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Psychoanalytic (Sigmund Freud) human behavior is deterministic since sexual and aggressive drives are evident Levels of the mental life:


A. Unconscious: contains all those drives, urges, or instincts that is beyond ones awareness B. Preconscious: contains all those elements that are not conscious but can become conscious either quite readily or with some difficulty C. Conscious: mental elements in awareness at any given point in time Personality Structure: A. Id: a region in mind that is unconscious, chaotic, out of contact with reality, and in service of the pleasure principle B. Ego: is the executive of the personality, in contact with the real world, and in service of the reality principle C. Superego: serves the moral and idealistic principles and begins to form after the oedipal complex is resolved Psychosexual Development: A. Oral Phase: the infant's primary source of interaction occurs through the mouth. Oral fixation can result in problems with drinking, eating, smoking or nail biting. B. Anal Phase: primary focus of the libido was on controlling bladder and bowel movements. The major conflict at this stage is toilet training--the child has to learn to control his or her bodily needs. Developing this control leads to a sense of accomplishment and independence. C. Phallic Phase: During the phallic stage, the primary focus of the libido is on the genitals. Freud also believed that boys begin to view their fathers as a rival for the mothers affections. The Oedipus complex describes these feelings of wanting to possess the mother and the desire to replace the father. The term Electra complex has been used to describe a similar set of feelings experienced by young girls. Freud, however, believed that girls instead experience penis envy D. Latent Period: During the latent period, the libido interests are suppressed. The development of the ego and superego contribute to this period of calm. E. Genital Stage: During the final stage of psychosexual development, the individual develops a strong sexual interest in the opposite sex. This stage begins during puberty but last throughout the rest of a person's life.

Dynamics of Personality: A. Drives: operates as a constant motivational force 1. Sex: all pleasurable activity is traceable in this drive 2. Aggression: the drive that aims to self-destruction B. Anxiety: a felt, affective, unpleasant state accompanied by a physical sensation that warns the person against impeding danger which the ego can only produce Defense Mechanisms: are psychological strategies brought into play by the unconscious mind to manipulate, deny, or distort reality and to maintain a socially acceptable self-image or self-schema. Libido: the psychosexual energy described as the driving force behind the behavior Fixation: is a persistent focus on an earlier psychosexual stage which resulted from unresolved issues at an appropriate stage Dreams and Freudian Slips: are disguised means of expressing unconscious impulses Levels of the Psyche: Analytical Psychology (Carl Jung) aims wholeness through the integration of unconscious forces and motivations underlying human behavior. It rests on the assumption that occult phenomena can do influence in the lives of everyone. People are motivated not only by repressed experiences but also by certain emotionally toned experiences inherited from ancestors A. Conscious: these are images that are sensed by the ego, whereas unconscious elements have no relationship with the ego B. Personal Unconscious: embraces all repressed, forgotten, or subliminally perceived experiences of one particular individual C. Collective Unconscious: in contrast with personal unconscious, these rooted from the ancestral past of the entire species D. Archetypes: are ancient and archaic images that derive from the collective unconscious 1. Shadow: the archetype of darkness and repression, represents those qualities one do not wish to acknowledge but attempt to hide to oneself or others 2. Anima: the feminine side of men and is responsible for many of their irrational moods and feelings 3. Animus: the masculine archetype of women and is responsible for irrational thinking and illogical opinions in women 4. Great Mother: a derivative of anima/ animus that represents two opposing forces- fertility and nourishment on the one hand and power and destruction to the other 5. Wise Old Man: a derivative of anima/ animus which is the archetype of wisdom and meaning, symbolizes humans existing knowledge of the mysteries of life 6. Hero: is the unconscious image of a person who conquers an evil foe but who has also a tragic flaw 7. Self: is the archetype of completeness, wholeness and perfection

