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Chapter

Respiration
Respirasi

WORD

ah Blood capillaries Kapilari dar Breathing Pernafasan Diaphragm Diafragma Exhalation Hembusan nafas Inhalation Tarikan nafas Respiration Respirasi irasi Respiratory system Sistem resp

UP!
involves

Respiration
processes involves intake of affected by

Human respiratory system


consists of

Inhale

Exhale
i.e.

Oxygen
i.e.

Pollutants
transported by

Lungs Nasal cavity Trachea Bronchus Ribs Diaphragm Intercostal muscles


contain

Air taken in

Air expelled out

Blood

caused by

Alveolus
process which takes place

Change in pressure

PMR Past-year Questions


Year
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Paper 1
Q10, Q29 Q28 Q27 Q26, Q27 Q27

Paper 2 Sec. A
Q4

Gaseous exchange

Sec. B

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Learning Objective
1.1 The human breathing mechanism

CHAPTER

1.1
AIM

INQUIRY
Experiment

The human respiratory system


Sistem respirasi manusia

Inquiry-discovery

1
To observe the parts of the human respiratory system
Memerhatikan bahagian-bahagian sistem respirasi manusia
MATERIALS

2006 Sec. A, Q4

BLOG!
When air enters the nose, it is warmed, filtered and passed through the nasal cavity.

Charts, transparencies or models about the human respiratory system


Carta, transparensi atau model tentang sistem respirasi manusia

procedure

1 Study the charts, transparencies or models about the human respiratory system. 2 Identify the following parts and discuss their functions. Nasal cavity/Rongga hidung Bronchiole/Bronkiol Lung/Peparu Blood capillary/Kapilari darah
Kaji carta, transparensi atau model tentang sistem respirasi manusia. Kenal pasti bahagian yang berikut dan bincangkan fungsinya.

Trachea/Trakea Bronchus/Bronkus Rib/Tulang rusuk Diaphragm/Diafragma Alveolus/Alveolus Nostril/Lubang hidung Intercostal muscle/Otot interkosta

3 Label the diagram of the respiratory system./Labelkan rajah sistem respirasi yang disediakan.
OBSERVATION

(a) Nostril/Lubang hidung (j) Blood capillary


Kapilari darah

(e) Nasal cavity/Rongga hidung

(b) Bronchiole/Bronkiol

(f) Trachea/Trakea (g) Bronchus/Bronkus

(c) Lung/Peparu (k) Alveolus/Alveolus (d) Intercostal muscle


Otot interkosta ANALYSIS

(h) Rib/Tulang rusuk (i) Diaphragm/Diafragma

1 Name processes X and Y. Then, name gases P and Q that are involved in the exchange of gases in the lungs./Namakan proses X dan Y. Kemudian, namakan gas P dan Q yang terlibat dalam
pertukaran gas dalam peparu.

Carbon dioxide Karbon dioksida Inhalation Process X: Air is sucked into the lungs
Tarikan nafas Proses X: Udara disedut ke dalam peparu

Exhalation

Hembusan nafas

Oksigen
blood capillary

Oxygen

Inhalation
Tarikan nafas

alveolus
alveolus

kapilari darah

Exhalation Process Y: Air is expelled from the lungs


Proses Y: Hembusan nafas Udara dikeluarkan dari peparu

Gas P: Oxygen/Oksigen Diffuses into the blood capillary from the alveolus
Meresap masuk ke dalam kapilari darah dari alveolus

Gas Q: Carbon dioxide Diffuses out from the blood capillary into the alveolus
Karbon dioksida Gas Q: Meresap keluar dari kapilari darah ke dalam alveolus
Refer to Essential Science Form 3, Human respiratory system, p. 3; Essential Science PMR, Human respiratory system, p. 302

1.1 LO Identify the structure of the human respiratory system

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2 Name the parts of the respiratory system that have the following functions:
Namakan bahagian sistem respirasi yang mempunyai fungsi-fungsi berikut:

CHAPTER

Part of the respiratory system


Bahagian sistem respirasi

Function
Fungsi

Ribs/Tulang rusuk Intercostal muscle/Otot interkosta

Protects the lungs./Melindungi peparu. Raises and lowers the rib cage during breathing.
Menaikkan dan menurunkan tulang rusuk semasa pernafasan.

