilege posi;ons allows for choice white ight to private schooling. Perpetuates segrega;on. Binary opposi;on

Visitor to System
Other struggles to t in. Responds to teacher behaviour and constructs subjec;vity as non learner, not smart enough. Rela;onship with educa;on ins;tu;on and teacher breeds distrust and suspicion. System is not equal, Seeks own community, may set up own school ie independent school. Perpetuates segrega;on. May obtain ci;zenship but not a sense of belonging In the case of Indigenous Australians, ci;zenship by birthright but no sense of belonging or inclusion. Parents seen as ignorant and undervaluing educa;on. Limited support at home due to LOTE. Decit model. Band aid government policy assists minority students but does not provide an ongoing inclusive experience to create sense of belonging & produce ac;ve ci;zens.

Conict theory at work

Government policy introduces band aid solu;ons such as EAL/D and HSIE in curriculum and mul;cultural studies.

System provides subtle progress of privileged student. Families self-segregate for fear of domina;on by other. School choice is to control socializa;on. Privilege begets privilege.

System acts as barrier, maintains other at a safe distance. Australian Federal Government policy perpetuates dominant system through inequitable funding and resource distribu;on. Gonski report highlights inequity.

1960s-1970s end of white Australia policy and embrace of mul;culturalism. 1990s Kea;ng Government calls for a new Australian iden;ty. Post-structuralism at work to nego;ate otherness and alterna;ves to cultural iden;ty. Backlash to fear of loss of Anglo-Cel;c iden;ty, March 1996 John Howard elected as PM, in the same year Pauline Hanson gains seat in Parliament. Marked decline in mul;culturalism and return to Anglo privilege value and iden;ty.

- Racial division constructed by rise of science and enlightenment - Science as knowledge and classica;on prompts what Edward Said has termed Orientalism - West sees East as something to be observed, classied, taught, remediated, inferior - Demonstrated by Australian Colonialism and White Australia Policy - Breeds eli;st abtudes which have translated to Government policies resul;ng in inequitable distribu;on of resources as discussed by McKinley

Tait Chapter 3 and Edward Said

Abu El-Haj and Wesley Bonet
Case Study Mul:cultural Educa:on and racism: The case of Arab-Australian Students in contemporary Australia. Fethi Mansouri and Anna Trembath Students feel they are subject to racism at Blackwood High School Blackwood HS under resourced and underperforming enrolments steadily drop White Flight from school Students feel alienated, some feel they have a right to call themselves Aussie because they are born here, but s;ll feel Lebbo because of looks or dress Blackwood HS students developing of subjec;vity is related to being an outcast ci;zenship vs belonging Post 9/11 and imminent closure of school elicits racist remarks from white male journalist Andrew Bolt who states the school is an ethnic gheco full of violent Lebanese gangs. Conrms societys prejudice.

Ci;zenship vs Belonging

- Leads to a climate where nego;a;on and development of ci;zenship and belonging are limited - Prejudice acached to Muslim students impacts learning as well as ci;zenship and belonging. - Ho suggests that schools are micropublics where the everyday exchanges across cultural boundaries are signicant in developing ac;ve and par;cipa;ng ci;zens - El-Haj and Wesley Bonet ask how do young people then form a commitment to or feel alienated from ac;ve par;cipa;on when the micropublic of school is out of balance.

Inequitable Resources

- Self-segrega;on and covert Government segrega;on leads to non-diverse schooling environments

McKinley, Castagno and Maughan

- McKinley argues resources must be equitable but not necessarily distributed equally - Howard Government policy has allowed for unequal and inequitable funding leading to polariza;on of resources - Gonski Report states public schools should receive more funding

Unbalanced Micropublic
Dr.Chris;na Ho UTS Faculty of Arts and Social Science
- Chris;na Ho argues this inequity has resulted in White Flight. The self-segrega;on of Anglo-Cel;c families who prefer to send children to private schools. - This has resulted in Government schools being perceived as underperforming schools with large ethnic popula;ons. - This percep;on reconrms stereotypes about ethnicity and intelligence - However, Ho cites a twist in the plot. Sta;s;cs show that Selec;ve Government schools with high ethnic popula;ons are outperforming elite private schools.

Staff Training & Resources Provide pedagogical materials catering for the needs of culturally diverse students. Provide professional training that focuses on addressing teachers attitudes by improving their awareness of distinct cultures.

Curriculum Change Incorporate cultural perspectives, history and content within the relevant learning areas. Acknowledge, encourage and embrace students different learning styles by differentiating the curriculum/ pedagogical practices. School Environment & Policy Change Implement school policies and mission statements that foster cultural inclusion in consultation with students, parents and community members. Liaise with students and other stakeholders to identify the types of changes that can be brought in the school environment to reflect cultural diversity.

Extra-Curricular Activities Development of student-focused discussion groups within and across ethnic groups to explore diverse cultural issues. Arrange interactive guest lectures and workshops involving community members. Design creative outlets for students to develop and express their sense of identity.

Multidimensional Model of Multicultural Education

Community Involvement Parent Involvement Create non-English speaking background committees that are active in the school life. Encourage the use of community languages in communications from schools. Get students and teachers involved in the wider school community through information sessions. Make students aware of the communitys history Get students involved in research/ field work to form acquaintances with community members

(Adapted from Mansouri, F. (2005). Race, identity and education achievements among Arab-

Australian students. International Journal of Learning, 11, pp 1013-1024)