Dynamics of Personality: A. Causality and Teleology: motivation in present events have their origin in previous experiences (causality) and by goals and aspirations (teleology) B. Progression and Regression: achieving the self realization through adaptation to the outside environment by forward flow of psychic energy (progression) and the inner world through backward flow of psychic energy (regression) Psychological Types: A. Attitudes: predisposition to act or react in a characteristic direction 1. Introversion: is the turning inward of psychic energy with an orientation toward the subjective 2. Extraversion: is the attitude distinguished by the turning outward of psychic energy B. Functions: are the four types that is combined with the attitudes 1. Thinking: logical intellectual activity that produces a chain of ideas ET: Rely heavily on concrete thoughts IT: Colored more by the internal meaning 2. Feeling: the process of evaluating an idea or event EF: Objective data to make evaluations IT: Judgments are subjective 3. Sensing: receives the physical stimuli and transmits them to perceptual consciousness (sensation) ES: Perceives external stimuli objectively IT: Sensations are influenced subjectively 4. Intuiting: involves perceptions beyond the workings of consciousness EI: oriented toward facts in the external world II: are guided by unconscious perceptions of facts that are basically subjective and have little sense or no resemblance to external reality

Psychosocial Stages of Development (Erik Erikson) an extension of psychoanalysis suggesting that an individual passes a specific psychosocial struggle that contributes to the formation of his personality

Epigenetic Principle: one component part arises out of another and has its own time of ascendancy, but it does not entirely replace earlier components Systonic and Dystonic Attitudes: Conflicting opposites that results to the Psychosocial Crisis Faced each stages of Human Development: systonic (harmonious) and dystonic (disruptive) elements Basic Strength: is produced by the conflicts of the opposing systonic and dystonic elements Core Pathology: results from too little basic strength

Stages of Development with Corresponding Psychosocial Crisis Faced (1), Its Basic Strength (2) and Its Core Pathology (3) : A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. Infancy: 1. Basic Trust vs. Mistrust, 2. Hope, 3. Withdrawal Early Childhood: 1. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt, 2. Will, 3. Compulsion Play Age: 1. Initiative vs. Guilt, 2. Purpose, 3. Inhibition School Age: 1. Industry vs. inferiority, 2. Competence, 3. Inertia Adolescence: 1. Identity vs. Role Confusion, 2. Fidelity, 3. Role Repudiation Young Adulthood: 1. Intimacy vs. Isolation, 2. Love, 3. Exclusivity Adulthood: 1. Generativity vs. Stagnation, 2. Care, 3. Rejectivity Old Age: 1. Integrity vs. Despair, 2. Wisdom, 3. Disdain

Humanistic Psychoanalysis/ Dialectic Humanism (Erich Fromm) assumes that humanitys separation from the natural world has produced feelings and isolation, a condition called basic anxiety

Basic Anxiety: a sense of being alone in the world Human Needs: A. Relatedness: the drive for union with another person or other persons. There are three basic ways to relate to the world: submission, power, love B. Transcendence: the urge to rise a passive and accidental existence into the realm of purposefulness and freedom (Fromm, 1981, p.4). People can transcend by creating life or destroying it C. Rootedness: the need to establish roots or to feel at home again in the world D. Sense of Identity: capacity to be aware of oneself as a separate entity E. Frame of Orientation: a final human need which enables people to organize the various stimuli that impinge on them. Guides a consistent way of looking at the world Mechanisms of Escape: A. Authoritarianism: the need to unite with a powerful partner in order to acquire the strength which the individual is lacking B. Destructiveness: restoration of lost feelings of power by destroying people of objects C. Positive Freedom: act according to basic natures and not according to conventional rules Character Orientations: A. Nonproductive Orientations: strategies that fail to move people closer to positive freedom and self realization 1. Receptive: feel that the source of all good lies outside themselves and that the only way they can relate to the world is to receive things (concrete or abstract) 2. Exploitative: same as receptive characters yet an inclusion of aggressiveness to take what is desired rather than being passive is evident

3. Hoarding: seeks to save that which have already obtained, hold everything inside and do not let go 4. Marketing: see themselves as commodities, with their personal value dependent on their exchange value, the ability to sell themselves B. Productive Orientations: working towards positive freedom and continuing reasoning 1. Loving: characterized by its four qualities: care, responsibility, respect and knowledge. In addition, biophila (positive love of life and all that is alive) is included 2. Working: work not as end in itself, but as a means of creative self- expression 3. Thinking: motivated by a concerned interest in another person or object Personality Disorders: A. Necrophilia: love of death; desire for sexual contact with a corpse B. Malignant Narcissism: everything belonging to a narcissistic person is highly valued and everything belonging to another person is devaluated C. Incestuous Symbiosis: an extreme dependence on the mother or mother surrogate