Diaphragm/Diafragma

Changes the air pressure in the thoracic cavity by increasing or decreasing the thoracic volume.
Mengubah tekanan udara dalam rongga toraks dengan menambah atau mengurangkan isi padu toraks.

Alveolus/Alveolus

The place where the exchange of gases occurs.


Tempat pertukaran gas-gas pernafasan.

Blood capillaries/Kapilari darah

Carries oxygenated blood from the alveoli and deoxygenated blood to the alveoli.

Membawa darah beroksigen dari alveolus dan darah terdeoksigen ke alveolus.

3 Complete the spaces below to show the movement of air through the breathing organs. Nostril Nasal cavity Trachea
Trakea

Lengkapkan ruang di bawah untuk menunjukkan pergerakan udara melalui organ-organ pernafasan.

Lubang hidung

Rongga hidung

Bronchus
Bronkus

Blood capillary
Kapilari darah

Alveolus
Alveolus

Bronchiole
Bronkiol

1.2
AIM

INQUIRY
Experiment

The action of the diaphragm in the breathing mechanism/Tindakan diafragma dalam mekanisme pernafasan

Inquiry-discovery

To study the action of the diaphragm in the breathing mechanism


Mengkaji tindakan diafragma dalam mekanisme pernafasan

2005 Sec. A, Q5

MATERIALS

A simple model to study the action of the diaphragm


Model ringkas untuk mengkaji tindakan diafragma

PROCEDURE

1 Prepare a simple model as shown in the diagram to study the action of the diaphragm.

2 Pull the handle down and observe the size of the balloon.

Sediakan satu model ringkas seperti yang ditunjukkan dalam rajah untuk mengkaji tindakan diafragma.

Y-shaped glass tube


serkup kaca

bell jar

tiub kaca berbentuk Y

balloon
belon

3 Then, push the rubber sheet up and observe the balloon again.
Kemudian, tolak kepingan getah ke atas dan perhatikan belon sekali lagi. Lukiskan pemerhatian anda pada belon.

Tarik pemegang ke bawah dan perhatikan saiz belon.

pemegang

handle

rubber sheet

kepingan getah

4 Draw your observations of the balloon.


1.2 LO Describe the processes of inhalation and exhalation Relate the changes of air pressure in the thoracic cavity to inhalation and exhalation Describe the breathing mechanism Refer to Essential Science Form 3, Laboratory Activity 1.1, p. 5; Essential Science PMR, Laboratory Activity 18.1, p. 303

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CHAPTER

OBSERVATION

The handle is pulled down


Pemegang ditarik ke bawah

The rubber sheet is pushed up


Kepingan getah ditolak ke atas

The balloon expands


Belon mengembang

The balloon contracts


Belon mengecut
SPS
Observing Memerhatikan

1
ANALYSIS
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1 The diagram below shows the respiratory system analogous to the breathing model. Name the parts of the respiratory system.
Rajah di bawah menunjukkan analogi sistem respirasi dengan model pernafasan. Namakan bahagian-bahagian sistem respirasi.

TSTS
Making analogies Membuat analogi

Thoracic cavity Rongga toraks Breathing model


Model pernafasan

Trachea Trakea

Lung

Peparu

Diaphragm
Diafragma

Bronchus
Bronkus

Rib cage
Sangkar tulang rusuk

Respiratory system
Sistem respirasi

Glass tube/Tiub kaca Y-shaped glass tube/Tiub kaca berbentuk Y Balloon/Belon Bell jar/Serkup kaca Air space inside the bell jar
Ruang udara dalam serkup kaca

(a) Trachea/Trakea (b) Bronchus/Bronkus (c) Lung/Peparu (d) Rib cage/Sangkar tulang rusuk (e) Thoracic cavity/Rongga toraks (f) Diaphragm/Diafragma

Rubber sheet/Kepingan getah

2 Fill in the blanks to complete the processes that occur in the analogy between a breathing model and the breathing mechanism in humans.

Isi tempat kosong bagi melengkapkan proses yang berlaku dalam analogi model pernafasan dan mekanisma pernafasan dalam manusia.

