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Basic Computer course book

Free University of Bolzano Bozen Dr. Paolo Coletti Edition 7. 0 (8 October 2012)
Introduction
This book containscourses lessons held at the FreeUniversity of BolzanoBozen.It containsonlythe first
partofthecourses,namelythelessonson:
computerintroduction,
MicrosoftWindows,
computernetworks,
computerdangersandsecurity.
It does not contain the parts on Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel, financial functions, Microsoft Access,
computer algorithms, SPSS, Visual Basic for Applications, which are very well covered by the respective
coursessuggestedbooks.
Thisbookisusuallyupdatedeveryyear,pleasetakealookattheeditiondate.
Disclaimers
This book is designed for very novice computer users. It often contains oversimplifications of reality and
everytechnicaldetailispurposelyomitted.Expertuserswillfindthisbookuselessand,forcertainaspects,
partiallywrong.
This book supposes that the user is using Microsoft Windows 7 operating system in English language.
However, most of the book is perfectly readable with other Windows versions, while some menus and
instructions can be rather different if the language is not English (Windows language may be changed on
multilanguageinstallations:seepage6forfurtherinformation).
The novice user in this book is, for simplicity, always considered male. This is not meant to be gender
discrimination.
Table of Contents
Introduction..........................................................1
1. Computers....................................................2
1.1. Storage.........................................................2
1.2. Software.......................................................3
2. MicrosoftWindows......................................5
2.1. Versionsandeditions...................................5
2.2. Regionalandlanguagesettings....................6
2.3. Filesystem....................................................7
3. Computernetworks...................................13
3.1. Technicalaspects........................................13
3.2. Communication..........................................14
3.3. Internetconnections.................................17
4. Computersecurity.....................................18
4.1. Encryption..................................................18
4.2. Passwords..................................................21
4.3. Viruses.......................................................23
4.4. Emails.........................................................24
4.5. Navigation..................................................26
4.6. Attacksfromoutside.................................27
4.7. Backup.......................................................28
Index..................................................................31

Dr.PaoloCo
Page2of32
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Dr.PaoloColetti BasicComputercoursebook
Page4of32 Edition7.0(08/10/2012)
private, software uniquely built, under payment, for a specific customer to fit his needs. Only the
costumer may use it. A typical example is the universitys studentscoursesexamsprofessors
databasesystem.
The permission to be modified can seem a trivial question for the novice user, however for program
developers and computer experts being authorized to modify a software is a great advantage since it can
be improved, checked for errors and tailored to specific needs. The open source versus proprietary
softwareisastrongethicalandeconomicaldebateinthecomputerscientistscommunity.Subdivisionby
permissiontomodifyis:
open source software may be studied, used and especially modified by anyone. The software
developers at the same time legally authorize any modifications and they distribute the source of
thesoftwaretoputotherdevelopersinaconditiontoeasilymodifyit.Opensourcesoftwareisalso
automaticallyfreeware.ThemosttypicalexampleisLinuxoperatingsystem.
copyleft software is open source but carries the restriction that any modification must be
distributed as open source and copyleft, thus impeding that software becomes, after a
modification,proprietary.ThemostfamouscopyleftcontractlicenseistheGNUPublicLicense(see
http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html).
proprietarysoftwareisdistributed(costlessasAdobeAcrobatReader,orasasharewareasWinZip,
ormostoftensoldascommercialsoftwareasMicrosoftOffice)withtheexplicitlegalwarningnot
tomodifyitandtechnicallylockedtopreventotherdeveloperstoseeormodifyitssource.
1.2.2. Software naming
Software is usually identified by a name, for example Linux or Microsoft Office, sometimes by a
distribution/edition name Linux Ubuntu, Microsoft Office Professional and very often by a version
number,asequenceofnumbers,pointsandletters(sometimes,asforWindows,commercialnames)which
distinguishesthechangesmadebydeveloperswithtime,suchasLinuxUbuntu12.10orMicrosoftOffice
Professional 2010. Obviously the version numbers of open source software changes rapidly, due to the
manydevelopersworkingonthem.
1.2.3. Data format licenses
Dataneedtobesavedwithacertainstructure,calledformats.Forexample,aplaintextfilemaybesimply
saved as a sequence of letters and symbols, which corresponds to the TXT format. More complex
structures, such as images, videos, but also formatted texts, need more elaborated formats to be stored.
