www.hmttank.

com

Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978

A Comprehensive Approach to Tank Design and Tank Equipment Selection
Andrew A East Director HMT International Business Development Group

www.hmttank.com

Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978

Core objectives of a comprehensive approach
• Through proper tank design and consideration of all key factors, we believe we can achieve:
– Greater than 80% reduction in emissions – Nearly 10% increase in working capacity – Upwards of 70% reduction in unusable inventory (adding back more than € 300k to working capital) – Between € 250K and € 400k per tank in reduced maintenance costs every 30 years – Improved tank safety – Reduced risk of unplanned maintenance – No increase in up-front capital cost

www.hmttank.com

Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978

Core design considerations
• In order to design the ideal tank, key performance factors need to be considered:
– Emissions and product loss reduction (impacts on financial and regulations) – Safety of the tank and its appurtenances – Working capacity of the tank – Inventory utilization in the tank (usability of your working capital) – Maintenance considerations (to minimize both planned and unplanned) – Up-front capital cost of the tank and tank products

www.hmttank.com

Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978

Emissions Factors

S.com Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY / INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY Tools available to estimate emissions • Modelling programs – Provide the capability to build virtual tanks to estimate emissions based on AP-42 equations and loss factors – Helpful for calculating emissions of future assets for permit application – Helpful for evaluating different tank equipment options – May also be used by regulators for compliance audits Background information: – Tanks 4.0.9d • The latest version of the EPA’s tank emissions estimation software – widely used in U. – TankESP • Additional functionality over Tanks 4. and more up-to-date with AP-42 • Physical observation and accurate surveys/measurement – Good for finding leaks. not good for annual-average extrapolation .hmttank.9d.0.www.

. size and method of sealing • Floating roof seals – Type and quality • Temperature factors – Average temperatures on site.www. as well as tank color (effect of solar gain) • Tank diameter / height • Operational factors – Product stored.hmttank. quantity.com Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY / INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY Factors that influence tank emissions: • Wind – Average wind speed and whether the tank is covered with a fixed roof or dome • Floating roof penetrations and seams – Type. etc. cycles per month.

storing gasoline RVP 10 in Houston. . greatly reducing emissions from seals and all roof penetrations Example of the Benefits For a 36.6m (120’) diameter tank.com Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY / INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY Capture the benefits of a fixed roof over your floating roof • A fixed roof over your floating roof eliminates the evaporative effect of the wind.hmttank.www. the difference between a covered and an uncovered tank is nearly 6 metric tons per year.

by eliminating column penetrations in the floating roof • No columns means elimination of the principle floating roof emission source • More significant impact on larger diameter tanks (due to the elimination of more columns) Example of the Benefits For a typical 36.hmttank. 193 kg) per column) . storing gasoline RVP 10. column well emissions account for approximately 1.6m (120’) diameter IFRT with 7 columns.www.com Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY / INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY Self-supporting roofs yield more benefits.4 metric tons per year (approx.

storing gasoline RVP 10. • A suspended roof can also achieve this while still reducing inventory (heel) Example of the Benefits For a typical 36.6m (120’) diameter tank. the difference between a legsupported steel IFR and a cable-suspended welded aluminum IFR or one piece roof is another 1.hmttank.www.4 metric tons per year (approx. 32 kg per leg). .com Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY / INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY Further reduce your emissions by eliminating leg penetrations • No leg penetrations means no leg emissions • Fixed legs (not adjustable) can achieve this because they do not penetrate the roof.

the difference between a legsupported steel IFR and a Deckmaster GRE one piece roof is another 1.com Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY / INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY Further reduce your emissions by eliminating leg penetrations • No leg penetrations means no leg emissions • Fixed legs (not adjustable) can achieve this because they do not penetrate the roof.4 metric tons per year (approx. storing gasoline RVP 10.hmttank. • A suspended roof can also achieve this while still reducing inventory (heel) Example of the Benefits For a typical 36.www. . 32 kg per leg).6m (120’) diameter tank.

