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**Vaijyanath Kunchigi, Linganagouda Kulkarni, Subhash Kulkarni
**

Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Hyderabad, AP, India

**vaijanath.k@gmail.com, linganagouda@yahoo.co.uk, subhashsk@gmall.com
**

Abs tract-High speed pipelined multiplier architecture is proposed architectur c?nsists of st es. . . stage consists of the 4 - bIt VedIc MultIplIcatIOn umt. 2 stage d consists of partial products and carry. 3r stage consists of adders and the result of the multiplication. This paper presents the efficiency of Urdhva itself. It is Triyagbhyam enables parallel unwanted modeled using Vedic method of for multiplication which strikes a difference in the actual process of multiplication products proposed and generation Verilog, a partial The eliminates multiplication steps. in this paper. The pipeline

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1st

relatively larger

chip area consumption. Third is serial

parallel multiplier which serves as a good trade-off between he times consuming serial multiplier and the area consummg parallel multipliers. The proposed Vedic multiplier is based on the Vedic Sutras. These system. Sutras have In this work, system been we to traditionally the the apply make the same used decimal ideas proposed for the number to the algorithm multiplication of two binary number numbers in

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**11 logic cells are required to description language. It is found that
**

build nibble multiplier.

algorithm

hardware

The propagation time of the proposed The results shows that

**compatible with the digital hardware. II.
**

VEDIC MATHEMATICS

architecture is found to be 4.585ns. Implementation has been done for the Xilinx FPGA device, Spartan-3E. multiplier implemented using Vedic multiplication is efficient in terms of area and speed compared to its implementation using Array and Booth multiplier architectures.

The Sanskrit word 'Veda' means 'knowledge'. The Vedas consist of a huge number of documents there are said to be thousands of such documents in India, many of which have not yet been translated, which are shown to be highly structured, both within themselves and in relation to each other. Some documents, called 'Ganita sutras' (the name 'ganita' means mathematics), were devoted to mathematical knowledge. Sri Bharati Krishna Tirtha Maharaj, who is generally considered the doyen of this discipline, in his seminal book

Vedic Mathematics, wrote about this special use of sutras[J I).

Keywords-Vedic Mathematics; Urdhva Triyakbhyam Sutra; Array Multiplier; Booth Multiplier; Nibble; High Speed.

I. arithmetic, signal and

INTRODUCTION

Multiplier [1] is one of the key hardware blocks in designing image processors. Many transfonn algorithms like Fast Fourier transfonns (FFTs), DFT etc make use of multipliers [2], [3], [4]. With advances in technology, many researchers have tried to design multipliers which offer high speed, low power consumption, regularity of layout and hence less area or even combination of them in multiplier. In recent years, high-speed multipliers [5] play an important role while designing any architecture and researchers are still working on many factors to increase the speed of operation of these basic elements. Algorithms for designing high-speed multipliers have been efficiency smarter [6]. The modified and increased multiplying developed for better various can be complexity algorithms of that

Vedic Mathematics" was the name given by him. He was the person who collected lost fonnulae from the writings of "Atharwa Vedas" and wrote them in the fonn of Sixteen Sutras and thirteen sub-sutras. Vedic Mathematics is based on 16 sutras dealing with mathematics related to arithmetic, algebra, and geometry. These methods and ideas can be directly applied to trigonometry, plain and spherical geometry, conics, calculus and applied mathematics of various kinds. The Vedic methods are direct, and truly extraordinary in their efficiency and simplicity. Research is being carried out in many areas, including the effects on children who learn Vedic maths and the development of new, powerful but easy applications of the Vedic sutras in geometry, calculus, computing etc. But the real beauty and effectiveness of Vedic mathematics cannot be fully appreciated without actually practising the system. One mathematical system possible.