Theseformatsmaybe:
closedproprietary,aformatownedbyasoftwarecompanyandkeptasatradesecret.Inthisway
only programs build by that company can use those data files and no other company is able to
endanger its monopoly. A famous example is DOC format which, until 2007, was kept secret by
Microsoft,thuspreventingcompetitorsfrombuildingalternativestoMicrosoftWordprogram.
open proprietary,,a formatpublicly availablebutwhose improvements andcontrolareunderthe
ownershipofasoftwarecompany.AtypicalexampleisthenewWordformatDOCX.
open,apubliclyavailableformatwhichfollowsofficialstandardswhosecontrolisunderownership
of public organizations, such as American ANSI, German DIN or Italian UNI. Typical examples are
imagesformatGIForformattedtextsformatPDForwebpagesformatHTML.

BasicComputercoursebook Dr.PaoloColetti
Edition7.0(08/10/2012) Page5of32
2. Microsoft Windows
MicrosoftWindowsiscurrentlythemarketleaderoperatingsystem,itistheusualinterfacewhichappears
whentheuserturnsapersonalcomputeron.
2.1. Versions and editions
Microsoft released Windows XP in 2001 and for many years it has been the main Microsoft operative
system.InMay2012itisstillinstalledonapproximately30%ofcomputers(sourcegs.statcounter.com).
Windows Vista was released in 2007 and it was not a market success.
Currentlyitisinstalledonlessthan10%ofcomputers.
Microsoft released Windows 7 in 2009, which is the currently default
Microsoft operative system. It is installed on approximately 50% of
computers.Itseditionsare:
StarterandHomeBasic,cheapversionswithseverelimitations,used
mostlyonsmallnotebooks;
HomePremium,homeusersedition;
Professional, personal business edition which includes more
networkprograms;
Enterprise/Ultimate,Professionaleditionwithmorenetworkutilities
available to companies/individual users. Enterprise edition is
currently(June2012)installedatUNIBZ
2.1.1. Computer locking problem
MicrosoftWindowssometimesbecomesunstable:itcanunpredictably,withoutanywarningandwhenthe
user does not expect it and typically when he is doing something very important and urgent, lock and
refusetorespondtousersactions.Whenthishappens,itisusuallycausedbytheprogramthatwasused
and therefore the first thing to do is to try to close the current program. If this does not improve the
situation, the only other solution left is to turn off the computer. The list of operations to try until the
computeranswerstouserscommandsis:
1. if the mouse works, click the X button on the
programwindoworotherwisepressALT+F4;
2. press CTRL+SHIFT+ESC; select the program from the
listandpressEndProgram;
3. pressCTRL+ALT+DELand,fromthebottomrighticon,
chooseShutDown;
4. pressthecomputeron/offbutton;
5. unplugtheelectricpower.
In anycaseallthecurrentunsavedworkwillbe lost;inthe
last two cases the operating system can sometimes be
damagedbutveryoftenitwillrepairbyitselfthenexttime
the computer is turned on. Therefore it is always a very
good idea to save very often the current work, especially
whenitisimportant,urgent,ordifficulttoredo.

HomePremium
Professional
Enterprise/Ultimate
HomeBasic
Starter
Dr.PaoloColetti BasicComputercoursebook
Page6of32 Edition7.0(08/10/2012)
2.2. Regional and language settings
With a multilanguage Windows installation, keyboard settings or menus languages may be changed
clicking on the Start icon, choosing Control panel, then Clock, Language and Region, then Change
DisplayLanguage,andmodifyingtheappropriatesetting.
Another interesting
option, available on
every Windows
installation, is the
numbers and dates
formats. When in
Clock,Languageand
Region, choosing
Region and
Language and
clickingonFormats
then on Additional
Settings the user is
able to change the
format of numbers,
especially the
decimal separator,
the currency and the
date format,
especiallytheEnglish
(monthday) and
European (day
month)formats.
Whilethekeyboardsettingscanbeadjustedfromthismenu,itiseasiertoadjustitdirectlyfromtheright
sideoftheapplicationbar,simplyclickingonkeyboardiconandselectingtheappropriateone.
