THE RULE OF SAINT CLARE THE FORM OF LIFE OF THE POOR SISTERS Clare tells us in both her Rule

and her Testament that Francis gave her and her sisters a form of life: "When the Blessed Father saw we had no fear of poverty, hard work, trial, shame, or contempt of the world, but, instead, regarded such things as great delights, moved by compassion he wrote a form of life for us..." [Rule 6, 1] "Afterwards he wrote a form of life for us, especially that we always persevere in holy poverty." [Testament 33] The only fragment remaining of the form of life [forma vivendi] Francis gave to Clare and her companions, appears in Clare's Rule: Because by divine inspiration you have made yourselves daughters and handmaids of the most high King, the heavenly Father, and have taken the Holy Spirit as your spouse, choosing to live according to the perfection of the holy Gospel, I resolve and promise for myself and for my brothers to have that same loving care and special solicitude for you as [I have] for them. [Rule 6:3-4] Gregory IX made reference to the form of life Francis gave the Poor Ladies at St. Damians in a letter to Agnes of Prague in 1238: Angelus Gaudium. This letter is available in English in:

Armstrong, Regis J., O.F.M.Cap. Clare of Assisi: Early Documents. St. Bonaventure, New York: The Franciscan Institute, 1993: 371-4 Clare of Assisi: Early Documents: The Lady, New York: New City Press, 2006.
Also partly available in:

Gilliat-Smith, Ernest. St. Clare of Assisi: Her Life and Legislation. London: J. M. Dent & Sons, 1914: 133.
The difference between "formula" and "Rule" as well as examples of other "forma vitae" approved around the time Francis gave a form of life to the Poor Ladies, is explained in the following work:

Cicconetti, Carlo, O. Carm.. The Rule of Carmel. Trans. Gabriel Pausback, O. Carm. Illinois: Carmelite Spiritual Center, 1984: 76-84.
A reference to the early manner of living at San Damiano is found in a letter by Jacques di Vitry, although it is not certain if his comments concern the Damianites or other lay followers of Francis.

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Di Vitry, Jacques. Letter I, October 1216. Lettres de Jacques di Vitry. R.B.C. Huygens. Leyde 1960: 75-6. St. Francis of Assisi Writing sand Early Biographies. English Omnibus of Sources. Ed. Marion Habig, O.F.M. Chicago: Franciscan Herald Press, 1972.
The form of life is an outline of the manner of living intended to guide Clare and her sisters before they had the formal legislation of an approved Rule. This is how it will be used in this section, although the term `form of life' has often been used as a synonym for Rule in regard to the Poor Sisters of Saint Clare as found in ancient manuscripts. (e.g. Messina Codex) The list below contains explanations and studies useful in describing the particular characteristics of the mode of religious life Clare and her sisters lived from the earliest times.

A Question Concerning the Beginnings of the Order of Saint Clare. Pro Monialibus. 74 (1979): 5-6. Censi, Mario. "Incarcerate e recluse in Umbria nei secoli XIII e XIV." Il Movemento religioso femminile in Umbria nei secoli XIII-XIV. Regione dell'Umbria: "La Nova Italia" Editrice, 1984. [Consideration of the three forms of religious life emerging in Umbria.] 1984. 85-121. Declarations on the Rule of Saint Clare. Pro Monialibus 25 (1971): 6-8. [Chapter I, Form of Life.] Eckerstorfer, Robert, O.F.M. The Influence of Charism and Institution upon Clare of Assisi. A paper completed at St. Bonaventure University, St. Bonaventure, N.Y., 1980. Freeman, Gerard Pieter. Il digiuno delle Clarisse nel XIII secolo. Forma Sororum 41, 2 (2004) 68-77. Garrido, Javier, O.F.M. La forma da vida de Santa Clara. Aránzazu: Editorial Franciscana, 1979. Gilliat-Smith, Ernest. Saint Clare of Assisi: Her Life and Legislation. London & Toronto: J. M. Dent & Sons, Ltd., 1914. Part 2, Ch.2, 133-148. [On the Primitive Rule; Pope Gregory's letter, Angelis gaudium, to Agnes concerning it.] Hart, Fidelis, O.S.C. Recipe for Babes. Communications [The communications bulletin of the Mother Bentivoglio Federation of Poor Clares]. Minneapolis, MN: St. Clare's Monastery, 1988.

Ilio, Juanita, O.S.C. The Early Form of Life of the Poor Clares. A Paper presented at the Franciscan Institute, St. Bonaventure University, 1986. Lazzeri, Zefferino, O.F.M. La `Forma Vitae' di S. Chiara e la Regole sue e del suo Ordine. Santa Chiara d'Assisi: Studi e cronaca del VII centenario (1253-1952). Assisi: Comitato Centrale per il VII Ccentenario Morte S.Chiara, 1954: 79-122, 517-542; Archivum Franciscanum Historicum 5 (1912): 12-34. O'Brien, Celsus, O.F.M. The Primitive Rule, The Story of The Poor Clares. Limerick: Franciscan Friary, 1992. Ch.2, n.1, ---. Poor Clare Nun. "The Primitive Rule of Saint Clare: A Sketch by a Poor Clare of Alexandria, Virginia.' Crusader's Almanac Fall (1990): 10-12. van de Pavert, O.F.M. Francis' Form of Life and Last Will for the Poor Ladies. Franciscan Institute of Asia Contact 3 (1981): 5-6.