Interpersonal (Harry Stack Sullivan) emphasizes the importance of various developmental stages infancy, childhood, the juvenile era, preadolescence, early adolescence, late adolescence, and adulthood. , Details of a patient's interpersonal interactions with others can provide insight into the causes and cures of mental disorder

Tensions: potential for action A. Needs: conjunctive; they help integrate personality 1. General Needs: facilitate the overall well-being of a person a. Interpersonal: tenderness, intimacy, love b. Physiological: food, oxygen, water, etc. 2. Zonal Needs: arise from particular area of the body a. Oral b. Genital c. Manual B. Anxiety: disjunctive: it interferes with the satisfaction of needs and is the primary obstacle in establishing healthy interpersonal relationships Energy Transformations: overt or covert actions designed to satisfy needs or to reduce anxiety. Some energy transformations become relatively consistent Dynamisms: traits or behavioral patterns A. Malevolence: a feeling of living in an enemy country B. Intimacy: an integrating experience marked by a close personal relationship with another person who is more or less of equal status C. Lust: an isolating dynamism characterized by an impersonal sexual interest in another person

Levels of Cognition: ways of perceiving, imagining and conceiving experiences A. Prototaxic: undifferentiated experiences that are completely personal B. Parataxic: prelogical experiences that arc communicated distorted fashion C. Syntaxic: consensually validated experiences communicated to others Stages of Development with Significant Others (1) and Its Interpersonal Process (2): A. B. C. D. E. F. Infancy: 1. Mothering one, 2. Tenderness Childhood: 1. Parents, 2. Protect security through imaginary playmates Juvenile era: 1. Playmates of equal Status, 2. Orientation toward living in the world of peers Pre- adolescence 1. Single chum, 2. Intimacy Early- adolescence: 1. Several chums, 2. Intimacy and lust toward different persons Late- adolescence: 1. Lover, 2. Fusion of intimacy and lust

Individual Psychology (Alfred Adler) presents an optimistic view of people while resting heavily in the notion of social interest. People are motivated mostly by social influences and by their striving for superiority of success

Social Urges: motivates an individual for he is an inherent social being The Final Goal: what people strive; fictional and has no objective existence Striving for Success or Superiority: a means of compensation for feeling of inferiority or weakness A. Striving for Success: motivated by social interest and the success of all humankind B. Striving for Superiority: striving with little or no concern for others Subjective Perceptions: shapes ones behavior and his personality A. Fictionalism: a goal created in early life and may not be clearly understood; guides the style of life; gives unity to the personality B. Physical Inferiorities: a belief system to overcome physical deficiencies that rooted from epigenetic principle of development Unity and Self-Consistency of Personality: makes each individual unique and indivisible A. Organ Dialect: the disturbance of one part of the body affects the entire person; this expresses the direction of the individual goal B. Conscious and Unconscious: conscious thoughts are those regarded by the individual helpful in striving success, whereas the unconscious thoughts are those that are not helpful; the harmony between them creates the unified personality

Social Interest: a deep concern for the welfare of other people; a feeling of oneself with all humanity Style of Life: flavor of a persons life; includes a persons goal, self-concept, feeling for others, and attitude toward the world Creative Self/ Power: makes one in control of his own life; responsible for their final goal; determines the method for striving the final goal, contributes to the development of social interest

Psychonanalytic Social/ Neurotic Needs (Karen Horney) was built on the assumption that social and cultural conditions, especially childhood experiences, are largely responsible for shaping personality