2.2.1. Keyboards and languages
Before starting this section it is necessary to take a close look at your keyboard. Locate these keys since
theywillbeusedintherestofthismanualandareveryusefulinmanyprograms:
Englishkeyboard Germankeyboard ItalianKeyboard Mainfunction
CTRL STRG CTRL
ALT ALT ALT
ALTGR ALTGR ALTGR Producecharacteronthekeysrightleft
F1toF12 F1toF12 F1toF12
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INS EINFG INS Toggleinsert/overwritemode
HOMEor POS1 Gotobeginning
END ENDE FINE Gotoend
PGandPG BILDandBILD PAGandPAG Goonepageupordown
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Page12of32 Edition7.0(08/10/2012)
This mechanism, called roaming user profile, works fine only if the user is not using too much disk space
(whichisusually300MB,butitisagoodideatostaybelow150MB).Iftheuserisoverquota,thesystem
sends a warningvia email totheuser and, if the userremains over quota, thismechanism does not work
anymore. Moreover, if the user still remains over quota, he will be forbidden from saving any file on the
computerheiscurrentlyusing.
Therefore it is a good idea to always work on a USB pen drive (which is then copied on another personal
computer)andtoperiodicallycheckthediskspacelookingattheproprietiesofthisdirectory.Ifawarning
email has been received or, even worse, roaming user profile does not work anymore, files need to be
deleted not from the current computer (since the mechanism is not working anymore) but directly going
throughthisdirectory.

BasicComputercoursebook Dr.PaoloColetti
Edition7.0(08/10/2012) Page13of32
3. Computer networks
Thispartofthebookisdedicatedtocomputernetworksfromausersperspective.Nowadaysacomputer
is very likely to belong to some companys network, or to be connected to the Internet via an Internet
provider, and is therefore exposed to all the typical network problems. Without entering into technical
details,thissectionwillexplorethesituationsinwhichanoviceusercanfindhimselfintroublesandhow
hecantrytosurvivedialoguingwithnetworkadministratorsintheirownstrangetechnicallanguage.
3.1. Technical aspects
Acomputernetworkisasetofdeviceswhichcommunicateandshareresources.Thesedevicesaremostly
computers, and sometimes standalone hard disks, telephones, printers and terminals (processorless
computerswhichmustrelyonothercomputerstowork).
3.1.1. Server and client
A computer network interaction is based on the client server architecture. When considering a single
interaction,onecomputeristheserverandtheotheroneistheclient.Theserveristhecomputerwhichis
offering its resource, usually programmed to wait until someone asks for its resource. The client is the
computerwhichusestheresource,whichsendstherequesttoawaitingserver.
Forexample,whensendingadocumenttotheprinter,theuserscomputeristheclientwhiletheprinteris
the server; when retrieving personal emails, the users computer is the client which connects to the
mailserver asking for available emails. When talking to a friend on an Internet chat, the interaction is
composed of two different interactions: the users computer as a client is connected to the chat rooms
computeractingasaserver,andthefriendscomputerdoesthesameinteraction.
The same computer may be the client for a service and the server for another service. For example, a
librarycomputermayhaveaCDinsideitsreadersharedtothenetwork(serverfortheCD)andmaybeat
thesametimeusedbyausertoprinthisowndocuments(clientfortheprinter).
3.1.2. Areas
Computernetworksarecommonlydividedintothreecategories:
Local Area Network (LAN or Intranet), usually the network of computers in the same building or
belonging to the same owner. Inside the LAN every computer is well identified and usually every
userisknown.Itisconsideredatrustedarea.
WideAreaNetwork(WANorInternet),which iseverythingwhichconnectsLANs.Computers and
usersidentificationisveryhardandanonymityispossible.Itisconsideredadangerousarea.
Virtual Private Network (VPN) is a way to recognize a computer outside the LAN as a trusted
computer: the user is identified with a password and his computer, even though connected via
Internet,willbeconsideredaspartoftheLAN,foraslongasitremainsconnected.VPNistypically
requiredtoidentifyportablecomputersconnectedviawirelessconnection.
3.1.3. Transfer speed
Thenetworkconnectingcomponentsarethecables,whichdeterminethespeedoftheLAN.Cableshavea
speed measure in bps (bits per second) which indicates how many bits can flow through the cable in one
second.
Dr.PaoloCo
Page14of3
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BasicComputercoursebook Dr.PaoloColetti
Edition7.0(08/10/2012) Page15of32
3.2.3. Posta Elettronica Certificata PEC
Whensendinganemail,thesenderhasnoproofthatithasbeensent,forexampletobeusedinacourtof
justice,andnoguaranteethattheemailhasbeendispatched.Somemailreadersuseareceiptsystem,but
thereceiverisnotobligedtosendbackthereceipt.