The Eremitical Dimension of the Form of Life

Cirino, André, O.F.M. Clare and the Rule for Hermitages. The Cord 7 (1991): 195-202. Conti, Martino, O. F. M. Regola per gli eremi di san Francesco e Regola di santa Chiara. Forma Sororum 5 (1986): 235.

THE RULE OF SAINT CLARE, 1253 Clare's Rule for the Poor Ladies was approved by Pope Innocent IV on August 9, 1253, two days before she died. It cannot be determined exactly when it was written. The original Bull containing the Rule with Pope Innocent's seal is preserved at the Proto-Monastery. A copy of the original parchment may be found in the following work folded in the back of the book:

Cozza-Luzi, Giuseppe. Chiara di Assisi: Nuove Scoperte e Documenti. Rome 1895
The parchment containing the Rule is described in the following articles:

Grau, Engelbert, O.F.M. "Die päpstliche Bestätigung der Regel der hl. Klara (1253)." Franziskanisher Studien 35 (1953): 317-23.

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___. "Conferma papale della Regola di Santa Chiara." Forma Sororum 21 (1984): 244-51.

Clare was the first woman to receive approval for a religious Rule for women. This is mentioned in the following work:

Dronke, Peter. Women Writers of the Middle Ages: A Critical Study of Texts from Perpetua (203) to Marguerite Porete (1310). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984: 230-2.
There was a commemoration of the 7th. Centenary of the Rule of St. Clare:

VII Centenario della Regola delle Clarisse. Padua: Grafiche "Messaggero di S. Antonio," Bascilica del Santo, 1964.
The following are among the ancient manuscripts or prints containing the Rule of Saint Clare:

Boston Public Library. Regula sororum ordinis sanctae Clara. Ms. q. med. 123 [Contains frontspiece of Saint Clare on a throne surrounded by her sisters with St. Francis holding a crown for her. c. 14th century] Boston Public Library. Regola delle monache de S. Chiara. Ms. q. med. 118. [Contains Letter of Eugene IV; Concessions granted by Nicholas IV; John Capistrano's Declaration on Rule; Privilege granted by Philip Cabassole in 1370; Commentary by Nicholas of Osimo; Letter to Suore Helysabeth; stanzas from Dante. Latin and Italian. 15th. century.] Boston Public Library. La regla de las hermanas dela horden de sancta Clara. Ms. f. med. 140. Spain. Early 16th century.] Città di Castello Monastero (Perugia). Venice 1621. Dichiarazione sopra la Regola di S. Chiara. Fr. Sante Romano. Garret Evangelical Theological Seminary, Evanston, Il. Regulae sororum inclusarum minorissarum. Florence 1480. George A. Plimpton Library, Columbia University, New York. Regra virgen constitution et offices diversis de l'ordre des pauvres soeurs de sainte Claire. Plimpton Ms. 288. c. 15th. century [Contains words from sermons by "notre père general frere Gilbert."]

Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, Houghton Library. Primeira regra da glorioza Virgem [?] S. Clara. Ms. typ. 651. 18th century. With decorated pen-work title page and initials.] The Messina Codex of St. Eustochia. Forma vite Ordinis Sororum pauperum quas beatus Franciscus instituit, ff. 3r-20v. In this early document the 'Forma vite[?]' is synonymous with `Rule'. La forma vitae di S. Chiara a... Messina is possibly the oldest manuscript known containing the Rule of St. Clare. See "Messina Codex of Bl. Eustochia." Pro Monialibus 90 (1982): 3-5. "I manoscritti francescani della Biblioteca Universitaria di Messina." Miscellanea Francescana 78 (1978): 495-563. The Official Latin text, identical with that on the original parchment, is in the following: Omaechevarria, I. O.F.M. Escritos de Santa Clara: y Documentos Complementarios. Madrid: Biblioteca de Autores Cristianos, 1982. Opuscula S. Francisci et S. Clarae Assisiensium. Pubblicazioni della biblioteca francescana Chiesa Nuova - Assisi, 1; Assisi: Ed. Porziuncula, 1978. Seraphicae Legislationis Textus Originales. Trans. and Ed. Ioannis Boccali, O.F. M. Quaracchi: Collegium S. Bonaventurae, 1897: 273-80. Regulae Sanctae Clarae. Concordante Verbales Opusculorum S. Francisci et S. Clarae Assisiensium. Trans. and Ed. Ioannis Boccali, O.F. M. Assisi: Portiuncola Press, 1976: 185-92. Textus Opusculorum S. Francisci et S. Clarae Assisiensium, variis adnotationibus ornatus cura et studio. Ed. Ioannis Boccali, O.F.M. Assisi: Edizioni Portiuncula, 1976. Early prints of the Rule Da Bagnacavallo, Romealdo, O. Min. Dichiarazione della seconda regola della Serafica Madre S. Chiara di Assisi. Florence: Archi, 1773. Prima Regola delle Monache di S. Chiara, datali (!) dal P.S. Francesco e confirmata da Innocenzo IV...Revista e corretta dal R.P. Procuratore di Corte de Frati Minori Cappuccini.... Perugia, 1639. [12 copies at Città di Castello Monastery, Perugia.] Den Eersten Regel van S. Clara...met haer Testament... Trans. from Latin: Cornelis Thielmans, O.Min. S'Hertogenbosch: Jan van Turnhout, 1617.