Enters (a)

Memasuki

Inhalation

Tarikan nafas

Increases Bertambah

Decreases
Berkurang

Exhalation
Hembusan nafas

Forced out
Terdesak keluar

Breathing model
Model pernafasan

Breathing mechanism
Mekanisma pernafasan

When the rubber sheet is pulled down


Apabila kepingan getah ditarik ke bawah

When the diaphragm becomes flat


Apabila diafragma menjadi rata

The volume in the bell jar


Isi padu serkup kaca

increases bertambah decreases berkurang

The volume in the thoracic cavity


Isi padu rongga toraks

increases

bertambah

The air pressure in the bell jar


Tekanan udara dalam serkup kaca

The air pressure in the thoracic cavity decreases


Tekanan udara dalam rongga toraks inhalation tarikan nafas berkurang

Air
Udara

enters the bell jar/lung. This process is called memasuki serkup kaca/peparu. Proses ini disebut

.
.

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(b)

CHAPTER

Breathing model
Model pernafasan

Breathing mechanism
Mekanisma pernafasan

When the rubber sheet is pulled up


Apabila kepingan getah ditarik ke atas

When the diaphragm curves up

Apabila diafragma melengkung ke atas

The volume in the bell jar


Isi padu serkup kaca

decreases berkurang increases bertambah

The volume in the thoracic cavity


Isi padu rongga toraks

decreases

berkurang

The air pressure in the bell jar


Tekanan udara dalam serkup kaca

The air pressure in the thoracic cavity increases


Tekanan udara dalam rongga toraks bertambah

forced out exhalation from the bell jar/lung. This process is called terdesak keluar hembusan nafas . Udara dari serkup kaca/peparu. Proses ini disebut

Air is

coNcLuSIoN

1 Inhalation occurs when the diaphragm moves


Tarikan nafas berlaku apabila diafragma bergerak ke

down
bawah

2 Exhalation occurs when the diaphragm curves


Hembusan nafas berlaku apabila diafragma melengkung ke

up
atas

. . . .

1.3

RESEARCH
Activity

Breathing mechanism
Mekanisme pernafasan

Mastery

Fill in the blanks with suitable words to complete the breathing mechanism shown below. Inhalation/Tarikan nafas Becomes flat
Menjadi rata
4

Isikan tempat kosong dengan perkataan-perkataan yang sesuai untuk melengkapkan mekanisme pernafasan di bawah.

Upwards
Ke atas

Outwards
Ke luar

Increases

Bertambah

Enters
Masuk

Lower

Rendah

Air from outside lungs.


Udara dari luar dalam peparu.

enters
masuk

the
ke

The rib cage moves outwards .

upwards

and
ke atas

Sangkar tulang rusuk bergerak naik ke luar . dan

The volume of the thoracic cavity


Isi padu rongga toraks

increases
.

bertambah

Air pressure in it is pressure.

lower

than the atmospheric


rendah daripada

Tekanan udara di dalamnya lebih tekanan atmosfera.

The diaphragm
Diafragma
1.3 LO Describe the process of inhalation and exhalation

becomes at
.

menjadi rata

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CHAPTER

Exhalation/Hembusan nafas Forced out Downwards


Ke bawah

Terdesak keluar
4

Inwards

Ke dalam

Melengkung ke atas
1

Curves upwards

Tinggi

Higher

Berkurang

Decreases

1
3

Air in the lungs is


Udara di dalam peparu

forced out

terdesak keluar

The rib cage moves downwards inwards .


Sangkar tulang rusuk bergerak turun ke bawah ke dalam dan .

and

The volume of the thoracic cavity


Isi padu rongga toraks

decreases
.

berkurang

Air pressure in it is atmospheric pressure.

higher
tinggi

than the

Tekanan udara di dalamnya lebih daripada tekanan udara di luar.

The diaphragm
Diafragma

curves upwards
.

melengkung ke atas

Learning Objective
1.2 Transport of oxygen in the human body

1.4

RESEARCH
Activity

Transport of oxygen in the blood


Pengangkutan oksigen dalam darah

STS

Study the given diagram carefully and answer the questions. For more information, you may refer to the following website:
Teliti rajah yang diberi dan jawab soalan-soalan berikut. Untuk maklumat lanjut, sila rujuk laman web yang berikut:

2006 Sec. A, Q4(d)


S: Blood capillary/Kapilari darah X Y

P: Alveolus/Alveolus

Q: Red blood cell/Sel darah merah

R: Body tissue/Tisu badan

X: Oxygen/Oksigen Y: Carbon dioxide/Karbon dioksida

http:www.zoobotanica.com/ portfolio%20medicine% 20pages/respirat.htm The diagram above shows the transport of oxygen in the blood.
Rajah di atas menunjukkan pengangkutan oksigen dalam darah.