Basic Hostility: results from childhood feelings of rejection or neglect by parents or from a defense against basic anxiety Basic Anxiety: repressed feeling that lead to profound feelings of insecurity and a vague sense of apprehension; results from parental threats or defense against hostility Compulsive Drives: various protective devices to guard against the rejection, hostility, and competitiveness of others Neurotic Needs: 10 categories that characterizes neurotics in their attempts to combat anxiety Neurotic Trends: general categories of neurotic needs that relates a persons attitude toward self and others A. Moving toward people 1. Acceptance and Humiliation: live accordingly; please people 2. Dominant Partners: attach oneself to powerful partner B. Moving against people 3. Personal Achievement: strong drive to do best 4. Personal Admiration: to be recognized 5. Prestige: to be respected 6. Power 7. Exploitation: evaluate others on how they can be exploited; at the same time, there is fear of being exploited by others C. Moving away from people 8. Self- restriction: to be contented 9. Self- sufficient: self apart 10. Perfection and Unassailability: be best and critical to mistakes Basic Conflict: incompatible tendency to move as of neurotic trends

Transactional Analysis (Eric Berne) describes how people are structured psychologically. It uses what is perhaps its best known model, the ego-state (Parent-AdultChild) model, to do this. The same model helps explain how people function and express their personality in their behavior

The Ego-State (or Parent-Adult-Child, PAC) Model: A. Parent: a state in which people behave, feel, and think in response to an unconscious mimicking of how their parents (or other parental figures) acted, or how they interpreted their parent's actions B. Adult: a state of the ego which is most like a computer processing information and making predictions absent of major emotions that could affect its operation. Learning to strengthen the Adult is a goal of TA. While a person is in the Adult ego state, he/she is directed towards an objective appraisal of reality. C. Child: a state in which people behave, feel and think similarly to how they did in childhood. The Child is the source of emotions, creation, recreation, spontaneity and intimacy. Transaction and Strokes: A. Transactions: are the flow of communication, and more specifically the unspoken psychological flow of communication that runs in parallel. Transactions occur simultaneously at both explicit and psychological level B. Strokes: are the recognition, attention or responsiveness that one person gives another Kinds of Transactions: A. Reciprocal: A simple, reciprocal transaction occurs when both partners are addressing the ego state the other is in B. Crossed: Communication failures are typically caused by a 'crossed transaction' where partners address ego states other than that their partner is in C. Ulterior: the explicit social conversation occurs in parallel with an implicit psychological transaction (verbal and physical)

Organismic (Kurt Goldstein) tend to stress the organization, unity, and integration of human beings expressed through each individual's inherent growth or developmental tendency Basic Concepts: A theory of disease A. B. C. D. The organism cannot be divided into "organs": it is the whole that reacts to the environment Disease: is a manifestation of a change of state between the organism and its environment Healing does not come through "repair" but through adaptation of the whole system The organism cannot simply return to the state preceding the event that changed it, but has to adapt to the conditions that caused the new state E. A local symptom is not meaningful to understand a "disease", and the organism's behavior during a disease cannot be explained as a response to that specific symptom F. A sick person's body undergoes mass-scale adjustments

Biospheric System (Andres Angyal) according to this model, the biosphere is the system of the individual and her environment, consisting of Subject subsystem (the individual) and Object subsystem (the environment)

Biosphere: is seen as a system of interlocking systems so arranged that any given sub-system of the biosphere is both the container of lesser systems and the contained of a greater system or systems Fundamental Pulls of the Biosphere: A. Autonomy/ Self Determination: is the relatively egoistic pole of the biosphere: it represents the tendency to advance one's interests by mastering the environment, by asserting oneself, so to speak, as a separate being B. Homonymy/ Self- Surrender: is the relatively 'selfless' pole of the biosphpere: it is the tendency to fit oneself to the environment by willingly subordinating oneself to something that one perceives as larger than the individual self

Moral Development (Lawrence Kohlberg) focuses on the emergence, change, and understanding of morality from infancy through adulthood (morality is defined as principles for how individuals ought to treat one another, with respect to justice, others welfare, and rights)

Levels of Moral Development: A. Preconventional: self-directed 1. Stage 1: Obedience- Punishment Orientation: Obeying the rules is important because it is a means to avoid punishment 2. Stage 2: Instrumental Relativist Orientation: children account for individual points of view and judge actions based on how they serve individual needs B. Conventional: others directed 1. Stage 3: Good Boy, Nice Girl Orientation: focused on living up to social expectations and roles 2. Stage 4: Law and Order Orientation: people begin to consider society as a whole when making judgments. The focus is on maintaining law and order by following the rules, doing ones duty and respecting authority C. Postconventional: principle- directed 1. Stage 5: Social Contract Orientation: people begin to account for the differing values, opinions and beliefs of other people. Rules of law are important for maintaining a society, but members of the society should agree upon these standards 2. Stage 6: Universal Ethical Orientation: moral reasoning is based upon universal ethical principles and abstract reasoning. At this stage, people follow these internalized principles of justice, even if they conflict with laws and rules