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Emmanuel a Monte Oliveti. Expositionem secundae Regulae S. Clarae, 1621. [This work is mentioned in Supplementum et Castigatio ad Scriptores Trium Ordinem S. Francisci a Waddingo, Aliisve Descriptis; cum Adnotationibus ad Syllabum Martyrum Eorum Ordinem. Rome: Typographia S. Michaelis ad Ripane Contedini, 1806. Joanne Baptista a S. Aniano, O.F.M.Cap. Regulam S. Clarae cum Expositione, et Annotationibus. Biblioteca Universa Franciscana, vol.2. Joannes a S. Antonio, 1732. Also listed in Supplementum et Castigatio ad Scriptores, vol. 3, 34. Hyacinth Sbaralea, 1908. Prima regola delle monache di S. Chiara datale dal Padre S. Francesco e confirmata da Papa Innocentio IV. Rome: Rev. Cam. Apostolica, 1639. Regula segona del glorios pare Sant Francesch, donada a la gloriosa santa Clare.... Additions and corrections by Guillem de Casal.... Bardelona: Nogues, 1644. The Rule of St. Clare . Trans. Eleanor Knott, Ed. Osborn Bergin, T. F. O'Rahilly and Eleanor Knott. . Ériu 15 (1948): Chapter I. A 17th Century Gaelic translation of the Rule of St. Clare.
Early English translations

Marcus of Lisbon. The Chronicle and Institution of the Order of the Seraphicall Father S.Francis, 1618: 649-61. Magdalen of St. Augustine, P.C. Trans. The Rvle of the Holy Virgin S. Clare, 1621. English Recusant Literature 1558-1640, vol.274. London: The Scolar Press, 1975.
Recent English translations include the following:

Armstrong, Regis J., O.F.M.Cap. Clare of Assisi Early Documents. New York/Mahwah: Paulist Press, 1988: 60-77; Revised edition 1993; The Lady Clare of Assisi: Early Documents, New City press, 2006. Armstrong, R. and I. Brady. Francis and Clare: The Complete Works. The Classics of Western Spirituality. New York: Paulist Press, 1982. Aschmann, Mary Francis, P.C.C. The Rule of St. Clare. [Unpublished material.] Brady, Ignatius C., O.F.M. The Legend and Writings of Saint Clare of Assisi. New York: The Franciscan Institute, 1953. [This text is used in the 1973 Constitutions of the Poor Clares.]

De Robeck, Nesta. St. Clare of Assisi. Milwaukee: Bruce Publishing Co., 1951: 159-71; Second edition: Chicago: Franciscan Herald Press, 1980. Locatelli, Vincenzo, O.F.M. Vita di Santa Chiara d'Assisi. Napoli: Andrea Festa, 1855: 323-33. Regole e Constituzione general delle monache dell Ordine di S. Chiara. Franciscan General Curia, 1941. Regulae et Constitutiones Generales Ordinis Sororum Pauperum Sanctae Clarae. Intro. Fr. Joannes Vaughn, Totius Ordinis Fratrum Minorum Minister Generalis. Rome: Curia Generalis Ordinis Fratrum Minorum Officium Pro Monialibus, 1988. ___ American version: The Gospel Way of Saint Clare: The Rule and General Constitutions of the Order of Saint Clare. U.S.A.: Published by the Federations of the Holy Name of Jesus, and Mother Maddalena Bentivoglio, 1989. Robinson, Paschal, O.F.M. St. Clare of Assisi. Philadelphia: Dolphin Press, 1912. [This text was used in the 1951 Constitutions of the Poor Clares.] Rule and Constitutions of the Order of Saint Clare, Rome 1953; 1973. Rule and Testament of St. Clare: Constitutions for Poor Clare Nuns. Chicago: Franciscan Herald Press, 1987.
Texts and Studies on the Rule

Becker, Marie-France, O.S.C., Jean-François Godet, O.F.M., Thaddeè Matura, O.F.M.. Claire d'Assise: Écrits. Paris: Les Editiones du Cerf, 1985: 19-21. Bentivenga, M. R. "Il secondo Ordine ha mantenuto il proprio carisma? Come lo ha arricchito nei secoli." Vita Minorum 59 (1988): 268-86. Carney, Margaret, O.S.F. The Rule of St. Clare of Assisi and the Feminine Incarnation of the Franciscan Evangelical Life. Antonianum Diss. 1988. ___. The First Franciscan Woman. Quincy, Il: Franciscan Press, 1993. Casolini, Fausta. "Regola di Santa Chiara del 1253." Santa Chiara d'Assisi: Studi e cronaca del VII centenario 1253-1953. Assisi: Comitato Centrale per il Centenario Morte S. Chiara, 1954: 522-28. 7