2.1

applications, demands not only faster multiplier chips but also and efficient implemented in the chips. It is up to the need of the hour and the application on to which the multiplier is implemented and what tradeoffs need to be considered. Generally, the efficiency of the multipliers are classified based on the variation in speed, area and configuration. The multiplier architecture can be generally classified into three categories. First is the serial multiplier which emphasizes on hardware and minimum amount of chip area. parallel high speed mathematical operations. But the drawback is the multiplier (array and tree) which Second carries is out

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then see that it is perhaps the most refined and effiCIent

VEDIC MATHEMATICS SUTRA S . Vedic Mathematics,

This list of sutra is taken from the book

ooob OOOp STEP} oo 'if STEP 2 STEP3 STEP4 0060 0000 �OO whereas :% STEP 6 � STEP 7 STEPS %: Urdhva method. Shesanyankena Charamena . Urdhva-tiryakbyham . 5. Yaavadunam .Whatever the extent of its deficiency Crosswise algorithm [7].By addition and by subtraction 11.When the sum is the same that sum is zero 13.Carry = .. 6.Carry= 2 738 23 239 � p w= � Result=2 3 . . 3.The product of the sum is equal to the sum of the product Nikhilam Navatashcaramam Dashatah . multiplication module are utilized after getting the partial product bits parallel from the subsequent module to generate the final 16-bit product.Differences and Similarities. 9. . Therefore efficient multiplication algorithm implementation with small numbers such as 4-bits. The results vertical of first and 4x4 crosswise algorithm is applied to carry out the multiplication on multiply modules. 1. . the multiplier and multiplicand. the other is zero Chalana-Kalanabyham . Shunyam Saamyasamuccaye . Ekanyunena Purvena . can be easily extended and embedded for implementing efficient NxN multiply operation. Result=3 1 Prev.Carry= -4.carry= Carry=2 � Fig. . Sankalana-vyavakalanabhyam .2N.By one less than the previous one Gunakasamuchyah . Puranapuranabyham noncompletion 10. Ekadhikina Purvena .Transpose and adjust. pOOO hooo Fig. 2. 4. 2 Multiplication of two decimal numbers by Urdhva Tiryakbhyam . Sopaantyadvayamantyam .By one more than the previous one.All from 9 and the last from 10 Paraavartya Yojayet .Carry = JL � STEP 4 5 98 1 50 � � /3.The factors of the sum is equal to the sum of the factors Gunitasamuchyah . . URDHVA TIRY AKBHYAM SUTRA The 4 x 4 multiplication has been done in a single line in in shift and add method (Conventional) four partial products have to be added to get the STEP 2 STEP 3 The Multiplier Architecture is based on the Vertical and STEPl 3 25 7 �8 I Result=4 0 Prev. The architecture is illustrated with two 4-bit numbers.The remainders by the last digit 12.Vertically and crosswise 15..The ultimate and twice the penultimate 14. [8]. Hence any complex NxN multiplication can be efficiently implemented by using small 4x4 multiplier using the proposed architecture where N is a mUltiple of 4 such as 8 . each are grouped as 4-bit numbers so that it decomposes into 4x4 multiplication first 4x4 modules. 1 Example of 4x4 binary multiplication using Urdhva Tiryakbhyam III.which includes a full list of the 16 main sutras The following are the 16 main sutras or formulae of Vedic math and their meaning in English. (Anurupye) Shunyamanyat .J.. 7. 16. Vyashtisamanstih . After decomposition. 8. 8 8 Carry=4 Carry=3 Carry=6 STEPS 3 25 Result=2 1 hev.Part and Whole 16.If one is in ratio. The proposed method of Urdhva Triyagbhyam can be implemented for binary system in the same way as decimal By the completion or system. 3 7 85 � W A Result=6 5 Prev.