1 Label structures P, Q, R and S, and state gases X and Y in the diagram.


Labelkan struktur P, Q, R dan S, dan nyatakan gas X dan Y dalam rajah itu.

2 State two characteristics of structure P that can increase the efficiency of the gaseous exchange.
Nyatakan dua ciri struktur P yang boleh meningkatkan keberkesanan dalam pertukaran gas.

(a)

It is moist/Lembap 6

(b)

Has a thin wall/Mempunyai dinding yang nipis

1.4 LO Describe the transport of oxygen through blood

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3 Fill in the blanks with suitable words.

CHAPTER

Isi tempat kosong dengan perkataan yang sesuai.

Low

Rendah

Tinggi

High

Oksihemoglobin

Oxyhaemoglobin

Oxygen
Oksigen

Diffuses
Meresap

Decomposes
Terurai

Low

Rendah

Heart

Jantung

During inhalation, the concentration of oxygen is diffuses in the blood capillary. Oxygen

high

in the alveolus but

low

combines with haemoglobin to form heart to the and pumped to all parts of the body. In the body cells, the concentration of low decomposes oxygen is . Thus, oxyhaemoglobin in the blood capillary to release oxygen which diffuses into the body cells.
tinggi di dalam alveolus tetapi rendah

from the alveolus into the blood capillary and oxyhaemoglobin . This oxygen-rich blood is then transported

Semasa sedutan nafas, kepekatan oksigen adalah meresap di dalam kapilari darah. Oksigen

dengan hemoglobin untuk membentuk jantung dan dipam ke semua bahagian badan. Dalam sel badan, kepekatan oksigen adalah diangkut ke rendah terurai . Oleh itu, oksihemoglobin dalam kapilari darah dan membebaskan oksigen yang meresap ke dalam sel badan.

dari alveolus ke dalam kapilari darah dan bergabung oksihemoglobin . Darah yang kaya dengan oksigen ini kemudian

Learning Objective
1.3 The importance of a healthy respiratory system

1.5

Experiment PEKA
AIM

INQUIRY

The effects of smoking on the human respiratory system/Kesan merokok terhadap sistem respirasi manusia

Inquiry-discovery

To study the effects of smoking on the human respiratory system


Mengkaji kesan merokok terhadap sistem respirasi manusia

MATERIALS

Cigarette, white cotton wool, hydrogen carbonate indicator (or litmus solution)
Rokok, kapas putih, penunjuk hidrogen karbonat (atau larutan litmus)

APPARATUS

U-shaped tube, filter pump, test tube, rubber stopper, retort stand and clamp, glass tube, rubber connectors, thermometer
Tiub-U, pam turas, tabung uji, penyumbat getah, kaki retort dan pengapit, salur kaca, penyambung getah, termometer

PROCEDURE

thermometer/termometer

E1 C 1 6 8 S
cigarette
rokok

to filter pump
ke pam turas

U-shaped tube
tiub-U

white cotton wool


kapas putih

hydrogen carbonate indicator


penunjuk hidrogen karbonat

1 Set up the apparatus as shown above.


1.5 LO Explain the effects of pollutants on the respiratory system

Pasangkan radas seperti yang ditunjukkan di atas.

Refer to Essential Science Form 3, Laboratory Activity 1.2, p. 9; Essential Science PMR, Laboratory Activity 18.2, p. 307

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2 Light up the cigarette. Turn on the filter pump to suck in the cigarette smoke through the white cotton wool and hydrogen carbonate indicator.

CHAPTER

Nyalakan rokok dan pasangkan pam turas untuk menyedut asap rokok melalui kapas putih dan penunjuk hidrogen karbonat.

1
OBSERVATION ANALYSIS
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3 Record your observations of the temperature change in the thermometer, the change in the white cotton wool and the colour change of the hydrogen carbonate indicator.

Catatkan perubahan suhu pada termometer, perubahan pada kapas putih, dan perubahan warna pada penunjuk hidrogen karbonat.

