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WRITING EXPOSITORY ESSAYS Building on the knowledge of paragraph writing presented in the previous units, this is designed to teach

you how to write expository essays, covering such issues as essay organization, essay outlining, common patterns of essay organization and essay checklist. If you read carefully and do all of the practices and unit assignments thoughtfully, we guarantee that you will find the task of developing an expository essay much easier and that your writing will improve. 1. ESSAY ORGANIZATION 1.1. An Overview of Essay and Essay Organization As you have learned previously, a paragraph is a group of sentences about one topic and has three main structural parts: the topic sentence, supporting sentences (the body), and the concluding sentence. Similarly, an essay is a group of paragraphs about one topic and also has three main parts: the introduction, the body, and the conclusion. The following diagram shows that a paragraph and an essay have the same basic plan. Introductory Paragraph__ THE ESSAY General Statements THESIS STATEMENT TOPIC SENTENCE Supporting Sentences (Concluding Sentence) THE PARAGRAPH Topic Sentence TOPIC SENTENCE Body (Supporting Sentences) Concluding Sentence __ Body Paragraphs __ _ Supporting Sentences (Concluding Sentence) TOPIC SENTENCE Supporting Sentences (Concluding Sentence)

Concluding Paragraph___

CONCLUDING SENTENCE(S)

Final Thoughts Writing an essay is no more difficult than writing a paragraph, except that an essay is longer. The methods of organization and the supporting techniques are the same for both; so you can apply those methods and techniques you have learned in developing paragraphs into composing an essay. In this unit, we are concerned with the expository essay, that is, a piece of writing in which you are presenting information in response to a particular statement / question. The expository essay is perhaps the most common form of assessment exercise in schools, colleges and universities with its length varying from 500 to 3,000 words according to the requirements of each subject. 1.2. The Three Parts of an Essay As mentioned earlier, an essay consists of three major parts: the introductory paragraph, the body, and the concluding paragraph. E.g.: Read the following essay as a model of essay organization. THE COMPUTER REVOLUTION, PART I We live in the age of technology. Everyday, new technology appears, ranging from mini-CDs that contain entire encyclopedias to giant space telescopes that can send photographs of distant stars back to Earth. Of all the new technological wonders, personal computers have probably had the greatest influence on the daily lives of average people. Through computers, we can now talk to people in any country, research any topic: work, shop, bank, and entertain ourselves. Personal computers have especially revolutionized communication and business practices in the past twenty years. Perhaps the most important effect of personal computers has been to expand our ability to communicate with the outside world. A lonely invalid in Minnesota can talk with a similarly house-bound person in Mississippi. Schoolchildren in Manhattan can talk via computer to schoolchildren in Moscow. A high school student can obtain statistics for a history paper from a library in London. A single computer user can send an e-mail message to millions of people all over the world with one keystroke. Computer users can get together in an on-line chat room to discuss their interests and problems with others who have similar interests and problems. For example, a person whose hobby is collecting antique guns can share information with other gun collectors via computer. A person who is planning a vacation and wants to know the names of the best beaches in Hawaii can ask others who have already been there for suggestions. People

even start on-line romances in chat rooms! The possibilities of computerized communication are indeed unlimited. Besides improving communication, personal computers have made it possible to do business from home. You can take care of personal business. For example, you can buy airline tickets, send flowers to a friend, pay your bills, buy and sell stocks, and even pay your taxes from your home computer at any time of the day or night. This is a great convenience for people who are busy during the day and for physically disabled people who find it hard to leave their homes. Moreover, telecommuting working at home instead of going to the office has become a choice for thousands of business people. Suzanne Carreiro, a financial manager for a large company in downtown Manhattan, has telecommuted from her home in New Jersey for the past two years. She goes to her office only once a week. Four days a week, she works at home and communicates with her staff by computer. She says, I am much more productive when I work at home because there are no interruptions. I also dont have to spend three hours travelling to and from the office every day. I save myself time, and I save my company money by telecommuting. In brief, the computer age has arrived, and it is changing our lives. Computers have made communicating and doing business faster and more convenient, and they have greatly increased our access to information. Just as the invention of automobiles had an unplanned consequence the growth of suburbs so will the invention of personal computers. We will have to wait and see what these unintentional consequences will be. 1.2.1. The Introductory Paragraph The introductory paragraph is the first paragraph of the essay. It introduces the topic of the essay and arouses the readers interest. There are several ways to write an introductory paragraph. In this course, you will learn to write a funnel introductory paragraph, which consists of two parts: a few general statements about your subject to attract your readers attention and a thesis statement to state the specific subdivisions of your topic and/or the plan of your paper. General statements introduce the topic of the essay, and give the reader background information on the topic. They should lead your reader gradually from a very general idea of your topic to a very specific idea. In other words, the first general statement in a funnel introductory paragraph just introduces the topic. Like the lens of a camera moving in for a close-up picture, each subsequent sentence becomes more and more focused on a specific