Conti, Martino, O.F.M. "La Sacra Scrittura nella Regola di S.Chiara." Forma Sororum 23 (1986): 235-45. Creytens, Raymond. "L'opuscule de Henry Kalteisen, O.P. sur l'obligation de la Règle de Sainte Claire." Archivum Fratrum Praedicatorum 38 (1968): 47-69. De Fontette, Micheline. "Les Clarisses." Recherches sur les Structures Juridiques des Branches Feminines des Orders. Paris: Librairie Philosophique J. Urin, 6, Place de la Sorbonne, 1967. Esser, Kajetan, O.F.M. "Der heiligen Kirche Bild und Spiegel. Zur Siebenhundertjahrfeier des Todes der hl. Klara von Assisi."Wissenschaft und Weisheit 16 (1953): 81-9. Garrido, Javier, O.F.M. La Forma de Vida de Santa Clara. Editorial Franciscana Aranzazu, 1979. Gilliat-Smith, Ernest. The Rule of St. Clare. Saint Clare of Assisi: Her Life and Legislation. London: J. M. Dent & Son, 1914. Godet, Jean-François, O. F. M. Progetto evangelico di Chiara oggi. Vita Minorum 3 (1985). English: St. Clare's Evangelical Project for Us Today. Trans. Carmelo Paludette, O.F.M. Vita Minorum May/June 1985; A New Look At Clare's Gospel Plan of Life. Trans. Edward Hagman, O.F.M. Cap. Greyfriars Review 5 (1991) "Gospel Foundation of Clare's Rule." Pro Monialibus 1973-1974. Grau, Engelbert, O.F.M. Life According to the Perfection of the Holy Gospel. Trans. Joseph Doino, O.F. M. The Cord 42 (1992): 195 -99. ---. Confirmación papal de la Regla de santa Clara. Selecciones de Franciscanismo 66 (1993): 392-8. Hone, Mary Francis, O.S.C. Clare and the Ancren Riwle. The Cord 36 (1986): 202-14; 275-88; 304-12. [A comparative study of an early anchoritic Rule with the Rule of Saint Clare] Ideal de Sainte Claire dans sa Régle (L'): Commentaire de la 1re Régle de 1253. Amiens: Monastére des Clarisses d'Amiens, 1953-54. Iriate, Lazzaro, O.F.M.Cap. Letra y espíritu de la Regla de Santa Clara. Colección "Hermano Francisco - Hermana Clara 1." Selecciones de Franciscanismo, 1975. Italian: La Regola di santa Chiara. Lettera e spirito. Trans. Fiorenzo Fiore. Presenza

di san Francesco, 27. Milan: Biblioteca Francescana Provinciale, 1976. Portuguese: Letra e espirito da Regra de Santa Clara. Coleçao Poverello, 16. Sao Paolo, Conferência dos Capuchinhos de Brazil. Porto Alegre, RS: Escola Superior de Theologia Sao Lourenço de Brindes, 1979. English: The Letter and the Spirit in the Rule of St. Clare of Assisi. Trans. Ma. Clara Lotho, O.S.C. and Cantius Kobak, O.F.M. Manila, Philippine Islands, 1984. ___. La Regole di Santa Chiara. Milan: Bibliotecae Francescana Provincale, 1976. Johannes de Capistrano. Declaration of the Rule of St. Clare. Archivum Franciscanum Historicum 71 (1978): 450. [From a Franciscan Codex c. 1400.] Lainati, Chiara Augusta, O.S.C. La Regola Francescana e il II Ordine. Vita Minorum 44 (1973): 227-49. McGraith, Aidan, O.F.M. Between Charism and Institution: The Approval of the Rule of Saint Clare. Greyfriars Review 13(1999): 177-202. Nunez, Lucius-Maria. Explicatio Regulae S. Clarae auctore Fr. Nicolao de Auximo (1446) deque alia auctore S. Joanne de Capistrano (1445), Archivum Franciscanum Historicum 5 (1912): 299-314. Oliger, Livarius, O.F.M. De Origine Regularum Ordinis S. Clarae. Archivum Franciscanum Historicum 5 (1912): 181-209; 413-47; 644-54. English: The Origin of the Rules of the Order of St. Clare, Trans. Campion Murray, O.F.M Omaechevarria, I., O.F.M., Edición critica de la Regla de Santa Clara? Verdad y vida 36 (1978): 509-12. Italian translation: Edizione critica della Regola di S. Chiara? Forma Sororum 17 (1980): 148-53. ___. La 'Regla' y las Reglas de la Orden de Santa Clara. Collectanea Franciscana 93-119. Italian: Forma Sororum 5 (1977); 6 (1977): 1-2 (1978). ___. Escritos de Santa Clara y Documentos Contemporaneous. Madrid: Biblioteca de Autores Cristianos, 1973; Escritos de Santa Clara y Documentos Complementarios. Madrid: Biblioteca de Autores Cristianos, 1982: 259-89. Reglas y constituciones generales de las monjos de la Orden de S. Clara. Barcelona: Ediciones Franciscanas, 1942. Regola di Santa Chiara del 1253. Santa Chiara d'Assisi studi e cronaca del VII Centenario 1253-1953. Assisi: Comitato Centrale per il VII Centenario Morte S. Chiara, 1954: 522. 9

Regola, Testamento e Benedizione della M. S. Chiara d’Assisi, con le Costituzioni delle Monache Cappuccine e le Costumanze del Monastero di S. Giuseppe in Venezia (S. Raffaele). Venezia-Mestre, Curia Prov. Dei Cappuccini, 1944. Schneider, Herbert, O.F.M. Kommentar Zur Regal der Heiligen Klara von Assisi. Rome: General Curia, Pro Monialibus Office, 1999. Robinson, Paschal, O.F.M. The Rule of St. Clare: It’s Observance in the Light of Early Documents. Philadelphia: Dolphin Press, 1912. [Located at Franciscan Institute Library, St. Bonaventure University, NY. Franciscan Pamphlets vol. 55 nos. 125.] Un autografo di Innocenzo IV e memorie di S. Chiara d'Assisi. Dissertazione della Pontif. Accad. Romana di Archeplogia. Series II: 6, Rome 1985. van Leeuwen, Peter, O.F.M. Regel van Clara. Franciscaans Leven 66 (1983): 251-65. English: Clare's Rule. Trans. Joseph Oudeman, O.F.M. Cap. Greyfriars Review 1 (1987): 65-76. van Andrichem, Donatus, O.F.M. Xplicatio Primae Regulae S. Clarae, S. Joanne Capistrano. Archivum Franciscanum Historicum 22 (1929): 336-57; 512-28. Verheif, Sigismund. "Persönliches Berufungsbewufstein und kirchlische Autorität am Beispiel der Klara von Assisi." Franziskanischer Studien. 69 (1987): 79-87. Zadrozny, Marianne, O.S.C. The Sources for the Rule of Saint Clare. Communications Editions January 1982 through March 1984. [Communications is a privately circulated periodical by the Poor Clares of the Mother Bentivoglio Federation of Poor Clares]
Clare's Rule is based upon the Rules written by Francis for the friars. Many sections are the same while others differ in what pertains to each separate form of life. There are Comparative Studies of the Rules for Friars and Clares.