Materials
Bahan

Observations
Pemerhatian

Thermometer
Termometer

The temperature
Suhu termometer

increases
naik

White cotton wool


Kapas putih

Changes to
Berubah menjadi

yellow-black
kuning kehitaman

Hydrogen carbonate indicator


Penunjuk hidrogen karbonat

Changes colour from


Berubah warna daripada

red
merah

to

yellow
kepada kuning
E1C1, E1C6

(Litmus solution changes colour from purple to red)


(Larutan litmus berubah warna dari ungu ke merah)

1 Complete the table below on the effects of cigarette smoke on the lungs.
Lengkapkan jadual di bawah tentang kesan asap rokok ke atas peparu.

TSTS
Attributing Mencirikan

Content/Kandungan (a) Heat/Haba (b) Tobacco tar/Tar tembakau (c) Acidic gases/Gas berasid

Effects on the lungs/Kesan ke atas peparu Increases the temperature of the lungs
Meninggikan suhu peparu

Blackens the lungs/Menghitamkan peparu Corrodes the lungs/Mengakis peparu


E1C8

2 State two other substances of cigarette smoke and its effects.


Nyatakan dua bahan lain asap rokok dan kesannya.

(a) (b)

Nicotine Carcinogens and throat cancer.

causes addiction./

Nikotina

menyebabkan ketagihan.

stimulate the growth of cancerous cells, causing lung cancer

karsinogen merangsang pertumbuhan sel-sel kanser yang menyebabkan Bahan kanser peparu dan kanser kerongkong.

3 What is the function of the hydrogen carbonate (bicarbonate) indicator?


Apakah fungsi penunjuk hidrogen karbonat (bikarbonat)?

To show that cigarette smoke contains

acidic gases

.
gas berasid .

Untuk menunjukkan bahawa asap rokok mengandungi

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4 State three diseases of the respiratory system caused by cigarette smoke.


Nyatakan tiga penyakit sistem respirasi yang disebabkan oleh asap rokok.

CHAPTER

Lung cancer
Kanser peparu

,
,

bronchitis
bronkitis

and
dan

lung emphysema
emfisema peparu

.
.

CONCLUSION

heat Cigarette smoke contains that increases the temperature of the lungs, tobacco tar acidic gases that blackens the lungs, and that corrode the lung cells.
Asap rokok mengandungi yang menghitamkan peparu, dan haba yang boleh menaikkan suhu peparu, gas berasid yang mengakis sel peparu. tar tembakau

1.6

RESEARCH
Activity

Harmful effects of pollutants on the respiratory system/Kesan buruk bahan pencemar terhadap sistem respirasi

Contextual

2006 Sec. A, Q4(c)

Complete the table below on the harmful effects of pollutants on the respiratory system.
Lengkapkan jadual di bawah tentang kesan buruk bahan pencemar terhadap sistem respirasi.

Nitrogen dioxide
Nitrogen dioksida

Sulphur dioxide
Sulfur dioksida

Carbon monoxide
Karbon monoksida

Factory
Kilang

Cigarette Rokok

Tobacco tar

Tar tembakau

Nicotine
Nikotin

Vehicles
Kenderaan

(a)

(b)

(c)

Type of pollutant

Jenis bahan pencemar

Cigarette
Asap

smoke Factory
Asap

smoke Smoke from


Asap

vehicles

rokok

kilang

kenderaan

Chemicals in the pollutant

(a)

Nicotine
Nikotin

(a)

Sulphur dioxide
Sulfur dioksida

Carbon monoxide
Karbon monoksida

Bahan kimia dalam bahan pencemar

(b)

Tobacco tar
Tar tembakau

(b)

Nitrogen dioxide
Nitrogen dioksida

1.6 LO List the substances which are harmful to the respiratory system

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PMR
(d)
blood capillary
kapilari darah

Key To Success

Questions in this section contain concepts and facts that are frequently tested in the PMR exam. Make sure you can answer all the questions correctly.

CHAPTER

1
1 (A) Label Diagram 1 for the human respiratory system./Labelkan Rajah 1 bagi sistem respirasi manusia berikut. Alveolus/Alveolus (i) Name these gases./Namakan gas-gas ini. X: Y: (a) Nasal cavity Rongga hidung (b) Trachea/Trakea (c) Bronchiole/Bronkiol (e) Bronchus/Bronkus (f) Rib/Tulang rusuk (g) Lung/Peparu Diagram 1/Rajah 1 form (h) Diaphragm/Diafragma

Oxygen/Oksigen Carbon dioxide/Karbon dioksida

(ii) State three characteristics of the structure in (d)./Nyatakan tiga ciri bagi
X Y struktur (d).