topic, and finally leads into the thesis statement. There is no exact rule about the number of general statements you need; however, you should try to write at least three or four, and they should be interesting enough to hold the readers attention. It is permissible to sprinkle a few interesting details in the general statements in order to attract the readers interest. However, you should not give any details that belong in the body of the essay. The thesis statement for an essay is just like a topic sentence for a paragraph: it names the specific topic and the controlling ideas or major subdivisions of the topic that will be discussed in the body of the essay. Besides, it often indicates the method of organization such as chronological order, or order of importance. The Introductory paragraph has two parts: 1. General Statements 2. A Thesis Statement General Statements: 1. introduce the topic of the essay. 2. give background information on the topic The Thesis Statement: 1. states the main topic. 2. lists the subdivisions of the main topic. 3. may indicate the method of organization of the essay. E.g.: 4. is usually the last sentence in the introductory paragraph. Reread the introductory paragraph in the previous example about COMPUTER REVOLUTION, PART I. We live in the age of technology. Everyday, new technology appears, ranging from miniCDs that contain entire encyclopedias to giant space telescopes that can send photographs of distant stars back to Earth. Of all the new technological wonders, personal computers have probably had the greatest influence on the daily lives of average people. Through computers, we can now talk to people in any country, research any topic: work, shop, bank, and entertain ourselves. Personal computers have especially revolutionized communication and business practices in the past twenty years.

Notice how the sentences gradually move from the general topic of technology to the specific topic of two areas that have been changed by personal computer. This introductory paragraph is like a funnel: very wide at the top, increasingly narrow in the middle, and very small at the neck or bottom. The first two sentences introduce the general topic of technology. The mini-CDs and giant telescopes are mentioned to attract the readers interest. The next two sentences narrow the general topic of technology to the specific topic of personal computers. The details keep the reader interested without revealing the essay contents. The final sentence is the thesis statement. It names the two subtopics or specific areas changed by personal computers: communication and business. 1.2.2. The Body The body of the essay is made up of one or more paragraphs. Each of these paragraphs supports the thesis statement by developing a sub-division of the topic, so the number of paragraphs in the body will vary with the number of subdivisions. Besides, in each of the body paragraphs, there is a topic sentence, supporting sentences and sometimes a concluding sentence. The reader should be able to see that there is a logical progression throughout the body of the essay. A discriminating and economic use of connectives and transition signals within and between paragraphs can help provide this unity. Your reader should obtain a clear sense of how your paragraphs relate to one another, and to the subject and thesis of the essay. E.g. Read the two body paragraphs of the essay COMPUTER REVOLUTION, PART I. The topic sentence of each paragraph introduces an area that has been changed by personal computers. Then each topic sentence is followed by several sentences that give specific examples of the changes. Thesis statement Personal computers have especially revolutionized communication and business practices in the past twenty years. Perhaps the most important effect of personal computers has been to expand our ability to communicate with the outside world. A lonely invalid in Minnesota can talk with a similarly house-bound person in Mississippi. Schoolchildren in Manhattan can talk via computer to schoolchildren in Moscow. A high school student can obtain statistics for a history paper from a library in London. A single computer user can send an e-mail message to millions of people all over the world with one keystroke. Computer users can get together in an on-line chat room to discuss their interests and problems