Grau, E. Die Regel der hl. Klara (1253) in ihrer Abhängigkeit von der Regel der Minderbrüder (1223). Franziskanisher Studien 35 (1953): 211-73. English: The Rule of St. Clare in its Dependence on the Rule of the Friars Minor. Explanation of the Rule of St. Clare. Part II. Trans. Marcian J. Mathis and Dismas Bonner, O.F.M. New Orleans: Monastery of St. Clare, 1965. Lainati, Chiara Augusta, O.S.C. La Regola Francescana e il II Ordine. Vita Minorum 44 (1973): 227-49. Spanish translation: La Regla franciscana y la Segunda Orden. Selecciones de Franciscanismo 4 (1975): 11-26.

Rofe, Sandra and Agnes van Baer, O. S. C. St. Clare's Expression of the Spirit and Rule of St. Francis. Greyfriars Review 2 (1988): 101-11.
Beyond the studies listed above there are certain aspects of Clare's Rule that have received particular attention, like the following: Enclosure in the Rule of Saint Clare

Barry, Francis, O.M.I. Violation of the Cloister. Washington: Catholic University, 1942. [The uniqueness of Poor Clare enclosure: 29-31.] Beha, Marie, O.S.C. So Where Are We? The Cord 6 (1985). [Consideration on enclosure in its theological, philosophical and spiritual significance] Go forth swiftly. The Cord 40 (1990): 211-21. [Philosophy of enclosure for today] Bertocco, Maria Irma, O.S.C. In Clausura con Cristo. Forma Sororum 33 (1996): 205-12. Bezuntarea, Jesus Maria, O.F.M.Cap. Clausura y Minsterio Pascual. Selecciones de Franciscanismo 66 (1993): 503-6. Bruno, Giordani. Un amore difficile: amare solo per amore. Vita Minorum 54 (1983): 344-57. Chiara Elizabetta, O.S.C. Animazione vocazionale e clausure. Vita Minorum 55 (1984): 129-34. Cremaschi, Chiara Giovanna, O.S.C. La clausura di Chiara d'Assisi . Vita Minorum 5 (1984): 459-67. Forma Sororum 22 (1985): 28-33. Cremers, Oscar. Clara en het slot. Franciscaans Leven 50 (1967): 69-77. Cuthbert, O.F.M. Cap. A Disputed Story Concerning Clare. Archivum Franciscanum Historicum 6 (1913): 670-89. [A response to Paschal Robinson's question] Grau, Engelbert, O.F.M. Die Klausur im Kloster S. Damiano zu Lebzeiten der Hl. Klara. Studia historico-Ecclesiastica. Fesgabe für Prof Luchesius G. Spätling O.F.M. Rome 1977: 311-46.

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Houston, Kerr. The Extent, Effects and Symbolisms of Enclosure at San Damiano. The Cord 53 (2003): 181-92. Ideal de Sainte Claire dans sa Règle. Commentary on the First Rule of 1253. Amien: Monastery of Clarisses, 1953-1954. Lainati, Chiara Augusta, O.S.C. La clausura di S. Chiara e delle prime Clarisse nella legislazione canonica e nella pratica. Assisi: Protomonastero S. Chiara, 1966. French Translation: La clôture de Sainte Claire dans la lègislation canonique et dans la pratique. Laurentianum 14 (1973): 223-50. English translation: The Enclosure of St. Clare and the First Poor Clares in Canonical legislation and in Practice. The Cord 28 (1978): 4-15; 47-60. ___. Realtà, spirito e finalità della clausure nella vita di S. Chiara e delle prime clarisse. Forma Sororum 4 (1967): 46-51. ___. La clausura: non mezzo di contemplazione, ma modo tipico delle Clarisse di esprimere il mistero pasquale. Forma Sororum 20 (1983): 201-3. English: Mandelli, Giovanna. Sequestrate dall'Amore. Riflessioni sulla clausura. Vita Minorum 55 (1984): 237-44. Marta, Sister, O.S.C. Voto di clausura: opinioni, certezze, documentazione. Vita Minorum 6 (1984): 581-4. ___. Clausura: il responso delle regole. Vita Minorum 11 (1985): 47-53. M. Bernard, P.C.C. The Spirit and Vow of Enclosure. York, England: Assembly of the Association of St. Clare, 1985. Nielen, Paula. Binnen en buiten. Franciscaans Leven 50 (1967): 78-84. Omaechevarria, Ignatius, O.F.M. Evolución de estructuras en la Orden de Santa Clara. Selecciones de Franciscanismo 2 (1973): 135-50. ---. Vocazione alla vita di Clausura. Forma Sororum 15 (1979): 209-14. Robinson, Paschal, O.F.M. A Conjectural Chapter in the Life of St. Clare: Did Clare ever leave the enclosure? Archivum Franciscanum Historicum 5 (1912): 623-43. Shively, Joan. Enclosure: Sacramental Sign. Review for Religious 54 (1995): 454-61.