Moist/Lembap Has a thin wall/Berdinding nipis Has many blood capillaries/


Mempunyai banyak kapilari darah

Diagram 2
Rajah 2

(iii) Oxygen
Oksigen

combines
bergabung

with

the

haemoglobin
untuk

to

oxyhaemoglobin
oksihemoglobin

.
dengan . hemoglobin membentuk

(B) Complete the path of air entering the lungs./Lengkapkan laluan udara yang memasuki paru-paru. Nasal cavity
Rongga hidung

Trachea
Trakea

Bronchus
Bronkus

Bronchiole
Bronkiol

Alveolus
Alveolus

2 Underline the correct answers.


Gariskan jawapan yang betul.

(A) During inhalation: Semasa tarikan nafas:


air enters/udara masuk

(a) Ribs move (upwards, downwards) Tulang rusuk bergerak (ke atas, ke bawah) (b) The diaphragm muscle (contracts, relaxes) causing the diaphragm to (curve upwards, become flat)

Otot diafragma (mengecut, mengendur) menyebabkan diafragma (melengkung ke atas, menjadi rata) Isi padu rongga toraks (berkurang, bertambah) Tekanan udara dalam rongga toraks (berkurang, bertambah)

(c) Volume of thoracic cavity (decreases, increases)


diaphragm
diafragma

(d) Air pressure in the thoracic cavity (decreases, increases) Diagram 3/Rajah 3

(B) During exhalation: Semasa hembusan nafas:


air is forced out/udara dipaksa keluar

(a) Ribs move (upwards, downwards)

Tulang rusuk bergerak (ke atas, ke bawah)

(b) The diaphragm muscle (contracts, relaxes) causing the diaphragm to (curve upwards, become flat)

Otot diafragma (mengecut, mengendur) menyebabkan diafragma (melengkung ke atas, menjadi rata) Isi padu rongga toraks (berkurang, bertambah) Tekanan udara dalam rongga toraks (berkurang, bertambah)

(c) Volume of thoracic cavity (decreases, increases)


diaphragm
diafragma

(d) Air pressure in the thoracic cavity (decrease, increases)

10

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3 Make an analogy between parts in the following breathing model and parts of the human respiratory system.
Buat analogi antara bahagian dalam model pernafasan yang berikut dengan bahagian dalam sistem respirasi manusia.

CHAPTER

Analogy/Analogi Glass tube/Tiub kaca Y-shaped glass tube/Tiub kaca berbentuk Y Balloon/Belon Bell jar/Serkup kaca Air space inside the bell jar/Ruang udara dalam serkup kaca Rubber sheet/Kepingan getah Trachea/Trakea Bronchus/Bronkus Lung/Peparu Rib cage/Sangkar tulang rusuk Thoracic cavity/Rongga toraks Diaphragm/Diafragma

4 Complete the table below with the contents of cigarette smoke that cause harmful effects on the human respiratory system./Lengkapkan jadual di bawah dengan kandungan dalam asap rokok yang membawa kesan buruk ke atas sistem respirasi.

Contents of cigarette smoke


Kandungan dalam asap rokok

Harmful effect on the respiratory system


Kesan buruk ke atas sistem respirasi

Heat/Haba Tobacco tar/Tar tembakau Acidic gas/Gas berasid

Raises the temperature of the lungs/Menaikkan suhu peparu Blackens the lungs/Menghitamkan peparu Corrodes the lung cells/Mengakis sel-sel peparu

PMR
PAPER

Enhancement Corner

1
B Digestion of food
Penghadaman makanan

Each question is followed by four options, A, B, C and D. Choose the best answer.
Questions 1 and 2 are based on Diagram 1.
Soalan 1 dan 2 berdasarkan Rajah 1.

Tiap-tiap soalan diikuti oleh empat pilihan jawapan, A, B, C dan D. Pilih jawapan yang terbaik. What do structures K, L and M represent?/Apakah yang diwakili oleh
struktur K, L, dan M?