with others who have similar interests and problems. For example, a person whose hobby is collecting antique guns can share information with other gun collectors via computer. A person who is planning a vacation and wants to know the names of the best beaches in Hawaii can ask others who have already been there for suggestions. People even start on-line romances in chat rooms! The possibilities of computerized communication are indeed unlimited. Besides improving communication, personal computers have made it possible to do business from home. You can take care of personal business. For example, you can buy airline tickets, send flowers to a friend, pay your bills, buy and sell stocks, and even pay your taxes from your home computer at any time of the day or night. This is a great convenience for people who are busy during the day and for physically disabled people who find it hard to leave their homes. Moreover, telecommuting working at home instead of going to the office has become a choice for thousands of business people. Suzanne Carreiro, a financial manager for a large company in downtown Manhattan, has telecommuted from her home in New Jersey for the past two years. She goes to her office only once a week. Four days a week, she works at home and communicates with her staff by computer. She says, I am much more productive when I work at home because there are no interruptions. I also dont have to spend three hours travelling to and from the office every day. I save myself time, and I save my company money by telecommuting.

1.2.3. The Concluding Paragraph The concluding paragraph is the last paragraph of the essay, in which you tell the reader that you have completed the essay. This is achieved by either writing a summary of the main points discussed in the body of the essay or by paraphrasing the thesis statement; i.e., rewriting the thesis statement in different words. Then you add your final comments on the subject food for thought. Since this is your last opportunity to make your point, you should write a strong, effective message that will be remembered. The concluding paragraph does three things: It signals the end of the essay. It summarizes the main points. It leaves the reader with the writers final thoughts on the subject.

The concluding paragraph consists of:

the concluding sentences and the final thoughts

The first part of the concluding paragraph concluding sentences summarizes the main point or repeats the thesis statement in different words. This may require one or more than one sentence. The first sentence of a concluding paragraph sometimes, but not always, begins with a conclusion transition signal such as In brief or In short. It is not always necessary to use a conclusion signal, and you should avoid the overused phrases In conclusion and In summary. E.g.: Thesis statement Personal computers have especially revolutionized communication and business practices in the past twenty years. Concluding sentences In brief, the computer age has arrived, and it is changing our lives. Computers have made communicating and doing business faster and more convenient, and they have greatly increased our access to information. In the second part of the concluding paragraph final thoughts you may write your final comments on the subject of your essay. This is where you express your opinion, make a judgement, or give a recommendation. However, do not add any new ideas in the conclusion because it is the end of your essay. Just comment on what you have already discussed. E.g.: Final thoughts Just as the invention of automobiles had an unplanned consequence the growth of suburbs so will the invention of personal computers. We will have to wait and see what these unintentional consequences will be. 2. ESSAY OUTLINING Outlining is an important step in the writing process because it helps you organize your ideas, write more quickly and improve your grammar. It is even more important to make an outline when you are planning an essay because an essay is longer and more complex, and you have many more ideas and details to organize. The rules and techniques that you have already learned for paragraph outlining can be applied to essays. The only additional element is the numbering of each paragraph with Roman

numerals. For example, in a five-paragraph essay, the introduction is paragraph I; the three paragraphs of the body are II, III, and IV; and the conclusion is paragraph V. Previously, you learned how to make simple and detailed outlines for a paragraph. Now lets expand your knowledge and learn how to make an outline for an essay. As you remember, a simple outline for a paragraph looks like this. Topic Sentence A. First Supporting Point B. Second Supporting Point C. Third Supporting Point etc. Concluding Sentence An outline for an essay looks like this: ESSAY OUTLINE I. Thesis Statement II. Topic Sentence A. First Supporting Point 1. Supporting Detail 2. Supporting Detail B. Second Supporting Point 1. Supporting Detail 2. Supporting Detail 3. Supporting Detail C. Third Supporting Point Supporting Detail (Concluding Sentence) III. Topic Sentence A. First Supporting Point Supporting Detail B. Second Supporting Point 1. Supporting Detail 2. Supporting Detail C. Third Supporting Point Supporting Detail (Concluding Sentence) (These are equal in importance & written in parallel form) (Concluding Sentence underlined) (Topic Sentence underlined)