Personology Theory (Henry Murray) suggests that personalities are a reflection of behaviors controlled by needs. While some needs are temporary and changing, other needs are more deeply seated in ones nature Two types of needs: A. Primary Needs: are based upon biological demands, such as the need for oxygen, food, and water. B. Secondary needs: are generally psychological, such as the need for nurturing, independence, and achievement. List of Psychogenic Needs A. Ambition Needs 1. Achievement: Success, accomplishment, and overcoming obstacles 2. Exhibition: Shocking or thrilling other people 3. Recognition: Displaying achievements and gaining social status B. Materialistic Needs 1. Acquisition: Obtaining things 2. Construction: Creating things 3. Order: Making things neat and organized 4. Retention: Keeping things C. Power Needs 1. Abasement: Confessing and apologizing 2. Autonomy: Independence and resistance 3. Aggression: Attacking or ridiculing others 4. Blame Avoidance: Following the rules and avoiding blame 5. Deference: Obeying and cooperating with others 6. Dominance: Controlling others D. Affection Needs 1. Affiliation: Spending time with other people 2. Nurturance: Taking care of another person 3. Play: Having fun with others 4. Rejection: Rejecting other people 5. Succorance: Being helped or protected by others E. Information Needs 1. Cognizance: Seeking knowledge and asking questions 2. Exposition: Education others

Holistic- Dynamic (Abraham Maslow) assumes that the whole person is constantly being motivated by one need or another and that people have the potential to grow toward psychological health self actualization

Hierarchy of Needs (Conative/ Basic Needs): A. Physiological Needs: survival needs (food, water, oxygen, heat, etc.) B. Safety Needs: protection needs ( physical security, stability, dependency, freedom from threatening forces) C. Love and Belongingness Needs: interpersonal needs (desire for friendship, wish for a mate and children, the need to belong to a family, etc.) D. Self- Esteem Needs: self-respect, confidence, competence, knowledge (for higher esteem) E. Self-Actualization Needs: self-fulfillment, the realization of ones potential, desire to become creative Other Categories of Needs (according to Maslow): A. Aesthetic Needs: need for beauty and aesthetically pleasing experiences B. Cognitive Needs: desire for knowledge and wisdom C. Neurotic Needs: nonproductive needs that are usually reactive; that is, they serve as compensation for unsatisfied basic needs

Basic Assumptions: Person- Centered (Carl Rogers) roots from the idea that all individuals (organisms) exist in a continually changing world of experience (phenomenal field) of which they are the center A. Formative Tendency: the tendency for all matter , both organic and inorganic, to evolve from simpler to more complex forms; human consciousness evolves from a primitive unconsciousness to a highly organized awareness B. Actualizing Tendency: the tendency within all humans (and other animals and plants) to move toward completion or fulfillment of potentials The Self and Self Actualization: A. Self-Concept: includes all those aspects of ones being and ones experiences that are perceived in awareness (though not always accurately) by the individual B. Ideal Self: ones view of self as one wishes to be

Existential Psychology (Ludwig Binswanger) represents a synthesis of philosophy and psychology

Intentionality: the structure that gives meaning to experience and allows people to make decisions about the future Being-in-the world/ Dasein: This concept emphasizes the unity of person and environment, since, in this heavily phenomenological position, both are subjectively defined. Being-in-the-world has three components:

A. B. C.

Umwelt ("world around") - the natural world of biological urge and drive Mitwelt ("with-world") - the social, interactive, interpersonal aspects of existence Eigenwelt ("own world") - the subjective, phenomenological world of the self.