Van Asseldonk, Optatus, O.F.M. Cap. 'Sorores Minores' e Chiara d'Assisi a San Damiano: una scelta tra clausura e lebbrosi? Collectanea Franciscana 63 (1993): 399-421. Walls Around the World: The Liberating Gift of Enclosure. Roswell, NM: Poor Clare Monastery of Our Lady of Guadalupe, 1987.
Studies on Enclosure in General

Flannery, Austin, OP. Nuns Enclosure: A Tale of Medieval Political Correctness. Religious Life Review 33 (1994): 84-90. McDonough, Elizabeth, O.P. Cloister for Nuns: From the Early Centuries to the 1917 Code. Review for Religious 54 (1995): 615-21. Sensi, Mario. Incarcerate e recluse in Umbria nei secoli XIII e XIV. Il movemento religioso femminile in Umbria nei secoli XIII-XIV. Perugia: Centro per il Collegamento degli Studi Medievali e Umanistici nella Università di Perugia, 1980. Schaaf, Valentine Theodore, O.F.M. The Cloister. Diss. Catholic University, 1921. Schulenburg, Jane Tibbetts. Strict Active Enclosure and Its Effects on the Female Monastic Experience. The Fourth Estate: A History of Women in the Middle Ages. Ed. Shulamith Shahar.
Extern Sisters in the Rule of Saint Clare

Bonner, Dismas W., O.F.M, Mendicant Nuns. Extern Sisters in Monasteries of Nuns. Diss. Catholic University, Washington, 1963. Rule and Constitutions of the Extern Sisters of the Monasteries of St. Clare. Evansville: The Keller-Crescent Co., 1888.

Fraternity in the Rule of Saint Clare

Biagini, Maria Redenta, O.S.C. Those Who Are Weighed Down by Sickness and the Others who are Wearied Looking after Them. Communion and Communication 18 (1994): 6-11.

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Blundetto, C.E., O.S.C. Solitudine e Fraternità (en la espiritualidad benedictina y clariana). Vita Minorum 3 (1993): 197-209. Boisonette, Marie Claire, O.S.C. Fraternite - Mission dans la vie et les ecrits de sainte Claire. A paper presented at Halte Franciscain, 1985. Montréal, Qué: Haute de Ressourcement Franciscain, 5750 boul. Rosemont, HIT 2H2. Danielian, Jorge, O.F.M. Cap. Regla de Santa Clara: elementos de vida fraterna. Cuadernos franciscanos de renovación 12 (1979): 13-9. Italian Translation: Regola di S. Chiara. Elementi di vita fraterna. Forma Sororum 16 (1979): 151-60. ---. Clara, animadora de relaciones fraternas. Cuadernos franciscanos de renovación 27 (1993): 136-44. Dhont, Renè-Charles, O.F.M. Love Lived in a Fraternal Community. Clare Among Her Sisters. Franciscan Pathways. St. Bonaventure, NY: The Franciscan Institute, 1987. Dovetta, Jean, O.F.M. Claire et le vie fraternelle. Claire dans nos fèdèrations 8 (1987): 1520. [A bulletin of the Con-Federation of Poor Clares of France] Frances Teresa, O.S.C. The Fall and Rise of the Conventual Chapter. From Chapter 4 of the Rule to the General Constitutions. Communion and Communication 11 (1991): 15-34. Grau, Engelbert, O.F.M. Santa Chiara d'Assisi e le sue sorelle: Una vita per Dio e per gli uomini a servizio della Chiesa. Forma Sororum 15 (1978): 208-17. Hardick, Lothar, O.F.M. Clare's Ideal of Community Life. The Legend and Writings of Saint Clare of Assisi. Trans. Ignatius Brady, O.F.M. New York: The Franciscan Institute, 1953: 143-6. ___. Santa Chiara y la vida communitaria. Cuadernos franciscanos de renovación 1 (1968): 308-14. Mandelli, G. Sorella nella Regola e negli scritti di S. Chiara. Frate Francesco 52 (1985): 272-9. Ty Mam Duw Community of Poor Clare Colettines. Out of Our Togetherness. Communion and Communication 13 (1992): 37-42. Urbani, M. Angela, O.S.C. In piccolo spazio per un grande amore: Clausure e fraternità. Vita Minorum 54 (1983): 358-65.

___. La fraternità secondo il carisma di santa Chiara. Fraternità claustrale. Vita Minorum 54 (1983): 110-7. van Asseldonk, Optato, O.F.M . La vita in santa unitå secondo santa Chiara e san Francesco. Forma Sororum 17 (1980): 186-96; 18 (1981): 113-21. English: Life in Holy Unity According to Saint Francis and Saint Clare. Trans. Jane Frances, P.C.C. The Cord 42 (1992): 205-22.
Liturgy in the Rule of St. Clare

Boisonette, Marie-Claire, O.S.C. Le Mystère de la Liturgie Chrétienne dans les Écrits et la Vie de Sainte Claire. A paper presented at Halte Franciscain, 1986. Bracaloni, Leone, O.F.M. Il primo rituale francescano nel brevario di S. Chiara. Archivum Franciscanum Historicum 16 (1923): 71-87. De Robeck, Nesta. The Office of the Passion. St. Clare of Assisi. Milwaukee: Bruce Publishing Co., 1951; Chicago: Franciscan Herald Press, 1980. [Recited daily by St. Clare] Hutchinson, Gloria. Clare of Assisi, the Anchored Soul. Six Ways to Pray from Six Great Saints. St. Anthony Messenger press, 1982. Marie Claire, O.S.C. Le Mystère de la Liturgie Chrétienne dans les Écrite et la vie de Sainte Claire. Monastère Sainte Claire, Valleyfield, Québec.