IV. Topic Sentence A. Supporting Detail B. Supporting Detail C. Supporting Detail D. Supporting Detail (Concluding Sentence) V. Concluding sentences Final thoughts Notice these important points: - The topic sentence of each paragraph is given a Roman numeral (I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, X, etc.) - Each supporting point is given a capital letter (A, B, C, D, etc.). If there are no supporting point but only supporting details, then they are given capital letters as in IV of the preceding essay outline. - Each supporting detail is given an Arabic number (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, etc.) - Each time the outline moves from a Roman numeral to a capital letter to an Arabic number, the text is indented. Indenting makes it easy to see the movement from big to small, from main ideas to specific details. - Letters and numbers are used when there are two or more items in a group. In the essay outline, only one supporting detail is given under II.C and III.A and C, therefore, no numbers are given. However, the single supporting detail is indented in line with the other supporting details that are numbered. Note: An outline is only a guide to help you as you write your essay. It can be changed at any time; that is, you can make additions or deletions to your outline as you are writing. E.g.: Read the detailed outline below for the essay on The Advantages and Disadvantages of Living in the Twentieth Century. THE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF LIVING IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY I. Living in the twentieth century offers certain advantages, such as a higher standard of

living, but it also has some disadvantages, such as a polluted environment, the depersonalization of human relationships, and the weakening of spiritual values. II. The biggest advantage of living in the twentieth century is the high standard of living we enjoy. A. More money for less hard work 1. More office workers than manual labourers 2. Higher salaries 3. Increased government services a. Social security b. Unemployment benefits c. Disability insurance B. Longer life expectancy 1. Better medical care a. More hospitals, doctors, nurses b. Advances in medical technology 2. Improved nutrition 3. More leisure time C. Modern conveniences 1. Communication a. Telephones b. Radio and television 2. Labour-saving machines in the home a. Dishwashers b. Washing machines c. Vacuum cleaners 3. Faster transportation III. One of the main disadvantages of living in the twentieth century is that we are living in an increasingly polluted environment. A. Air pollution 1. Smog 2. Nuclear fallout B. Water pollution 1. Chemical wastes from factories

a. Dead fish b. Contaminated drinking water supplies 2. Raw sewage from cities 3. Oil spills from ships IV. A second disadvantage of living in the twentieth century is the depersonalization of human relationships. A. People and machines 1. Automated vending machines, banks, etc. 2. Tape recorded telephone answering 3. Computerized dating services B. People and numbers 1. Social security numbers 2. Credit card numbers V. The final disadvantage of living in the twentieth century is the weakening of spiritual values. A. Materialistic culture B. Faith in science instead of in religion VI. In conclusion, although the twentieth century has indeed given us a lot of advantages by making us richer, healthier and freer to enjoy our lives, it has, in my opinion, not made us wiser. The twentieth century has also made our earth dirtier, our people less humane, and our spiritual lives poorer. We should continue to enjoy the benefits of technological advancements because they free us to pursue our interests and goals. However, we must make a concerted effort to preserve our natural environment for future generations. Moreover, we should take the time now to make our lives more meaningful in an increasingly impersonal, computerized world. 3. COMMON PATTERNS OF ESSAY ORGANIZATION Organizing an essay is essentially similar to organizing a paragraph; the only difference is that instead of working with single sentences, you are working with paragraphs. You can use the same patterns (or combination of patterns) for essays as you use for paragraphs.

In the following section, four of the most common and useful patterns of essay organization will be introduced: chronological order, logical division of ideas, cause and effect, and comparison and contrast. 3.1. Chronological Order As you have learned in Writing paragraphs, chronological order is order by time. It is used in almost all academic fields to describe historical events as well as to write biographies and autographies. Besides, chronological order is used in scientific and technical writing to explain physical, chemical, biological, and mechanical processes, such as how a machine works, how a chemical reaction takes place, how a certain biological process occurs, and so on. It is also used to give directions or instructions how to perform a chemistry experiment, how to operate a piece of equipment, etc. In a chronological process essay, the main steps are the topics of the paragraphs. E.g.: Read the following essay explaining the process of treating sewage to make impure water pure again as an example of essay organized using chronological order. The thesis statement is in bold; the topic sentences of those paragraphs that explain a major step in the process are underlined; and the between-paragraph transition signals are circled. A SEWAGE TREATMENT PROCESS Sewage treatment requires the removal of major contaminants from waste water in order to purify it for reuse. This process takes place in sewage treatment plants and requires the use of special equipment and chemicals. The sewage treatment process is divided into three stages: primary treatment, secondary treatment, and tertiary treatment. During the primary stage of , large, heavy, suspended treatment solids are removed from the sewage inflow. The polluted water passes through a screen into a grit chamber. Large organic solids drop to the bottom of the grit chamber. Then the polluted water continues to flow into a settling tank, where sludge from the water drops into the sludge digestion tank. From there, it flows out to a drying bed. The water continues to flow through the system, to begin the next phase of the treatment process. In the secondary stage , organic matter is further broken up and removed. As the water flows from the settling tank into the aeration tank, it combines with air. This process increases the oxygen content of the water and also increases the number of microorganisms that feed on dissolved wastes. Then the water flows into a second settling tank, where more sludge drops out. From there, the water flows into a chlorination chamber. In this phase of the process, chlorine kills most of the harmful bacteria. After leaving the chlorination chamber