www. For example. Be sure to choose the right tank type to model. longer leg sleeves on a typical EFR result in lower emissions.hmttank.com Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY / INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY Common questions about full-contact roofs Question 1: By eliminating the vapor space. a covered external floating roof emits less than typical steel IFR construction.9d for IFRT and DEFRT? – Due to the way EFR penetrations are constructed. does this mean I can use the welded construction loss factor – Only through completely field-welding all seams between the panels (resulting in a single contiguous roof) does an IFR qualify as welded construction per AP-42 Question 3: Why is there a different model in TANKS 4. . are deck seam emissions eliminated? – No. FC roofs which use bolts. Only through completely eliminating seams through seal-welding or one-piece construction are deck seam emissions eliminated.0. fasteners or adhesives to join components still have deck seam emissions according to AP-42 and all industry-accepted modeling programs Question 2: If the roof panels are factory welded.

hmttank. no seam emissions (One Piece GRE roof shown above) .www. no seam emissions (Full contact welded aluminium roof shown above) One-piece construction No seams.com Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY / INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY Utilize a welded-seam or one-piece IFR to eliminate all deck seam emissions • Deck seam emissions refer to the product that escapes at the seams in skin-and-pontoon roofs or the seams in bolted panel roofs • Seal-welded joints between panels completely eliminate this source • One-piece construction completely eliminates this source as well Bolted construction Emissions from seams between sheets on either a pontoon roof(shown above) or bolted panel type Full contact roof Welded construction No seams.

334 kg/yr* 3. Houston.www. Gasoline RVP 13. 600mm freeboard.com Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY / INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY The impact of eliminating deck seams Skin & Pontoon Sheet-construction Full Contact Panel-construction (Bolted) (Bolted) Any Welded or One-piece IFR Zero Deck Seam Emissions Emissions along each deck seam 2. 24 turnovers/year * Deck seam emissions only. these figures do not include emissions for seals or other appurtenances .hmttank.852 kg/yr* 0 Kg/yr Assumptions: 36.6m tank.6m x 14.

191 Cone Roof.983 3.379 2. Welded or One-piece IFR. Aluminum Bolted Panel IFR. Suspended (no legs) 664 602 450 464 365 941 858 933 Houston Los Angeles Chicago Rotterdam Moscow Lagos.305 14. Adj Legs 3.146 Cone Roof. bolted sheet is 5’ (1.hmttank.264 2.4m of working capacity (3.478 8.882 5.518 gal) Stored product is gasoline.480 8.852 4.259 3.646 3. Nigeria Singapore Saudi Arabia 9.179 5.251 4.029 8. Aluminum Skin & Pontoon IFR. Adj Legs 6.6m diameter x 14. RVP 10 Each IFR equipped with primary mechanical shoe seal and rim-mounted secondary seal Each IFR with the exception of the welded IFR is equipped with adjustable deck legs Emissions based on 24 tank turnovers per year Bolted panel based on a 5’ (1.340 for Various Tank Configurations and Various Major Markets (kg/year) Cone Roof.351 9.478 1.www.6m high with 13.722.544 18.430 3. which has no leg penetrations Cone roofs have 7 columns .679 • • • • • • • • Assumptions All tanks are 36. Adj Legs 5.879 5.268 4.607 15.514 7.061 1.787 5.822 3.163 1. Steel IFR.5m) x 12’ (3.608 9.542 5.389 Dome.014 8.com Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY / INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY Emissions Comparison Location EFRT Domed EFRT 820 739 552 573 447 1.732 8.5m) wide All deck fittings “Typical” except the suspended IFR.028 8.66m) panel.