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Obedience in the Rule of St. Clare

Higgins, Michael J., T.O.R. St. Clare and Obedience: A Look at Chapter One of the Rule. The Cord 44 (1994): 214-24.
Penance in the Rule of St. Clare

Bell, Rudolph M. Holy Anorexia. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985. [A study of fasting in saints and mystics: St. Veronica Giuliani, 54-83; St. Clare, 122-27.] Bynum, Caroline Walker. Holy Feast and Holy Fast. University of California Press, 1987: 99-102, and brief references elsewhere. Freeman, Gerard Pieter. Il digiuno delle Clarisse nel XIII secolo. Forma Sororum 41 (2004): Ch. I - no. 2, pp.68-77; Ch. 42, no. 1, pp. 50-60. Mandelli, Giovanna. Colpa e riconciliazione nella Regola di S. Chiara. Frate Francesco 52 (1985): 196-205. Mary Seraphim, P.C.P.A. Clare and Penance. The Cord 21 (1971): 178-84. van Leeuwen, Bertolf, O.F.M. Clare, Abbess of Penitents. Greyfriars Review 4 (1991): 7382.
Poverty in the Rule of Saint Clare

Balfour, Charlotte. Saint Clare and Holy Poverty. Catholic World 93 (1911): 778-87. Beha, Marie, O.S.C. The Richness of a Father. The Cord 33 (1983): 195-205. Boisonette, Marie-Claire, O.S.C. Pauvretté-Minorité. A paper presented at Halte Franciscain, 1985. Halte de Ressourcement Franciscain, 5750 boul. , Rosemont, Montreal, Que., H1T 2H2. Chinnici, Joseph P., O.F.M. Francis and Clare: The Vocation of Exchange. Annual

Federation Council Conference. Berkeley: Franciscan School of Theology, August 2022, 1987. Grau, Engelbert, O.F.M. `As a Virgin Embrace the Poor Christ': St. Clare's Life in Poverty and Humility. Franciscan Institute of Asia Contact 3 (1981): 20-32. Grennon, Violet, O.S.F. Clare of Assisi, A Light to the World. The Cord 40 (1990): 198221. Lainati, Chiara Augusta, O.S.C. La Povertà Integrale, and Dalla Povertà alla Carità. Temi Spirituali dagli Scritti del Secondo Ordine Francescano, vol. 1. Anthologie del Pensiero Spirituale Francescano. Assisi: S. Maria degli Angeli, 1970: 20-37. Lynn, Beth, O.S.C. Poverty: Thirteenth Century Revitalization in the Writings of Clare of Assisi. The Cord 38 (1988): 19-31.
Profession

Le formule di professione piu antiche nell'ordine di S. Chiara. Forma Sororum 20 (1983).

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THE OTHER RULES Before, and even after, Clare succeeded in having her own Rule approved she and her sisters were given other Rules to follow. 1. The Formula vitae given to her by Francis in 1212. [See section 5a: "The Form of Life."] 2. The Rule of Hugolino, also called the Constitutions of Hugolino, in 1219. This was Cardinal Hugolino's effort to stabilize the many groups of religious women springing up at that time.

Armstrong, Regis J., O.F.M. The Rule of Cardinal Hugolino. Clare of Assisi: Early Documents. New York/Mahwah: Paulist Press, 1988: 87-96; Revised and expanded edition: The Form and Manner of Life Given by Cardinal Hugolino. St. Bonaventure, NY: St. Bonaventure University, 1993: 89-100; The Lady Clare of Assisi: Early Documents. New City press, 2006. De Nantes, Renè. Les Origines de L'Ordre de Sainte Claire. 1212-1263. Paris: Libraire Saint-François, 1912. 20-39. O'Brien, Celsus, O.F.M. The Rule of Hugolino. The Story of the Poor Clares. Limerick: Franciscan Friary, 1992. Ch.2, n.2. Omaechevarria, Ignatius, O.F.M. Regla o `Forma vitae' del cardenal Hugolino (1219). Escritos de Santa Clara y Documentos Complementarios. Madrid: Biblioteca de Autores Cristianos, 1982: 206-13. ___. Nueva valorizatiòn de la `Forma vitae' del cardenal Hugolino. Antonianum 53 (1978): 343-6. Sbaralea, J.H. Bullarium Franciscanum Romanum Pontificum. I (Honorius III through Innocent IV: Rome 1759); II (Alexander IV, etc.: Rome 1761). Vasquez, Isaac. La `Forma vitae' Hugoliniana para las clarisas en una Bula desconocida de 1245. Antonianum 52 (1977): 94-125. Wadding, Luke, O.F.M. Annales Minorum I, 313 : 1219.
3. The Rule of St. Benedict was woven into this Hugoline Rule because the Church required new religious groups to adopt a Rule already approved upon which to base their life.