tertiary or stage of treatment . In this stage, remaining chemical impurities, final mainly phosphates and nitrates, are removed by chemical and physical means. Now the water is ready for reuse. To summarize, waste water can be made reusable in sewage treatment facilities by undergoing a three-stage treatment process. These stages include primary treatment, which removes about 35 percent of the organic pollutants; secondary treatment, which removes up to 90 percent of the remaining organic pollutants by chlorination; and finally, the tertiary treatment, in which the last impurities nitrates and phosphates are dissolved. 3.2. Logical Division of Ideas Logical division of ideas is a form of essay organization that is used to group related items according to some quality they have in common. Logical division can be useful in planning a paper because a broad subject can be subdivided into several categories or groups that will narrow the topics for discussion. Then, each subdivision topic can be discussed in order. E.g.: Read the following essay about styles of rock and roll music as an example of essay using logical division of ideas as a method of organizing the information. The thesis statement is in bold; the topic sentences of the body paragraphs underlined; and the between-paragraph transition signals are circled. STYLES OF ROCK AND ROLL MUSIC There is no stopping rock and roll. Since its birth in the fifties, rock and roll has become the most lively force in popular culture. It was born as a child of jazz, blues, and country music. More recently, it has been influenced by movies, television, sex, drugs, art, literature, and electronics. Since its birth, rock and roll has grouped and regrouped into an explosion of styles: folk rock, soul, Motown, hard rock, jazz rock, country rock, heavy metal, punk rock, reggae, new wave, rap, and so on. Each type has its own style, themes, and stars. Three of the more successful styles are rap, heavy metal, and reggae. One the newer styles of rock and roll is rap. Rap is a form of dance music of in which the singers rappers speak in rhythm and rhyme rather than sing. Rap first appeared in the mid-seventies in the discos of New York Citys black neighbourhoods. Disco DJs teamed up with rappers to play songs for dancers at parties. At first, the role of the rapper was to keep the beat going with hand claps while the DJ changed records. Soon, rappers added lyrics, slogans, rhymes, and call-and-response exchanges with the audience. Early rap songs were mainly about dancing, partying, and the romantic

The water begins the

adventures of the rappers, but politics became an important theme in the late eighties and nineties. Although rap is primarily the music of young black males, the first white rappers appeared in 1980, and a woman rapper, Queen Latifah, began her career in 1989. M.C. Hammers 1990 album Please Hammer Dont Hurt Em has sold fifteen million copies, making it the best-selling rap album of the decade. Anothe style of rock and roll music is heavy metal. Quite different r from rap, heavy metal is a style of rock and roll that uses highly amplified electric guitars for its sound. It was born in the early sixties when American and British guitarists started putting distortion into their music. The most successful bands have had the fastest and most creative guitarists: Jimi Hendrix, Ted Nugent, and Eddie Van Halen. Almost as important as the guitarists are the singers, who have great theatrical ability, vocal range, and sex appeal. In the seventies, heavy metal bands turned to outdoor sports arenas, staging elaborate concerts with light shows and amplified sound. Popular heavy metal bands include Led Zeppelin, Motley Crue, Poison, Guns n Roses, and Metallica. A third style of rock and roll is reggae, which was born on the Carribean island of Jamaica in the sixties and spread throughout the world in the seventies. It developed from a kind of Afro-Carribean music called mento, which was sung and played on guitars and drums. Some musicians changed mento into a music style called sko by adding a hesitation beat. A few years later, other musicians changed sko, and reggae was born. Reggaes special sound comes from reversing the roles of the instruments. The guitar plays the rhythm and the bass plays the melody. An important influence on reggae music was the Rastafarian cult. The Rastafarians added unusual sound mixes, extra-slow tempos, strange lyrics, and mystical-political themes. The best-known reggae musician in the United States is the late Bob Marley. Rock and roll music is constantly changing. New styles are born, grow, change, and produce offshoots, which in turn grow, change, and produce offshoots. Some styles enjoy lasting popularity, but others disappeared rather quickly. However, all contribute to the power and excitement of rock and roll music in out time. 3.3. Cause and Effect Another common method of organizing an essay is by cause and effect. There are basically two main ways to organize a cause and effect essay: block organization and chain organization. In block organization, you first discuss all of the causes as a block (in one, two, three, or more paragraphs, depending on the number of causes). Then you discuss all of the