4. IMPLEMENTATION OF VEDIC MULTIPLIER 4. = = � ing r::l �n e�ope� r::I = t----. As the result of this multiplication would be more than 4 bits. The proposed multiplication algorithm is for n-bit multiplication using basic shifting. Input n-bit binary numbers a and b a[n-l:0] b[n-l:0] = = = cl + a2bO + albl + aOb2 + 1 'bO c3 + a3bl + a2b2 + alb3 + 1 'bO c5 + a3b3 + 1 'bO + 1 'bO + 1 'bOo albO + aObl + 1 'bO + 1 'bO aObO + 1 'bO + 1 'bO + 1 'bO (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Multiplicand Multiplier = = Load Enable (Iden) temp_b [n-l:0] (c) O 1.2 PSEUDO C ODE (a) Initialization Positive edge clock (elk) and negative edge reset (rst_n) is initialized... Initially the carry is taken to be zero. . IV. Thus we get the following expressions: rO clrl c2r2 c3r3 c4r4 c5r5 c6r6 = With c6r6r5r4r3r2rlrO being the final product. all the results are added to the previous carry.'iI'S:::-�����L.L. 3 Proposed Vedic multiplier architecture for 4-bit multiplication. Let us first illustrate this Sutra with the help of an example in which two decimal numbers are multiplied. Partial products are calculated in parallel and hence the delay involved is just the time it takes for the signal to propagate through the gates. multiplication and addition operations. In this paper. Urdhva Tiryakbhyam (Vertically and Crosswise). 2 in binary system. = Operation enable (open) O. When there are more lines in one step.1 THE PROPOSED ALGORITHM The pseudo code of the proposed multiplication algorithm is described. 1 which is nothing but the mapping of the Fig. r3r2rlrO. deals with the multiplication of numbers [8]. The algorithm is broadly divided in three stages namely the initialization. we express it as . (Temporary Registers) O. let us consider the multiplication of two binary numbers a3a2alaO and b3b2blbO. [12].. pre-processing and processing.T-����-J. Line diagram for the multiplication of two numbers (325x728) is shown in Fig. To illustrate this multiplication scheme in binary number system. This implies the increase in speed. The least significant digit of the number thus obtained acts as one of the result digits and the rest act as the carry for the next step.I 0 0 II II II II Fig.result.:�� �-T---. The digits on the two ends of the line are multiplied and the result is added with the previous carry. We now extend this Vedic multiplication algorithm to binary number system with the preliminary knowledge that the multiplication of two bits aO and bO is just an AND operation and can be implemented using simple AND gate. 2.. = = c2 + a3bO + a2bl + alb2 + aOb3 c4 + a3b2 + a2b3 + 1 'bO + 1 'bO Operation enable (open) = O. (Carry) = Load enable (Iden) (b) Preprocessing O. Reg [n-2:0] P [n-l:0] = = O. This Sutra has been traditionally used for the multiplication of two numbers in the decimal number system. (Partial Products) = Cy [n-3:0] O. Line diagram for multiplication of two 4-bit numbers is shown in Fig. Right shift of b. we apply the same idea to the binary number system to make it compatible with the digital hardware [10]. [9].

._ .. _ . . . _ . 7.. -. In the conventional method. The proposed multiplication algorithm is hierarchical in structure i. added with carry using simple adder.. Hence the same concept is applied to develop the multiplication algorithm using vedic sutras. The simulation and synthesis results for the Vedic. Add [n-2:0] (n-3:0). In our algorithm. In nibble multiplication 8 clock cycles are required to get the result. After getting the partial products p[3:0]. For next clock cycles.2. word. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS The algorithm is designed for 4 bit input using Verilog-HDL. _. Simulation is done using Modelsim SE 6. Array and Booth multipliers are respectively shown below.. Hence debugging is easy and efficient in area and speed. nibble multiplication of a [3:0] and b[3:0]. a[2]. .. Technology View of 4 -bit Multiplier using Vedic Mathematics .. . V.e. It takes n*2 clock cycles for n-bit multiplication. Like wise. RTL and Technical Schematic of nibble Fig. The method uses sequential circuits in the design that used for different frequency ranges.. Thus. 4. The add [0] is feed to the result and add[2:1] acts as carry. ARRAY MULTIPLIER multiplication. a[O] is mUltiplied with b[O] and a[l].. Basic multiplication unit used is nibble multiplication.. _ _ . . reg[l]. END. top-down approach.3 ANALYSIS OF THE ALGORITHM = = 5. 6. area consumption is less.5. The subsequent figures show the simulation. we consider nibble as leaf cell for the higher bit multiplications design. 6. _.1. Simulation results for 4-bit Vedic Multiplier 6. 2. Right shift the mUltiplier b [n-l:0] n*2 times. After 7th clock cycle result is generated and stored in 8 bit register. Speed is increased by reducing the delay in sequential circuits..... Multiply a and b w r t expressions. The analysis is as follows. etc. are used to perform basic operations. . . 3. Fig... . . Simulation results for 4-bit Array Multiplier Fig. Thus. In the 151 clock cycle. the higher bit multiplication can be built which will makes modification easier.3 BOOTH MULTIPLIER . The above figure shows Proposed way of nibble multiplication by Urdhva Tiryakbhyam Sutra. The computer architecture designed such a way that nibble. for each clock cycle the method follows. reg[2] respectively. 4.. 5. . . . for n-bit mUltiplication n*4 AND gates are used for implementation.1 VEDIC MULTIPLIER {p (0) + P (1) + . . . using basic nibble multiplication unit. For the case.. The proposed multiplication algorithm uses n AND gates for n-bit multiplication. + P (n-2) + p (n-l)} + cy right shift add [n-(4*multiple of 4)] n*2 times. Return the result. 4. a[3] are multiplied with reg[O]. byte. . __ . Result 6. . Then partial products are added with previous carry using simple adder and add [0] is feed to the result and previous addition result is right shifted by 1 bit. . b[3:0] is right shifted by 1 bit and multiplied with corresponding a[3:0] bits. Synthesis and Implementation is done using Xilinx Spartan-3E FPGA Board of device family xc3s500e-4fg320.