Nonbeing: is the awareness of the possibility of ones not being, through death or loss of awareness Anxiety: occurs when an individual is aware of the possibility of his nonbeing as well as when he is aware that he is free to choose A. Normal Anxiety: is experienced by everyone and is proportionate to the threat B. Neurotic Anxiety: is disproportionate to the threat, involves repression, and is handled in a selfdefeating manner Guilt: results from (1) separation to the natural world, (2) inability to judge the needs of others, (3) denial of ones potentials Authenticity: best ways of living life, requires movement/ change Inauthenticity: becoming static in life, no change Different Modes: the styles people live A. Singular mode: alone and self-sufficient B. Dual mode: "you and me" rather than an "I." C. Plural mode: thinking of themselves in terms of their membership in something larger than - a nation, a religion, an organization, a culture D. Anonymous mode: quiet, secretive, in the background of life

themselves -

Constitutional/ Physique (William Sheldon) associating the body type with the human temperament type Somatotype Categorization (Body Shape): A. Endomorphic: characterized by increased fat storage, a wide waist and a large bone structure, usually referred to as fat; slow, sloppy and lazy; sociable B. Mesomorphic: characterized by medium bones, solid torso, low fat levels, wide shoulders with a narrow waist; usually referred to as muscular; popular and hardworking C. Ectomorphic: characterized by long and thin muscles/limbs and low fat storage; usually referred to as slim; intelligent but fearful

Morphogenic Science: the methods used to gather data are focused on a single individual Individual Psychology (Gordon Allport) emphasized on the uniqueness of the individual where the idea general traits are neglected Common Traits: are general characteristics held in common by many people Structure of Personality: personal dispositions the building blocks of personality A. Individual traits /Personal Dispositions: generalized neuropsychic structure (peculiar to the individual), has levels: 1. Cardinal Dispositions: which only a few people possess and which are so conspicuous that they cannot be hidden 2. Central Dispositions: the 5-10 individual traits that make a person unique 3. Secondary Dispositions: are not central to personality yet occur with some regularity and are responsible for much of ones specific behaviors B. Proprium: refer to those behaviors and characteristics that people regard as warm, central and important to their lives Motivational traits: personal dispositions that initiate actions Stylistic traits: personal dispositions that guides actions Functional Autonomy: refers to motives that are self-sustaining and independent from the motives that were originally responsible for a behavior A. Preservative Functional Autonomy: refers to those habits and behaviors that are not part of ones proprium B. Propriate Functional Autonomy: includes all those self-sustaining motivations that are related to the proprium

Factor Analytic Trait (Raymund Bernard Catell) are primarily interested in the measurement of traits, which can be defined as habitual patterns of behavior, thought, and emotion

Traits: the building blocks of personality A. Constitutional Traits: determined by biology B. Environmental-Mold Traits: determined by environment 1. Ability Traits: persons skill in dealing with the complexity of a given situation (e.g., IQ) 2. Temperament Traits: persons stylistic tendencies(e.g., sociable, active) 3. Dynamic Traits: persons motivations and interests (e.g., ambition, power- or athletically-oriented) C. Common Traits: shared by many people D. Unique Traits: specific to one person

E. Surface Traits: behaviors that superficially go together F. Source Traits: behaviors that do vary together Role: ties traits together in a given situation Dynamic Traits and the Dynamic Lattice Dynamic Traits: traits that power the person into action; dispositions that motivate a person to act in certain ways A. Attitudes: specific interests in particular course of action toward certain objects in a given situation B. Sentiments: large and complex attitudes, which incorporate a host of interests, opinions, and minor attitudes. C. Erg: innate drives triggered by environmental stimuli that cease when the goal of the erg is reached Dynamic Lattice: Cattells proposed structure for interrelating traits in personality Subsidiation: A process whereby certain traits control and lead to the occurrence of other traits Sources of Data: A. L Data: persons life derived from observations made by other people B. Q Data: self-reports obtained from questionnaires and other techniques designed to allow people to make subjective descriptions of themselves C. T Data: objective tests which measures performance designed to challenge peoples maximum performance

Psychological Trait (Hans Eysenck) are primarily interested in the measurement of traits, which can be defined as habitual patterns of behavior, thought, and emotion