effects together as a block. In chain organization, you discuss a first cause and its effect, a second cause and its effect, and a third cause and its effect, in a chain. BLOCK CHAIN Cause Causes Effect Cause Effect Cause Effect

Effects

The type of cause and effect organization you choose will depend on your topic. Some topics are more easily organized one way, and some the other way. A chain pattern is usually easier if the causes and effects are very closely interrelated. If there is no direct cause and effect relationship, the block type may be easier. Some topics may require a combination of block and chain organization. E.g.: Read the following essay about womens liberation as an example of essay using cause and effect (combination of block and chain organization) as a method of organizing the information. The thesis statement is in bold; the topic sentences of the body paragraphs underlined. WOMENS LIBERATION Since the middle of the twentieth century, women around the world have been seeking greater independence and recognition. No longer content with their traditional roles as housewives and mothers, women have joined together to create the so-called womens liberation movement. While the forces behind this international movement vary from culture to culture and from individual to individual, the basic causes in the United States can be traced to three events: the development of effective birth-control methods, the invention of labour-saving devices for the home, and the advent of World War II. The first cause of the liberation of women was the development of effective birthcontrol methods, freeing women from the endless cycle of childbearing and rearing. As a result of having a choice as to when and if to bear children, women acquired the freedom and the time to pursue interests outside of the home. Because of the development of birth control, women could delay having children or avoid having them altogether; consequently, women had the opportunity to acquire an education and/or pursue a

career. The second event was the development of mechanized labour-saving devices for the home, resulting in more leisure time and freedom for women. For example, fifty years ago, a housewife spent an average of twelve to fourteen hours per day doing housework. Due to the invention of machines such as vacuum cleaners, washing machines and dishwashers, a housewife can now take care of her daily housework in about five hours. The third event that, at least in the United States, gave impetus to the liberation of women was World War II. During the war, most men were serving in the military. Consequently, women had to fill the vacancies in the labour force. Women by the thousands went to work in factories and even took over businesses for their absent husbands. This was a great change for the majority of American women, for they discovered that they could weld airplanes and manage a business as well as change diapers and bake cookies. These three events planted the seeds of a great change in society, and the effects of this change are being felt at all levels: in the family, in business, and in government. One of the biggest effects of the greater independence of women is being felt in the home. The traditional husband-wife relationship is undergoing a radical transformation. Because so many women are working, men are learning how to share the household tasks of cooking, cleaning, and even caring for children, In some families, there has been a complete reversal of the traditional roles: the husband stays home while the wife earns the familys income. It should be pointed out, however, that this is the exception, not the rule. In most families in the United States, the husband still earns most of the money, and the wife still does most of the housework. The effects of womens liberation are being felt not only in the home, but also on the job. More and more women are working, and they are demanding equal salaries and equally responsible positions, and every year, the nations schools produce more women doctors, lawyers, and accountants. Politics and government are still other areas that are feeling the effects of the womens movement. Although the United States doesnt appear ready to accept a woman president, as some countries of the world have, women are being elected to public office in increasing numbers. The United States currently has three women governors, which is the highest office in a state. A few years ago, this would have been unthinkable. Furthermore, the increasing political power of women has resulted in the proposal of an amendment to the U.S. Constitution, called the Equal Rights Amendment, which will give women complete equality with men by law if passed.