Milos D. Arabnia. vol. Educ. India. Electronics Letters. in Proc." Vedic Mathematics". 2008.30] multipliers are given in [6] H ThapJiyal. CONCLUSION The Delay of the proposed Vedic multiplier is 4. 415 Graduate Studies Research Center Athens. 5. 9 Comparison of 4 bit Multipliers with respect to delay in Spartan 3E FPGA Comaparison of 4 bit Multipliers in terms of Area 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 32 Department of Computer Science. pp. [7] Harpreet Singh Dhillon Abhijit Mitra.A. such as less number of multipliers and adders) Example. pp. ICACTEA. [2] Vadiraj Sagar. 72-6. Vol. 8.. PDA College of Engineering. K D Dharani. Jul 15-17. p. 2008. Vedavyas Mathad. "Computer system Architecture". Subhash Kulkarni "Vhdl Implementation of Vedic Mathematical Sutras" Department of Electronics & Communication.2 © 2004 UICEE Published in Australia. "High-Performance Lefl-to-Right Array Multiplier Design.Bit Multiplication Algorithm for Digital Arithmetics" . Georgia 30602-7404. of Slices No. 2009. Chidgupkar and Mangesh T. "The Implementation of Vedic Algorithms in Digital Signal Processing on 8085/8086". the same architecture can be extended for 16 -bit. 263.proposed architecture is and is efficient in speed and area(1ess Flexible in design resources used. [3] "Lifting Scheme Discrete Wavelet Transform Using Vertical and Crosswise Multipliers" Anthony O'Brien and Richard Conway. "Fully Iterative Fast Array for Binary Multiplication". Ercegovac.Galway. International Journal of Computational and Mathematical Sciences. [I2] Harpreet Singh Dhillon and Abhijit Mitra. It is evident from the summary that only 11 logic elements are required for the proposed Architecture. 1986. Hence. Guwahatti.Guilt.. 'Time in tenms of Delay(ns) Fig. Las Vegas. "High speed energy efficient ALU design using Vedic multiplication techniques". U.8 No. [4] Zhijun Huang.Power Efficient Multiplier and Square Architecture Based on Ancient Indian VediC". and H R Arabnia. "Design and Analysis of a VLSI Based High Performance Low Power Parallel Square Architecture". Fig. The University of Georgia. Varanasi. 600-3. [8] Purushottam D.1982 [II] Jagadguru Swami Sri Bharati Krishna Tirthji Maharaja. Booth and Array below Charts. Comparison of 4 bit Multipliers in terms of Speed �-------------------------." arith. 2005. ISSC. Simulation results for 4-bit Booth Multiplier The area consumed and speed taken to do the implementation for 4-bit Vedic. "A Reduced. Mano. Con! Algo. 16th IEEE Symposium on Computer Arithmetic (ARITH-16 '03). of Engng. Jun. 1969. The advantages of this . and S Deborah. 2003 [5] Ramalatha. cVedic • Sooth o Array No. Math. Int. P Priya. 64bit etc multiplication. Sudhindracharya. REFERENCES [I] H. Motilal Banarsidas. "A Digital Multiplier Architecture using Urdhava Tiryabhyam Sutra of Vedic Mathematics".4. June 18-19. NJ: Prentice-hall. 10 Comparison of 4 bit Multipliers with respect to area in Spartan 3E FPGA VI. Indian Institue of Technology.� �]�-------18 ' r� i 16 14 12 10 8 6. Global J. of 4 input LUfs Fig. Karad. "A Time-Area. Englewood Cliffs. the maximum operating frequency of the proposed multiplier is found to be 218. Compo Sc.M.103MHz under normal operating conditions and with all the input signals having normal inputs.S. M Dayalan. M B Srinivas. [9] Himanshu Thapliyal and Hamid R. 2009.585ns. [10] M. Shripad Sagar. pp.

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High Speed and Area Efficient Vedic Multiplier

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