In order to overcome these problems, many solutions have been proposed. The Italian Posta Elettronica
Certificata (PEC) system has become one of the most widespread solutions, thanks to law Decreto
Ministeriale 6 May 2009 which guarantees a free PEC email address to every citizen and thanks to law
82/2005whichdeterminesthatPECreceiptsarelegalproves.
WhenanemailissentfromaPECaddresstoanotherPECaddress,thesenderreceivestworeceipt:thefirst
one is a proof that the email has been sent with date and time, while the second one is a proof that the
email has been dispatched to the mailbox of the receiver. This does not represent a proof that the email
has been actually read, but from the moment the email is dispatched to the mailbox it is the receivers
responsibilitytoreadit.Underthiscircumstances,itisperfectlyequivalenttoraccomandataconricevuta
diritorno.EmailscanbesendalsofromaPECaddresstoanonPECaddress,andinthiscasethereceiver
getsonlythesentproofbutnotthedispatchedproof,liketheraccomandatasemplice.Whenanemailis
sentfromanonPECaddresstoaPECaddress,noreceiptisproducedandthisisequivalenttoastandard
letter.
Moreover,eventhoughitisnotofficiallyrequired,PECtoPECalsoguaranteesthatcontentbenotaltered
andthatsendersemailaddressistheindicatedone.However,itisimportanttonotethatPECalonedoes
notguaranteethatthesenderisreallythepersonwhoclaimstobeandthatcontentremainsunreaduntil
itreachesdestination.Inordertoovercometheselasttwoproblems,encryptionanddigitalsignature(see
section4.1onpage18)mustbeused.
3.2.4. Voice over IP programs
Voice over IP (VoIP) programs are able to use the computer connection as a substitute for standard
telephone.Equippedwitheithermicrophoneandheadphonesorwitharealtelephonelikedevice,theuser
can send his voice through the Internet to remote computers or even to real remote telephones, thus
savingontelephonebills.
VoIPrequiresasubscriptiontoaVoIPswebsite,themostfamousbeingSkype,whodecidesthetelephone
fares. Typically calling other VoIPs users is free all over the world, while calling fixed telephones depends
only on the destination country and is independent from the callers country, with a fare which is
comparabletothestandard localtelephonecall(about2 cent/minute inJune2012).Ontheotherhand,
callingmobiletelephonesis,forthemoment,stillveryexpensive(about30cent/minuteinJune2012);for
thisreason,specialVoIPtelephones,whichcanbeprogrammedtoautomaticallydecidebetweenVoIPand
thestandardtelephonelineaccordingtothedialednumber,areappearingonthemarket.
3.2.5. Search engines
A search engine is a special program running on a website which offers to the user the possibility of
searching other websites for specific web pages. The user needs to connect to the search engine website
and digit the keywords, or sometimes even a complete question, and the website returns the list of
relevantwebpages.
Search engines use a crawler technique: they continuously go through the known web pages memorizing
theircontentandtryingtodiscoverotherwebpagesthroughthecontainedlinks.Inthiswaytheyareable
tomemorizemostoftheWWWspages(morethan8billionpages),eventhoughsomenotlinkedwebsites
canremainunknowntosearchengines.
Dr.PaoloCo
Page16of3
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Edition7.0(08/10/2012) Page17of32
3.3. Internet connections
TherearemanydifferentwaystoconnecttotheInternet,dividedbythephysicalmeanofconnection:the
telephonecable,adedicatedcableorelectromagneticsignals.
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environment
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WiFi
wirelesscard 3080Mbps
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WiMax
antennainlineofsight
modem
40Mbps
Speeddepends
stronglyon
distance
Manyfastconnections,especiallyADSL,sufferfromnetworkcongestion:toomanyusersareconnectingat
thesametimeandtheInternetprovidersmaincablesarenotabletosupporttheusersmaximumspeed
multiplied by the number of users, and therefore must reduce the practical connection speed. Therefore
the maximum speed is often only theoretical and some providers are offering a minimum band
guaranteed:aminimumspeedunderwhichtheconnectionmayneverfall.
Unfortunately, even in technologically advanced countries, there are still many areas where nor ADSL
neitherUMTSarrives,mostlyduetothegeographicconditions(mountains,islandsorlongdesertdistances)
and to the low inhabitants density. This phenomenon is called digital divide: there are people (e.g.
5,000,000ofItalianinhabitants)thatevenwillinglytopaycannotgetabroadbandconnection,and,onthe
other hand, Internet services and especially the WWW is continuously going towards large size contents,
cuttingthesepeopleoff.Inordertoovercomethissocialproblem,WiMaxisspreading,asortofverylong
rangeWirelesswhicharrivesupto10Kmbutworksonlyifthetransmittingandreceivingantennasarein
lineofsightandwhosetheoreticalspeedof70Mbpsdecreaseswithdistancestoabout40Mbps.