DeSeilhac, O.S.B. L'utilization de la Règle de saint Benoît dans les monastères feminins. Atti del 7 Congressi Internaziunale de studi sull'alto medioevo. Spoleto 1982: 527-45. Henri de Sainte-Marie, O.S.B. Présence de la Règle Bénedictine dans la Règle de Sainte Claire. Archivum Franciscanum Historicum 82 (1989): 3-20. English trans.: Presence of the Benedictine Rule in the Rule of St. Clare. Trans. Sergius Wroblewski, O.F.M. Greyfriars Review 6 (1992): 49-65. Penco, Gregorio, O.S.B. Alcuni aspetti dei rapporti tra le prime communità di clarisse e le monache benedettine. Benedictina 1 (1987): 15-23. Salvi, Gulielmo, O.S.B. La Regola di S. Benedetto nei primordi dell'Ordine di S. Chiara. Benedictina 8 (1954): 77-121.
4. The Rule of Innocent IV (1247) was Pope Innocent's effort to appease the reluctance of Clare and her sisters to accept the Benedictine Rule. He omitted their obligation to Benedictine Rule but still the sisters did not accept his Rule.

Armstrong, Regis J., O.F.M. Clare of Assisi: Early Documents. New York/Mahwah: Paulist Press, 1988; Revised and expanded edition: St. Bonaventure, NY: St. Bonaventure University, 1993; The Lady Clare of Assisi: Early Documents. New City Press, 2006. De Nantes, Renè. Les Origines de L'Ordre de Sainte Claire. 1212-1263. Paris: Libraire Saint-François, 1912. 62-85. O'Brien, Celsus, O.F.M. The Rule of Innocent IV. The Story of the Poor Clares. Limerick: Franciscan Friary, 1992: 16-7. Omaechevarria, Ignatius, O.F.M. Escritos de Santa Clara y Documentos Complementarios. Madrid: Biblioteca de Autores Cristianos, 1982 : 233-259
5. The Isabella Rule (1259), composed by Franciscan scholars, at the request of Queen Isabella. This rule endured but a brief time.

Lombardo, Pier Francesco (di Torino), O. Min. Regola delle Suore Minori di Santa Chiara... Turin: Mairesse & Radix, [1714-1716.] O'Brien. Celsus, O.F.M. The Rule of Isabella of France. The Story of the Poor Clares. Limerick: Franciscan Friary, 1992. 18.

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Omaechevarria, Ignatius, O.F.M. Escritos de Santa Clara y Documentos Complementarios. Madrid: Biblioteca de Autores Cristianos, 1982 : 289-324. On the Rule of the Minoresses. A Fifteenth Century Courtesy Book and Two Franciscan Rules. Ed. R. W. Chambers, and Walter Seton. Early English Text Society 148. London: Kegan 71, n.d.: 81-124. Sbaralea, J.H. Bullarium Franciscanum Romanum Pontificum. I (Honorius III through Innocent IV: Rome 1759); II (Alexander IV, etc.: Rome 1761); II: 479-85. Seton, Walter. Rewle of Sustris Minouresses Enclosed. [The Rule of the Enclosed Sisters Minor. A version of the Isabella Rule. Two Fifteenth Century Franciscan Rules. London: Early Text Society, 1914. 148. ___. The Order of Minoresses in England. Manchester: Bourdillon, A.F.C., British Society of Franciscan Studies, 1920. Reprinted Ridgewood, NJ: The Gregg Press, Inc., 1965.
6. The Rule of Urban IV (1263). After Clare's death there was yet another Rule thrust upon her sisters. They were forced to accept the Rule drawn up by Alexander IV, although officially promulgated by his successor, Urban IV.

O'Brien, C. The Rule of Urban. The Story of the Poor Clares. Limerick: Franciscan Friary, 1992: 18-9. Regola dell'Ordine di santa Chiara di papa Urbano IV. Regola dei fratelli e delle Sorelle dell'Ordine dei Frati della Penitenza di papa Niccolò IV. Bologna: Movimento Francescano, 1978. Regola di S. Chiara approvata da Urbano IV per le Clarisse del Monastero di S. Maria delle Vergini in Verona. Verona: Vicentini e Franchini, 1851.
Studies on the Rules

De Fontette, Micheline. Les Clarisses. Les Religieuses a l'Age Classique du Droit Canon. Paris: Librairie Philosophique J. Urin, 6, Place de la Sorbonne, 1967. Gilliat-Smith, Ernest. Rules Observed by the Poor Ladies of the Order of Saint Damian During the Lifetime of St. Clare. Clare of Assisi: Her Life and Legislation. London: J. M. Dent & Sons, Ltd., 1914: 115-32.

Moorman, John. Clara en de arme vrouwen. Franciscaans Leven 55 (1972): 226-35. Omaechevarria, Ignatius, O.F.M. Escritos de Santa Clara y documentos contemporaneos. Madrid: Biblioteca de Autores Cristianos, 1970; Escritos de Santa Clara: y Documentos Complementarios. Madrid: Biblioteca de Autores Cristianos, 1982. La `Regla' y las Reglas de la Orden de Santa Clara. Collectanea Francescana 46 (1976): 93119; Selecciones de Franciscanismo. 6 (1977): 248-69. Regola dell'Ordine di santa Chiara di papa Urbano IV. Regola dei Fratelli e delle Sorelle dell'Ordine dei Frati della Penitenza di papa Niccolò IV. Bologna: Movimento Francescano, 1978. Van de Pavert, John, O.F.M. Saint Clare and the Rules. Franciscan Institute of Asia Contact 4 (1983): 2-11.

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