In conclusion, women in the United States are acquiring greater independence, which is causing sweeping changes in society at home, at work, and in politics. While men may not be happy with these changes, they should always remember that it was they, the men, who created the conditions leading to the liberation of women: men made war, male scientists developed birth control, and businessmen earned a lot of money selling vacuum cleaners and dishwashers. Transition Paragraphs In the middle of the essay Womens Liberation, there is a short paragraph that separates the causes part from the effects part. This is called a transition paragraph, which is sometimes useful in long block organization essays. Transition paragraphs are used to conclude the first part of the essay and introduce the second part. It is not always necessary to write a transition paragraph, but it is helpful when your topic is long and complex. Since this paragraph is only one sentence, it could also be placed at the beginning of the next paragraph or at the end of the previous one. Cause and Effect Structure Words There are words and phrases that show cause and effect relationships. They are called cause and effect structure words. In writing a cause and effect essay, there are many possible structure words you can use. These words show whether you are discussing a reason or result: cause structure words signal a reason for something; conversely, effect structure words signal the result of some action. E.g.: Cause structure words The first cause The next reason .. Because of structure words. CAUSE & EFFECT STRUCTURE WORDS Sentence Connectors To introduce a cause reason or for because since as because of due to to result from the result of Coordinators Subordinators Others Effect structure words The first effect . As a result .. Therefore .

Listed in the following chart are many of the most common cause and effect

the effect of X on Y the To an introduce as a result effect or as a consequence therefore thus consequently hence so consequence of the cause of the reason for to result in to cause to have an effect on to affect

result

3.4. Comparison and Contrast Comparison and contrast is a very common and useful method of essay organization. This form of writing is frequently used in college work, and in business and the profession as well. Anything can be compared or contrasted such as periods in history, characters in stories, kinds of equipment, or the qualifications of two job applicants. The only important rule to observe is to compare and contrast things of like nature, or else the comparison or contrast will not be valid. In other words, you can compare and contrast apples and bananas, but you cant compare apples and typewriters. When you make a comparison, you show how certain aspects of one item are similar to the same aspects of another item in the same general class. A comparison answers the question, What features do X and Y have in common? or How are X and Y similar? When you contrast two things, you point out the differences between them; i.e., you point out how they are not alike. A contrast answers the question, What are the differences between X and Y? or How are X and Y different? E.g.: Read the following model essay which analyzes two models of cars by THE T-BIRD VS THE RABBIT Buying a new car can be fun, but since there are so many fine models on the market to choose from, the final decision can be a very difficult one to make. After narrowing the choices down to two cars, a person can make a comparison and contrast analysis by noting first the similarities and then the differences between, for example, the Ford Thunderbird (popularly termed the T-Bird) and the Volkswagen Rabbit. comparison/contrast method.

The T-Bird and the Rabbit have several similarities. The T-Bird is an attractive car; the Rabbit is too. The T-Bird will seat five people comfortably, as can the Rabbit. In addition, the seats in the T-Bird as well as in the Rabbit are upholstered in tough vinyl. Furthermore, both the Rabbit and the T-Bird have a 12,000-mile warranty. Despite these similarities, the T-Bird and the Rabbit have some very important differences in the following areas: physical dimensions, equipment, and fuel consumption and economy. The first major difference between the T-Bird and the Rabbit is in their physical dimensions. The T-Bird measures 199 inches in length, whereas the Rabbit measures only 156 inches. The difference in size between the two cars is more than three feet. This means that the longer T-Bird has more leg room than the Rabbit. On the other hand, the T-Bird requires a larger parking space, while the smaller Rabbit is easier to manoeuver in crowded city streets. However just as the T-Bird is longer, it is also much heavier; therefore, the T-Bird will give you a much smoother and quieter ride then the compact Rabbit. Another obvious difference between the two cars lies in their equipment. The TBird has more luxury features than the Rabbit. For example, the T-Bird has power windows, power steering, power front disc brakes, and reclining bucket seats. Although the Rabbit has none of these extra features, it has a sunroof: the T-Bird merely has a vinyl roof. Thus, while the driver of the T-Bird can enjoy the power of a big car, the driver of the Rabbit can enjoy sunshine and fresh air through the sunroof. The final difference between these two cars is in fuel consumption and economy. The Rabbit can be filled up with $10.00 worth of gas, but it will cost twice that amount to fill up the T-Bird. The Rabbit also has a fuel injection system, which helps to give the car easier starts; it also uses the most economical grade of gas. In contrast, the T-Bird requires the most expensive gas. The most important feature, however, is that the Rabbit gets 38 miles per gallon on the highway and 24 miles in the city, whereas the T-Bird averages only 14 miles per gallon. In conclusion, then, although there are some superficial similarities between the two cars, there are quite a number of important differences. The T-Bird is much larger and more luxurious, but the Rabbit is compact and easier to manoeuver. Furthermore, even though both cars have unique features, the Rabbit uses fuel much more economically. Therefore, considering the high cost of gas these days, the Volkswagen Rabbit is definitely the car to own.