1 Diagram 1 shows the human respiratory system. Rajah 1 menunjukkan sistem respirasi
manusia.
cLoNE 2001 cLoNE 2003

K L M A Bronchiole Bronchus Trachea


Bronkiol Bronkus Trakea

C Excretion of urea
Perkumuhan urea

D Contraction of muscles
Pengecutan otot

B Trachea
Trakea

Bronchus
Bronkus

Bronchiole
Bronkiol

A 3 Which of the following increases the concentration of carbon dioxide in the alveolus?
Antara yang berikut, yang manakah meningkatkan kepekatan kar bon dioksida di dalam alveolus?

C Bronchus
Bronkus

Trachea
Trakea Bronkiol

Bronchiole
Bronkiol Bronkus

D Trachea
Trakea

Bronchiole Bronchus B

c L oN E 2008

Diagram 1/Rajah 1

c L oN E 2010

2 What process takes place in X?


Apakah proses yang berlaku dalam X? A Exchange of gases/Pertukaran gas

A Oxygen diffuses into the alveolus/Oksigen


meresap ke dalam alveolus

c L oN E 2009

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B Oxygen diffuses into the blood capillary/Oksigen meresap ke


dalam kapilari darah

C Carbon dioxide diffuses into the alveolus/Karbon dioksida


meresap ke dalam alveolus

6 Diagram 2 shows the path of air through the human respiratory system during inhalation.
Rajah 2 menunjukkan laluan udara melalui sistem respirasi manusia ketika tarikan nafas.

D the rib cage descends and goes inwards


sangkar tulang rusuk turun dan bergerak ke dalam

A 8 Which of the following is a disease of the respiratory system?


Antara yang berikut, yang manakah merupakan penyakit sistem respirasi? A Goitre/Goiter B Anaemia/Anemia C Bronchitis/Bronkitis D Stroke/Strok
c L oN E 2009

D Carbon dioxide diffuses into the blood capillary/Karbon dioksida


meresap ke dalam kapilari darah

Nose
Hidung

C 4 Statements P, Q, R and S are about the transportation of oxygen in the blood.


Pernyataan P, Q, R, dan S adalah berkaitan dengan pengangkutan oksigen dalam darah.

Alveolus
Alveolus

Diagram 2/Rajah 2 Which of the following represents P, Q and R?


Antara yang berikut, yang manakah mewakili P, Q, dan R?

P: Oxygen combines with haemo globin to form oxyhaemoglobin.


Q: Oxyhaemoglobin decomposes to release oxygen. Oksihemoglobin terurai membebaskan R: Oxyhaemoglobin reaches the body tissues.
oksigen.

Oksigen bergabung dengan hemoglobin untuk membentuk oksihemoglobin.

P Q R A Trachea Bronchiole Bronchus


Trakea Bronkiol Bronkus Bronkiol Bronkus Trakea Bronkus Bronkus Trakea

9 Which of the following happens when we inhale?


Antara yang berikut, yang manakah ber laku semasa kita menarik nafas?

B Bronchiole Bronchus Trachea C Bronchus Trachea D Trachea


Trakea

A Our chest moves down


Dada bergerak ke bawah

Bronchiole
Bronkiol Bronkiol
cLoNE 2006

Bronchus Bronchiole D

B The volume of the thoracic cavity decreases


Isi padu rongga toraks berkurang

S: Oxygen diffuses through the alveoli into the blood capillaries. Oksigen meresap melalui alveolus ke
dalam kapilari darah.

Oksihemoglobin sampai ke tisu badan.

C The diaphragm becomes flat


Diafragma menjadi rata

7 Diagram 3 shows part of the human respiratory system.


Rajah 3 menunjukkan sebahagian daripada sistem respirasi manusia.

D The air pressure in the thoracic cavity is higher than the atmospheric pressure
Tekanan udara dalam rongga toraks lebih tinggi daripada tekanan atmosfera
cLoNE 2003

Which of the following is the correct sequence of the transportation of oxygen in blood?
Antara yang berikut, yang manakah urutan yang betul bagi pengangkutan oksigen dalam darah?

A P, S, Q, R B Q, R, P, S C S, P, Q, R D S, P, R, Q

cLoNE 2007

cLoNE 2005

10 Which of the following happens when the diaphragm curves upwards?


Antara yang berikut, yang manakah ber laku semasa diafragma me lengkung ke atas?