Three Bipolar Factors: A. Extraversion/ introversion: Extraverts are characterized by sociability and impulsiveness; introverts, by passivity and thoughtfulness B. Neuroticism/ stability: high score on the neuroticism scale may indicate anxiety, hysteria, obsessivecompulsiveness disorders, or criminality; low scores tend to predict emotional stability C. Psychoticism/ Superego: high scores on psychoticism indicate hostility, self-centeredness, suspicion, nonconformity, and antisocial behavior; low scores indicated a strong superego, empathy and cooperation

Behavioral Analysis/ (Burrhus Frederic Skinner) focused entirely on observable behavior; avoided all hypothetical constructs, such as ego, traits, drives, needs, hunger, and so forth Connectionism Theory (Edward Thorndike): a precursor to Skinners Scientific Behaviorism where learning means selecting and connecting Laws of Learning: A. Law of Readiness: learning takes place if the individual is biologically prepared for the specific matter to learn B. Law of Exercise: explains that any connection is strengthened in proportion to the number of times it occurs and in proportion to the average vigor and duration of connection C. Law of Effect: a organisms connection is increased if its response is accompanied or followed by a satisfactory state Conditioning: a behavioral process whereby a response becomes more frequent or more predictable in a given environment as a result of reinforcement, with reinforcement typically being a stimulus or reward for a desired response Classical Conditioning (Ivan Pavlov): a neutral conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus a number of times until it is capable of bringing about a previously unconditioned response Features of Classical Conditioning: A. Stimulus Generalization: a process by which the conditioned response transfers to other stimuli that are similar to the original conditioned stimulus B. Discrimination: a process by which one learns not to respond to a similar stimuli in an identical manner brought about by previous experience C. Extinction: by which a conditioned response is lost Operant Conditioning: is a process of changing behavior in which reinforcement (or punishment) is contingent on the occurrence of a particular behavior Reinforcement: a process of strengthening a directly measurable dimension of behavior immediately or shortly after the occurrence of the behavior A. Positive reinforcer: is any event that, when added to the situation, increases the probability that a given behavior will occur B. Negative reinforcer: is any aversive stimulus that, when removed from the environment, increases the probability of a given behavior

Punishment: unlike negative reinforcement, it presents an aversive stimulus or removal of a positive stimulus that does not strengthen a response. Schedules of Reinforcement: A. Continuous schedule: the organism is reinforced for every response B. Intermittent schedule: are based either on the behavior of the organism or on elapsed time; they either can be set a fixed rate or can vary according to randomized program 1. Fixed-ratio schedule: reinforced intermittently according to the number of responses it makes 2. Variable-ratio schedule: the organism is reinforced every after nth response 3. Fixed-interval schedule: reinforced for the first response following a designated period of time 4. Variable-interval schedule: reinforced after the lapse of random or varied periods of time

Social Cognitive Theory (Albert Bandura) posits that portions of an individual's knowledge acquisition can be directly related to observing others within the context of social interactions, experiences, and outside media influences

Observation Learning: allows people to learn without performing any behavior A. B. C. D. Attention to a model Organization and retention of observations Behavioral production Motivation to perform the modeled behavior

Triadic Reciprocal Causation: this system assumes that human action is a result of interaction among three variables environment, behavior, and person. Chance Encounters: an unintended meeting of persons not related to each other Fortuitous Events: is an environmental experience that is unexpected and unintended Human Agency: capacity of humans to exercise and control their own lives. Has 3 core features: A. Self-Efficacy: belief that one can or cannot execute a behavior that can be affected by the following: 1. Mastery of Experiences 2. Social Modeling 3. Social Persuasion 4. Physical and Emotional Stress B. Proxy Agency: occurs when people have the capacity to rely on others for goods and services C. Collective Efficacy: refers to the confidence that groups of people have their combined efforts to produce social change

Social Learning Theory ( Julian Rotter) rests on the assumption that cognitive factors such as: expectancies, subjective perceptions, values, goals, and personal standards help shape how people will react to environmental forces

Predicting Specific Behaviors: A. B. C. D. Behavior Potential: refers to the likelihood that a given behavior will occur in a particular situation Expectancy: is a persons expectation of being reinforced Reinforcement Value: is a persons preference of a particular reinforcement Psychological Situation: refers to a complex pattern of cues that a person perceives during a specific time period.