Names Equipment Effectivespeed Notes


PSTN(PlainStandard
TelephoneNetwork)
analogical
dialup
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modem
56Kbps
Telephoneisbusy
duringconnection
ISDN(IntegratedService
DigitalNetwork)
ISDNtelephoneline
modem
128Kbps
Telephoneisbusy
duringfullspeed
connection
GPRS(GeneralPacketRadio
Service)
GSMcellularphone 100Kbps
Dr.PaoloCo
Page18of3
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Edition7.0(08/10/2012) Page23of32
4.3. Viruses
FromtheInternetmanyunauthorizedconnectionattemptsarrive.Someofthesearemistakenlyauthorized
and manage to reach the Intranet or at least to come in contact with programs which are behind the
firewall. If these connections carry malign intentions, usually their aim is to explore and use the Intranet
computers,todestroyIntranetdataortostopsomeIntranetservices(whichisadangerousattackifthese
services are managing stock tradesor telephone calls). Defense against these kinds of attacks is in charge
systemadministrators.
While normal external attacks do not involve normal users, the virus is a special attack which arrives
directly on the users computer and must be prevented and stopped by him. The virus is a little program
whichhasthisnamebecauseitslifecycleisthesameofabiologicalorganism:surviveandduplicate.
1. It arrives on the computer through email attachments, downloaded files, CDs and floppy disks or
directly from the Intranet. It is often hidden inside other good files or programs, which are called
infected.
2. As soonas the usermistakenly runs it (oftentrying to run the good program orto open the good
file),thevirusordersthecomputertorunitselfeverytimethecomputeristurnedon,thusassuring
itssurvival.
3. Itstartsduplicatingitself,infectingotherfiles,CDsandfloppydisks,andtryingtosenditselfaround
byemailorontheIntranet.
4. Mostvirusesareprogrammedtododamagetothecomputerandtotheuser,alteringordeleting
files,sendingemailswithuserspersonaldata,preventingfirewallsandantivirusesfromrunning,or
turningthecomputeroff.Novirusesareknowntobeabletodamagehardware.
Manynamesareusedforvirusestypesaccordingtotheirdifferentbehaviors.
trojanhorseisaviruswhichlookslikeagoodprogramand,whendownloadedandrunbytheuser,
itperformstheuserswantedtaskbutatthesametimedoesotheractions;
keyloggerisaviruswhichrecordskeyboardsactivityandthensendsthekeystrokestoitscreator,
mostlytogetuserspasswords;
backdoorisaviruswhichopensaportonthecomputertoletexternalusersin;
adwareisaviruswhichdisplaysadvertisement;
spyware is a virus which spies users activity to get passwords or to target the user with specific
advertisement;
dialerisaviruswhichdialsexpensivenumbersusingthePSTNmodem.
These types are not exclusive: for example a Trojan horse which is at the same time a spyware and an
adware.
Aninfectedcomputercanberecognizedbysomesymptoms.Thesearethemostfrequentones:
when the computer is turned on, unwanted programs start, advertisement appears, and the
desktoppresentssomenewbarsorfeatureswhichwerenotpresentnorinstalledbefore;
thecomputerstartsveryslowlyandunknownprogramsgivestrangeoperatingsystemerrors;
commercialorpornographicwebpagesappearonthewebbrowserwithouttheusersconsent;
theanalogicalmodemmakestypicalconnectionnoisesevenwhenthecomputerisnotconnected
or the operating system asks the user to stop the current connection and start a new one to a
strangetelephonenumber;
theTaskManagerwindow(seepage5)presentsunknownprograms.
Dr.PaoloColetti BasicComputercoursebook
Page24of32 Edition7.0(08/10/2012)
Most of the time, a responsible users behavior it the best weapon against viruses: it protects him from
getting viruses, helps him removing them and prevents him from diffusing them. Responsible behavior
means:
neveropendownloadedfilesandemailattachments,especiallywhentheycomefromafriendwith
a text such as please open it, urgent!, since simulating to be a users friend is a typical virus
tactics.Toopenthesefiles,savethemonthedesktop,checkthemwithanantivirusandthenopen
them;
do not insert in your computer CDs, DVDs and USB pendrives coming from other people or which
were inserted in other computers, unless you have an antivirus running or unless you scan them
immediatelywithanantivirus;
avoid visiting strange websites, especially pornographic or hackers website, or websites which
openalotofpopupwindows;
have an antivirus always running or at least run an updated antivirus on your whole hard disks
every week (while Italian law currently prescribes minimum every 6 months); keep your antivirus
alwaysuptodate:morethan50newvirusesappeareveryweek;
keep communication programs and Microsoft products up to date. Microsoft and most software
companiesofferfreeupdatesandautomaticupdatingtools.