5 To make the exchange of gases easier, an alveolus has a


Untuk memudahkan pertukaran gas, alveolus mempunyai

Diagram 3/Rajah 3 When structure P becomes flat,


Apabila struktur P menjadi rata,

A The diaphragm contract


Otot diafragma mengecut

muscles

A small surface area


luas permukaan yang kecil

B moist surface
permukaan yang lembap

A volume of the thoracic cavity increases


isi padu rongga toraks ber tambah

B The ribs move upwards


Tulang rusuk bergerak ke atas

C layer that is several cells thick


ketebalan beberapa sel

B air in the lungs is forced out


udara di dalam peparu dipaksa keluar

C Air pressure in the thoracic cavity increases


Tekanan udara di dalam rongga toraks bertambah

D small network of blood capillaries


jaringan kapilari darah yang sedikit

C air pressure in the thoracic cavity increases B


tekanan udara di dalam rongga toraks bertambah

D Air moves into the lungs


Udara bergerak masuk ke dalam peparu
cLoNE 2002

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PAPER

Section A/Bahagian A
Answer all the questions./Jawab semua soalan.
1 Diagram 1 shows a model of the lungs used to study the human breathing mechanism.
Rajah 1 menunjukkan satu model peparu untuk mengkaji mekanisme pernafasan manusia.
cLoNE 2005

(a) Using the model, explain the process of exhalation.


Sec. A, Q5(a) and (b)

When the rubber sheet is released, air is forced out of the balloon.
glass tube/tiub kaca Dengan menggunakan model ini, terangkan proses hembusan nafas. Apabila kepingan getah dilepaskan, udara dipaksa keluar dari belon.

serkup kaca

bell jar

balloon/belon

(b) Complete the table below to show the parts in the human respiratory system that is analogous to the parts in this model.
Lengkapkan jadual di bawah untuk menunjukkan bahagian sistem respirasi manusia yang analogi dengan bahagian dalam model ini.

rubber sheet

Glass tube/Tiub kaca Balloons/Belon Rubber sheet/Kepingan getah

Trachea/Trakea Lungs/Peparu Diaphragm/Diafragma

kepingan getah

Diagram 1/Rajah 1

2 Diagram 2 shows the structure of alveolus and blood capillary.


cLoNE 2005 cLoNE 2006
Sec. A, Q5(a) and (b)

(a) What is blood cell X?/Apakah sel darah X? Red blood cell/Sel darah merah (b) Explain briefly the transportation of oxygen in the blood to the body cells. Terangkan secara ringkas pengangkutan oksigen dalam darah ke sel-sel badan. In the blood, the oxygen combines with haemoglobin in the red blood cells to form oxyhaemoglobin. When the oxyhaemoglobin reaches the body cells, it decomposes to release oxygen./Dalam darah, oksigen bergabung dengan hemoglobin dalam sel darah merah
X
untuk membentuk oksihemoglobin. Apabila oksihemoglobin sampai ke sel-sel badan, ia terurai untuk melepaskan oksigen.

Sec. A, Q4(c) and (d)

alveolus

alveolus

capillary
kapilari

(c) Name the gases involved./Namakan gas-gas yang terlibat. Diagram 2/Rajah 2 Oxygen and carbon dioxide/Oksigen dan karbon dioksida (d) State one harmful effect of smoking to human health./Nyatakan satu kesan buruk merokok ke atas kesihatan manusia. Smoking may cause lung cancer/bronchitis/cancer of the throat.
Merokok mungkin menyebabkan kanser peparu/bronkitis/kanser kerongkong.

3 Diagram 3 shows the human respiratory system./Rajah 3 menunjukkan sistem respirasi manusia. (a) Label two of the following structures in Diagram 3.
Label dua daripada struktur yang berikut dalam Rajah 3.

trakea

trachea

Trachea/Trakea Bronchiole/Bronkiol Bronchus/Bronkus

bronchus bronchiole
bronkiol bronkus

(b) State one function of structure X./Nyatakan satu fungsi struktur X. To allow the process of gaseous exchange
Untuk membenarkan proses pertukaran gas

Y X

Diagram 3/Rajah 3

(c) Label structure Y in Diagram 3 which protects the lungs. Labelkan struktur Y dalam Rajah 3 yang melindungi peparu.

(d) Complete the sequence of air movement in the space provided below.
Lengkapkan urutan pergerakan udara dalam ruang yang disediakan di bawah.

Nasal cavity
Rongga hidung

Trachea
Trakea

Bronchus
Bronkus

Bronchiole
Bronkiol

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