Predicting General Behaviors: A. Generalized Expectancies: used when possible behaviors are new to the individual B. Needs: any behavior or set of behaviors that people see as moving them in the direction of a goal 1. Categories of Needs: a. Recognition Status b. Dominance c. Independence d. Protection-Dependency e. Love and Affection 2. Need Components: a. Need Potential: refers to possible occurrence of a set of goals functionally related behaviors directed toward satisfying the same or similar goals b. Freedom of Movement: ones best guess that particular reinforcement will follow a specific response c. Need Value: is the degree to which he or she prefers one set of reinforcements to another

Personal Construct Theory (George Kelly) assumes that all people anticipate events by the meanings or interpretations they place on those events

Construction: peoples interpretation in their real world by which their behavior is shaped Constructive Alternativism: a philosophical position with which alternative constructions are always available Personal Constructs: are the means by which people make sense out of the world Fundamental postulate: "A person's processes are psychologically channelized by the ways in which he [or she] anticipates events."

Supporting Collolaries: A. The construction corollary: "a person anticipates events by construing their replications." This means that individuals anticipate events in their social world by perceiving a similarity with a past event (construing a replication). B. The experience corollary: "a person's construction system varies as he successively construes the replication of events." C. The dichotomy corollary: "a person's construction system is composed of a finite number of dichotomous constructs." D. The organization corollary: "each person characteristically evolves, for his convenience in anticipating events, a construction system embracing ordinal relationships between constructs." E. The range corollary: "a construct is convenient for the anticipation of a finite range of events only." F. The modulation corollary: "the variation in a person's construction system is limited by the permeability of the constructs within whose range of convenience the variants lie." G. The choice corollary: "a person chooses for himself that alternative in a dichotomized construct through which he anticipates the greater possibility for extension and definition of his system." H. The individuality corollary: "persons differ from each other in their construction of events." I. The commonality corollary: "to the extent that one person employs a construction of experience which is similar to that employed by another, his psychological processes are similar to the other person." J. The fragmentation corollary: "a person may successively employ a variety of construction subsystems which are inferentially incompatible with each other." K. The sociality corollary: "to the extent that one person construes the construction processes of another, he may play a role in a social process involving the other person."

Russian/ Soviet Psychology follows materialistic philosophy and ideas and links it to Marx, Engels, and Lenin Materialism: reality is based on what is sensed; the only thing that exists is matter or energy; that all things are composed of material and all phenomena (including consciousness) are the result of material interactions. In other words, matter is the only substance, and reality is identical with the actually occurring states of energy and matter Communism: everything is equal Reactology: response to the demand of the environment

Eastern Psychology (Gautama Buddha) Buddhist approaches emphasize the commonalities among people. Differences occur in the specific content of consciousness, but these are transient, and the emphasis is on a common developmental progression

Bhikku Nyannaponika: mind (the center of all activities), which has two categories: A. Mental Properties: innate process B. Mental Factors: characteristics and temperament Adaptation and Adjustment: Buddhism explains suffering and its causes, and offers an Eightfold Path to alleviate suffering and bring happiness. It offers detailed practices for improving mental functioning, through various kinds of yoga and meditation. Cognitive Processes: Wrong thinking is a fundamental cause of suffering. Meditation improves cognitive functioning. The idea of a stable, enduring self is seen as an illusion with adverse consequences. Society: The individual is not separate from others or the world as a whole, and individual development has positive consequences for the world. Conversely, a supportive community improves individual functioning. Biological Influences: The Buddhist worldview does not see the body and mind as separate but rather as closely related, so improved consciousness has beneficial health effects. Development: Development results from systematic and intensive spiritual practices, and is an individual responsibility. In contrast to other approaches, Buddhism does not look to external causes, such as the family or the environment, as the cause of development or developmental failures. Karma: consequences of behavior Atta/ The Personality: yielded from the sum total of all body parts

Reference: Feist, J and Feist G. J (2009). Theories of Personality (7th Ed.). New Oyrk, America: McGraw-Hill. Obias, P. H. (2012). (Class Lectures). * some references were not cited, this document does not claim for their works.