(3mm) wide between the rim seal and the tank shell).2. when there are no gaps more then 1/8 in.hmttank. in which case the loss factors for tight-fitting seals are applicable” .com Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY / INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY (that remain tight throughout the service life of the tank!) Utilize tight-fitting seals • As defined in: – API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (1997) – Chapter 19.www. Section 2 (Evaporative Loss Measurement) – 5.1 – Rim-seal Loss Factor • Defined as: “The loss factors for average-fitting seals are applicable for typical rim-seal conditions and should be used except when a rim-seal is known to be consistently tight-fitting (that is.

com Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY / INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY (that remain tight throughout the service life of the tank!) Utilize tight-fitting seals • Poorly performing seals can be a major source of emissions as well as a safety risk Example of the Benefits For a typical 36. the difference between tight fitting and average fitting seals can be a 33% reduction in rim seal emissions.hmttank.2 (1997) . storing Gasoline RVP 10.www. Rim Seal Factors as per API Chapter 19.6m (120’) diameter tank with a primary shoe seal.

6m(120’) x 14.6m(120’) x 14. Houston • Emissions per tank: 3.63m (48’) with Dome Roof – Chain-suspended.63m(48’) with Cone Roof – Leg-supported steel IFR – Gasoline RVP 10.646 kg/yr • Emissions per tank: 664 kg/yr 82% lower emissions per tank through proactive design .hmttank.www. welded or one-piece IFR – Gasoline RVP 10.com Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY / INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY Impact of Emissions Savings Single-tank Comparison Traditional Tank – 36. Houston Reduced Emission Tank – 36.

EFRT has standard deck fittings and adjustable legs. .hmttank.www. Utah. 24 turnovers per year.com Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 Emissions Comparison EFRT vs Dome + Aluminator FC system 75% Reduction in Emissions This example is based on a 135’ Crude Tank in Salt Lake City. Suspended Aluminator FC has standard deck fittings.

www.536 kg/yr 444% more tanks under the same permit .com Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY / INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY Impact of Emissions Savings Total Tank Farm Expansion 9 Traditional Tanks Total Tank Farm Emissions: 49 Reduced Emission Tanks Total Tank Farm Emissions: 32.hmttank.814 kg/yr 32.

www.hmttank.com Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 Safety Factors .

EFRT • Suspended systems eliminate the risk of spiral collapse during maintenance .www.com Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 Safety Benefits of Ideal Tank vs.hmttank.

hmttank.www.com Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 Safety Benefits of Ideal Tank vs. EFRT • Eliminate snow and ice hazards on EFR • Eliminate drain hazards • Recent failures:  Ohio  Pennsylvania  Alberta Also a maintenance benefit .

com Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY / INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY Utilize Chain Suspension for Major Safety Benefits • Best available suspension technology • Non-kinking.hmttank. highstrength alloy chain • Tight lay pattern • Eliminates potential snagging .www.

www.hmttank. re-pin in low operating position any time after IFR is floating • Eliminates confined space entry .com Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY / INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY Chain Suspension Safety Benefit 1: Eliminate Confined Space Entry Risks • Easy-access dome hub cover allows pinning from the top of the dome • Simply allow the product to drain to maintenance level. then pull up the slack and pin before draining tank • After maintenance.

www.chain provides pinning flexibility • Set maintenance position above working height to give workers full ergonomic access .hmttank.com Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY / INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY Chain Suspension Safety Benefit 2: Set Maintenance Position at Optimum Height • Choose optimum height .

no obstructions to work around .com Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY / INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY Chain Suspension Safety Benefit 3: Eliminate Bottom Repair Hazards • Not necessary to jack up IFR to get a tractor inside • No risk of the tractor damaging support legs • Clear and open.hmttank.www.

com Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY / INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY If using a full-contact panel-constructed IFR.hmttank.www. ensure it can be certified gas-free Open-cavity panel design • Completely open internal cavity does not impede vapor detection Traditional Metallic Sandwich/Honeycomb Panel • Internal cavity filled with partitions or fillers • Internal materials may impede vapor detection .

hmttank. • Shoe seals or other mechanical seals comprised of stainless steel. fabrics and other materials which cannot retain or become damaged by product are preferred .com Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY / INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY Utilize a seal that can be certified gas-free • Foam log or bag seals are prone to wear and punctures. creating a hazardous environment. and can trap product. and problems with disposal of saturated foams.www.

hmttank.www.com Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 Working Capacity and Inventory Utilization Factors .