To check the computer for viruses and to try to remove viruses from the computer, the user can run a
specialprogramcalledantivirus.Theantivirusbasicallyhasthreepossibledifferentactions:
itcan scan allthe storagedevices(harddisks,the floppydisk insidethecomputer,theCD orDVD
inside the reader) for viruses. If a virus is found, it tries to remove it and to repair damaged files.
Somefilescanbeunrecoverable.Completedevicesscanningtakesusuallysomehours;
itcanscanasinglefileoranentiredirectoryforviruses.Ifthereisaninfectedfile,ittriestodelete
thevirusandrepairit.Somefilescanbeunrecoverable.Singlefilescanningtakessomeseconds;
it can be always running. In this case, whenever a virus or a suspect file is run, the antivirus
preventsitfromrunningandwarnstheuser.
A lot of antivirus programs, free and commercial, exist. Their most important feature is obviously the
possibilitytobeconstantlyupdatedthroughtheInternet.
4.4. Emails
4.4.1. Attachments
Forviruses,emailattachmentsareafirstclasswayoftraveling,sincetheyareveryoftenopenedbyusers
withoutanyprecaution.Sometimesviruseshideinsidefileswhichwerereallysentbythesender,unaware
of having an infected computer. Other times a virus takes control of the mail reader program and sends
itselftothewholeaddressbook,counterfeitingthesenderaddress(oftenusinganaddresstakenfromthe
addressbook)inordertoavoidthattherealinfectedcomputerbeidentifiedandtogainthethrustofthe
receiver,andwritingintheemailtextsmartsentencespretendingtobearegularfriendofthereceiver.The
arrivalofthiskindofemailusuallycreateshavoc,sincethereceiverissurethatthefakesenderhasavirus,
whiletheoriginalinfectedcomputerisanotherone.
Thebasicruleisneveropenanyattachmentfromthemailreaderprogram.Savetheattachedfilesonthe
desktop and run an antivirus program to check these files before opening them. Even when the email
comesfromafriend:hecannotknowthattohavegotavirus,orhecannotbetherealsender.
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Dr.PaoloColetti BasicComputercoursebook
Page28of32 Edition7.0(08/10/2012)
the point where the LAN connects to the Internet, or more often on every computer a special program
called firewall is running. The firewall examines all the incoming and outgoing traffic, using the following
analysistechniques:
whichinternalprogramisoriginating/receivingthetraffic,
from/towhichexternaladdressisthetrafficoriginated/directed,
whatamountoftrafficispassingfrom/tothesameprogramto/fromthesameexternaladdress,
whichkindofdataarepassing.
Making an analysis of these data clearly slows down the connection but lets the firewall stop potential
unauthorizedconnection,puttingtheminawaitstateuntiltheusersgiveshisapprovalordenial.
Windows Seven operating system comes with a firewall preinstalled, which lets the user customize which
kind of programs are allowed to make or receive connections and determine rules to approve or deny
automaticallyconnections.
4.7. Backup
Backup is the process of copying important data to another location to prevent their loss. Sometimes
programsandevenentireoperatingsystemsarecopied,tobeabletoimmediatelycontinueworkingeven
whenacomputerbreaks.Therearethreeverygoodreasonstodoregularbackups:
against the user, who can accidentally delete some files or who can modify files and then change
hismind.Havingarecentbackuphandycanoftensavehoursofwork;
against the system, which can suddenly break due to hardware or software problems. Even hard
diskstendtobeunreliableaftersomeyearsofcontinuousactivity.Arecentbackupsavestheuser
fromredoingalltheworkofthepreviousmonths;
againstvirusesandother users,which can deleteand alterfiles: abackupcan save ausercoming
backfromvacations.