There are two major techniques you need to learn in order to write good comparison and contrast essays. Appropriate use of comparison and contrast structure words. Logical organization of the points of comparison and contrast.

Listed in the charts below are some of the words and phrases used to write about similarities and differences. COMPARISON STRUCTURE WORDS Sentence Connectors similarly likewise also too as just as Subordinators Coordinators and like just like alike similar (to) the same as both and not only but also compare to CONTRAST STRUCTURE WORDS Sentence Connectors on the other hand in contrast however by / in comparison Subordinators although though even though whereas while to compare to to compare with There are several ways to organize a comparison and contrast essay. Presented here are the two basic forms: point-by-point organization and block organization. Each type of organization is illustrated in the following models. Study the models very carefully. Notice how the thesis statement tells the reader what type of organization will be used in the body of the essay. In addition, notice the different ways in which the outlines are written, depending upon the controlling idea(s) in the thesis statement. but yet Coordinators Others different (from) dissimilar unlike to differ (from) Others

Model 1: Point-by-point organization In point-by-point comparison and contrast organization, you make a sentence-bysentence comparison of two (or more) items or subjects. For example, if you were comparing two jobs, you might make an outline like the following. Thesis statement One way to decide between two job offers is to make a point-bypoint comparison of their features. I. The salaries of job X and job Y are approximately equal. A. Job Xs salary B. Job Ys salary II. Job X offers the same fringe benefits as job Y. A. Job Xs fringe benefits B. Job Ys fringe benefits III. In contrast to job Y, job X offers good opportunities for advancement. A. Job Xs opportunities for advancement B. Job Ys opportunities for advancement IV. Unlike the high-pressure and competitive atmosphere at company X, the atmosphere at company Y seems congenial and supportive. A. Atmosphere at company X B. Atmosphere at company Y Model 2: Block organization Type 1 In Type 1 block organization, you discuss the features of your items or subjects in blocks. That is, in the first paragraph, you discuss all of the features of the first item. Then in the second paragraph, you explain all of the same features of the second item in the same order that they were discussed in the first paragraph. Thesis statement One way to decide between two job offers is to consider the advantages of job X and job Y. I. Job X offers several advantages. A. Salary B. Fringe benefits C. Opportunity for advancement D. Workplace atmosphere II. Job Y also offers some advantages. A. Salary B. Fringe benefits C. Opportunity for advancement

D. Workplace atmosphere Model 3: Block organization Type 2 In Type 2 block organization, you discuss all of the similarities of the items in one paragraph and all of their differences in a separate paragraph(s) or vice-versa. (See the essay The T-Bird vs. the Rabbit in the previous example.) Thesis statement One way to decide between two job offers is to evaluate what the similarities and differences are before making your final decision. I. The salary and fringe benefits of job X and job Y are almost the same. A. Salary (Job X and job Y) B. Fringe benefits (Job X and job Y) II. Although the salary and fringe benefits are equal, there are big differences in the areas of workplace atmosphere and opportunity for advancement. A. Workplace atmosphere 1. Job X 2. Job Y B. Opportunity for advancement 1. Job X 2. Job Y Note: when you have completed your discussion of the features of the first item or subject, use a comparison and contrast structure word, phrase or clause to refer to it and to introduce the second item or subject E.g.: Like job X, job Y In contrast to job X, job Y In spite of their similarities / differences 4. ESSAY CHECKLIST This checklist details all the things you have learned about writing paragraphs and essays. It is a good idea to keep this checklist in front of you when you are writing. It will remind you of all the essential elements of a good essay. After you have finished your first draft, check your essay for every item on the list. If any item is missing, add it before you write your final draft. Essay organization Introduction General statements Thesis statement

Body Logical and appropriate pattern of organization for the topic (chronological order, logical division of ideas, comparisoncontrast, cause-effect, etc.) Between-paragraph transitions Conclusion Summary of the main points or paraphrase of the thesis, and your final comments on the topic Paragraph organization Topic sentence for each paragraph Supporting sentences Concrete support Unity Coherence (Transition signals plus Logical order) Concluding sentence (if necessary)