working capacity can be maximized .hmttank.com Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY / INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY Factors that contribute to working capacity: • Type of fixed roof (impacts max fill level) • Type of internal floating roof (impacts max fill level) • Whether IFR has legs (impacts minimum fill level) • Whether tank utilizes a drain-dry sump or plateau bottom (impacts minimum fill level) Through proactive tank design and careful selection of tank products.www.

hmttank. IFR travel constraints at the top of the tank (max fill height) 2. Depth of the Floating Roof System 3.com Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS ENGINEERED SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY Factors that impact working capacity: 1.www. IFR travel constraints at the bottom of the tank (min fill height) .

com Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS ENGINEERED SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY Working Capacity Factor 1: Conditions at the top of the tank Top Angle Elevation High-fill interference from rafters No high-fill interference below top angle Steel cone roof Rafter clips consume 6-8” of capacity Aluminum Dome Mounted flush to top angle. consuming no tank capacity .www.hmttank.

hmttank.com Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY / INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY Capture capacity through the use of a low-profile internal floating roof • Steel internal floaters are typically 500mm in pontoon & rim depth • Low-profile aluminum or GRE roof depth is only 230mm or less Recapture 270mm of working capacity using a low-profile Aluminum or GRE Full-Contact Roof 230mm 500mm .www.

com Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS ENGINEERED SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY Benefits of Working Capacity Gains • Financial Impacts – Increase income-generating capability of tank – Hold more product when you want in order to optimize market conditions • Maintenance Flexibility – Take a different tank out of service with less worry of storage constraints • Operational Efficiencies – Take larger deliveries at one time.hmttank. reducing transactional costs per barrel • Deferred Capital Costs in the Future – Each additional barrel of storage you capture from this asset defers the need for future storage as you grow .www.

6M tank) • 6% increase in capacity Assumes no mixers or diffusers.www.com Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS ENGINEERED SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY Working Capacity Factor 3: Conditions at the bottom of the tank • A bottom-fill system with suspended IFR allows roof to be lowered to within 300mm of the floor • Recaptures 760mm of capacity (800m3 in a 36. capacity gains can still be achieved with these in place .hmttank. however.

com Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY / INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY Utilize a “plateau” bottom and suspended roof to gain capacity and reduce inventory • A mesa bottom displaces the majority of remaining product inventory when the IFR is in the low position (product that is normally unusable and ties up valuable working capital) • Ideal for use when perimeter mixers or other equipment prevents the IFR from being lowered completely to the bottom .hmttank.www.

hmttank.200m³ Low-profile FC roof is only 230mm of roof depth plus 300mm of secondary seal Suspended roof and plateau bottom eliminate majority of unusable inventory Or 27.050m³ working capacity 14. Dome + Suspended Roof + Plateau Bottom Cone roof structure impedes travel of IFR to high position by 300mm (150mm structure and 150mm safety clearance) Traditional steel roof is approximately 500mm of pontoon depth and 300mm of secondary seal Steel roof legs limiting vertical travel of IFR to within 1100mm of tank bottom Dome roof only requires 150mm of safety clearance Working Capacity Comparison 1 working capacity 13.150m³ in working capacity .600m³ per year at 24 turnovers (over 170.com Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY / INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY Traditional Tank vs.www.000 barrels) Increase of 1.

com Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY / INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY Traditional Tank vs.000 barrels) Increase of 1. Dome + Suspended Roof + Drain Dry Sump Cone roof structure impedes travel of IFR to high position by 300mm (150mm structure and 150mm safety clearance) Traditional steel roof is approximately 500mm of pontoon depth and 300mm of secondary seal Steel roof legs limiting vertical travel of IFR to within 1100mm of tank bottom Dome roof only requires 150mm of safety clearance Working Capacity Comparison 2 working capacity 13.050m³ working capacity 14.330m³ Low-profile FC roof is only 230mm of roof depth plus 300mm of secondary seal Suspended roof and drain-dry sump allow IFR to travel to within 300mm of tank bottom Or 30.hmttank.280m³ in working capacity .www.720m³ per year at 24 turnovers (over 190.

com Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY / INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY Traditional Tank vs.www.120m³ unusable inventory 448m³ Inventory reduced by 672m³ (over 4000 barrels) . Dome + Suspended Roof + Plateau Bottom Inventory Utilization Comparison 1 • Re-capture lost working capital by eliminating unusable inventory unusable inventory 1.hmttank.

www. Dome + Suspended Roof + Drain Dry Sump • Re-capture lost working capital by eliminating unusable inventory unusable inventory 1.hmttank.com Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY / INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY Inventory Utilization Comparison 2 Traditional Tank vs.120m³ unusable inventory 320m³ Inventory reduced by 800m³ (over 5000 barrels) .

a tank farm owner could operate 12 traditional tanks or 11 ideal tanks. the owner could increase its cumulative working capacity by over 15. .www.com Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY / INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY Impacts of gained capacity • To achieve the same cumulative working capacity. Traditional Tank Farm Ideal Tank Farm • Or. using the same number of tanks.000 barrels) • An owner building a new tank farm could spend only 92% of the capital to achieve the same working capacity.hmttank.000m³ (over 90.

hmttank.www.com Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 Maintenance Factors .

www.6m (120’) tank.000 . this could cost approximately € 75. For a 36. will typically require painting of the cone roof and IFR every 10 years.com Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY / INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY Eliminate painting and coating on your fixed and floating roofs • Aluminum domes require no painting • Aluminum or GRE IFRs require no painting Example of the Benefits A steel cone roof and IFR located in a coastal zone (such as Houston ship channel).hmttank.

hmttank. For a 36.6m (120’) tank. this would cost approximately € 150.www. . will typically require structural repairs every 20 years.000.com Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY / INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY Eliminate structural steel repairs on your fixed roof • Domes require only moderate maintenance on elastomers every 20 to 30 years (estimated € 10-15k) Example of the Benefits A steel cone roof located in a coastal zone (such as Houston ship channel).

pigging operations and other unanticipated operational loads and stresses .com Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY / INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY Full-Contact IFR Durability Factors • Extruded aluminum rim section (not welded) or one-piece GRE structure – Flexibility to handle turbulence without loss of strength • Designed to handle more than minimum API loading criteria – Built for high flow rates.www. turbulence.hmttank.

com Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 EMISSIONS / PRODUCT LOSS SAFETY WORKING CAPACITY / INVENTORY UTILIZATION MAINTENANCE & DURABILITY Seal System Durability Factors • All stainless steel moving parts • No springs or weights that wear • Correctly specified hardened stainless steel for spring retention and centering of the roof.www. eliminating many sources of potential seal damage • Consideration of tank verticality and out-of-roundness • Quality fabrics • Materials that are truly compatible with the stored product .hmttank.

hmttank.www.com Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 Summary .

36.6m(48’) 36.www.280m³ 320m³ -800m³ 1.646 kg/yr €250 .6m x 14. Texas Traditional Tank Ideal Tank A (Dome + suspended FC + plateau bottom) (Dome + suspended FC + drain dry sump) Ideal Tank B Tank dimensions Emissions (lbs per year) Maintenance cost Safety Working capacity Additional capacity Unusable inventory Inventory reduction Capital Cost (new tank) 36.200m³ +1.6m IFRT.050m³ --- 14.6m(48’) 3.€450k per 30 year period --- 664 kg/yr €10-15k every 30 years Improved over Traditional Tank 664 kg/yr $15-20k every 30 years Improved over Traditional Tank 13.com Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 Summary Comparison Equipped with primary mechanical shoe seal and rim-mounted secondary seal. Annual turnover of 24 cycles.330m³ +1.150m³ 448m³ -672m³ 14.120m³ ----- Similar to Traditional Tank Similar to Traditional Tank . Storing Gasoline (RVP 10).6m(48’) 36.hmttank.6m(120’) x 14.6m(120’) x 14. in Houston.6m(120’) x 14.

www.com Global AST Solutions Provider Since 1978 Questions / Discussion .hmttank.

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