Usuallytheoperatingsystemsandtheprogramsbackuparedonebysystemadministrators:law196/2003
explicitlyrequiresaninstantaneousbackupforallsensitivedataandthatdataarerestoredwithin7daysin
caseofloss.However,therearesomefileswhichshouldbetakeninchargebytheuserhimself:
personally created data files, including all documents and images created by the user, and any
otherfilewhichisaresultoftheuserspersonalwork;
theaddressbookandtheemails(mailreadersusuallyofferawaytosavethemintofilestobeused
forbackup),andforstrongnavigatorsalsowebbrowsersconfiguration;
some programs require a lot of configuration and store their configuration in configuration files,
whichareusuallyintheprogramsdirectory;
all the stuff which is difficult to find again, such as documents from other people or downloaded
fromforgottenwebsites.
The place where the files are copied determines the reliability of the backup. It should be a large, cheap
andfaststoragedevice.Itshouldalsobehandy,sincethetypicalproblemwithbackupisthattheuserdoes
nottakestimetodoitregularlyand,whenthebackupistooold,itisworthless.Forhomeorsimpleoffice
users,theFridaymorningbackupisagoodtimingsolution.Goodstoragedevicestobeusedare:
asecondharddisk,usedonlyforbackup,whichisveryfastandverylargeandalwaysreadytobe
used;
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BasicComputercoursebook Dr.PaoloColetti
Edition7.0(08/10/2012) Page31of32
Index
.avi,10
.bat,10
.bmp,10
.com,10
.csv,10
.doc,10,16
.exe,10
.gif,10
.htm,11
.html,11
.jpeg,10
.jpg,10
.mov,10
.mp3,11
.mpeg,10
.mpg,10
.pdf,10,16
.ppt,10
.rtf,10
.txt,10
.wav,11
.xls,10
.zip,10
\ubz01fst,11
128bits,18
3G,17
absolutepath,8
Acrobat,10
address,8,24,26
addressbook,28
Administrators,11
ADSL,17
ADSLmodem,17
advancedsearch,16
advertisement,25
adware,23
ALT,6
AltaVista,16
ALTGR,6
analogical,17,23
AND,16
antispam,25,26
antivirus,18,23,24,26
ARROWS,7
asterisks,22
AsymmetricDigital
SubscriberLine,17
attachment,24
audio,11
authenticateduser,21
authentication,18
backdoor,23
BACKSPACE,7
backup,3,18,28
bank,25,26
BILD,6
biometric,18
bit,2
bitspersecond,13
blacklist,26
bps,13
broadband,17
browser,18
bulk,25
byte,2
cables,13
CANC,6
CAPSLOCK,7
CD,3,23,24
CDreader,3,7
CDwriter,3
certificationauthority,
20,21
chainletter,25
chat,13
Chrome,14
client,13
closedproprietary
format,4
commercial,3
communicationprogram,
14,15,24
compress,9
compressedfile,10
computernetwork,13
configurationfile,28
congestion,17
connection,23
Controlpanel,6
copy,8,9
copyleft,4
counterfeit,24
crawler,15
createanewdirectory,9
createshortcut,9
CTRL,6,9
CTRL+ALT+DEL,5
CTRL+C,9
CTRL+SHIFT+ESC,5
CTRL+V,9
CTRL+X,9
curvedarrow,8
cut,9
dangerousarea,13
data,3,28
datainterception,26
DEL,6,9
delete,9
DenialofService,27
desktop,23,24
Details,8
dialer,23
dialup,17
digitaldivide,17
digitalsignature,20
directory,7,24,28
distribution,4
document,10,28
documents,28
DoS,27
doubleclick,8
download,17
downloadedfile,26
DVD,3,24,29
DVDreader,3
DVDwriter,3
edition,4
EINFG,6
electronicsignature,20
email,9,13,22,23,24,
25,26,28
emailattachment,23,24
encrypted,27
encryption,9,18,20,21
END,6
ENDE,6
ENTER,7
Enterprise,5
ENTF,6
esternalharddisk,2
Ethernet,14
Excel,10
execute,11
Explorer,10,11
extension,10
extract,9
F1,6
F12,6
FastEthernet,14
file,7,24,28
filesystem,7
filetype,8,10
FINE,6
firewall,18,23,28
floppydisk,7,23,24
folder,7
FolderOptions,7
forum,26
fraud,25
freeware,3,14
fullcontrol,11
Gbps,14
GeneralPacketRadio
Service,17
GigaEthernet,14
Gigabyte,2
GNUPublicLicense,4
Google,16
GPRS,17
groupofusers,11
GSMcellularphone,17
harddisk,2,7,11,24,28
hardware,23,28
Hideextensions,7
hierarchical,7
HOME,6
HomePremium,5
http,27
https,27
icon,7
identity,21,22
image,10,17,28
INS,6
IntegratedServiceDigital
Network,17
interaction,13
interception,26
internalharddisk,2
Internet,13,14,17,18,
26
Internetconnection,17
Internetprovider,14
Intranet,13,14,21,23
INVIO,7
ISDN,17
ISDNmodem,17
ISDNtelephone,17
IZArc,9,10
JBOD,29
junk,26
Kbps,17
key,18
keylogger,23
keyboard,6
keyword,15,16
Kilobyte,2
LAN,11,13
language,6
law196/2003,18,21,22,
28
law82/2005,15,20
link,8,9,15,26
Linux,3
listcontent,11
localareanetwork,13
lockicon,27
locking,5
locks,11
Lycos,16
MacOSX,3,14
Macintosh,3
mailreader,14,24,28
mailserver,14
maximumspeed,17
Mbps,14,17
MediaPlayer,10,11
Megabyte,2
memorycard,3
memorystick,3
MicrosoftInternet
Explorer,14,22,26
MicrosoftOutlook,14
MicrosoftOutlookWeb
App,14
MicrosoftWindows,3,5,
26
MicrosoftWindows7,3,
5
MicrosoftWindows
Seven,28
Dr.PaoloColetti BasicComputercoursebook
Page32of32 Edition7.0(08/10/2012)
MicrosoftWindows
Vista,3,5
MicrosoftWindowsXP,
3,5
minimumband,17
minimumspeed,17
modem,17,23
modify,11
Mooreslaw,2
motherboard,3
move,9
MozillaFirefox,14
MozillaThunderbird,14
mp3players,3
multilanguage,6
navigation,26
networkfolder,11
networktraffic,17
newdirectory,9
newsgroup,26
Notepad,10
OfficePictureManager,
10
OneTimePassword,22
open,8,24,26
openformat,4
openproprietaryformat,
4
opensource,4
operatingsystem,3,23,
26,27,28
OR,16
OTP,21,22
overquota,12
owner,11
PAG,6
Paint,10
password,18,20,21,22,
26,27
paste,9
PEC,15,20
permission,18
permissions,11
personaldata,18
PG,6
phishing,26
photocameras,3
PictureFaxViewer,10
PlainStandard
TelephoneNetwork,
17
plussymbol,9
POS1,6
PostaElettronica
Certificata,15
PowerArchiver,10
Powerpoint,10
printer,13
privacy,18
private,4
privatekey,18,20,21
processor,3
Professional,5
program,3,10,22,23,
28
proprietary,4,14
proprietaryformat,4
Proprieties,11
provacy,18,21
PSTN,17
publickey,18,20,21
quotationmark,16
RAID,29
RAID0,29
RAID1,29
RAID10,30
RAID5,30
read,11
readandexecute,11
RegionalandLanguage
Options,6
registration,26
rename,9
resources,13
roaminguserprofile,12
root,7
run,8,24
Safari,14
save,24
scoring,16
searchengine,15,16
secure,18,27
security,18
Security,11
sender,24
senderaddress,24,26
sensitivedata,18,28
server,13
servicepack,5
shareware,3
sheet,10
SHIFT,7,9
shortcut,8
Skype,15
smartcard,20,21
software,3,28
solidstatedisk,2
spam,25,26
spammessage,25
speed,13
spyware,23
SSD,2
SSL,27
storagedevice,24,28
STRG,6
subdirectories,7
TAB,7
tapedevice,29
TaskManager,23
telephone,17
temporalmark,21
terminal,13
text,10
trashcan,9
tree,7
trojanhorse,23
trustedarea,13
Ultimate,5
UMTS,17
UMTScellularphone,17
UniversalMobile
Telecommunications
System,17
Unix,3
unsolicited,25
unwanted,25
upload,17
USBpendrive,3,29
username,18,21,22
users,11
versionnumber,4
video,10
VirtualPrivateNetwork,
13
virus,23,24,26,28
VoiceoverIP,15
VoIP,15
VPN,13
WAN,13
webbrowser,14,23,26,
28
webpage,11,14,15,16,
23
webmail,14
webserver,14
website,15,18,24,26,
27,28
WideAreaNetwork,13
WiFi,17
WiMax,17
WinAmp,11
WinZip,9,10
wireless,13,14,17
wirelesscard,17
Word,10
write,11
WWW,14,15,17,25
Yahoo!,16
ziparchive,9
zombie,27