You are on page 1of 18


FRIARS AND SISTERS This section contains references which reveal the dimensions of both the historical relationship among members of the First and Second Order of Saint Francis. These have been gleaned from the earliest sources as well as modern authors. WRITINGS OF SAINT FRANCIS a. The Form of Life (1212-1213) Francis gave a Form of Life to Clare and her sisters. All that remains is a section Clare included in chapter 6 of her Rule. This section begins with the words: "Since by divine inspiration...", and ends with: "...special solicitude for you as for them." This text may be found in any copy of the First Rule of Saint Clare.

Armstrong, Regis J., O.F.M.Cap. Clare of Assisi: Early Documents. New York/Mahwah: Paulist Press, 1988: 243-4; St. Bonaventure, NY: The Franciscan institute, 1993; New York: New City press, 2006. Brady, Ignatius, O.F.M., and R. Armstrong, O.F.M. Cap. Francis and Clare: The Complete Works. New York: Paulist Press, 1982: 44-5. "Francis' `Form of Life' and `Last Will' for the Poor Clares." Franciscan Institute of Asia Contact 3 (1981): 7-9. Omaechevarria, Ignacio, O.F.M. Escritos de Santa Clara y Documentos Complementarios. Madrid: Biblioteca de Autores Cristianos, 1982: 203-6. Voreux, Damien, O.F.M. Sainte Claire d'Assise: Documents. Paris: Éditions Franciscaines, 1983: 86.
b. The Canticle of Exhortation (1225) This canticle was a farewell song composed by Francis for Clare and her sisters. The earliest text was found in two mss at Verona. One is now at the Proto-Monastero di Santa Chiara in Assisi, the other is privately owned by N.H. Ruffoni.


It is found in Saint Clare of Assisi: Early Documents cited above, and in early writings of the brothers:

Legend of Perugia: chapter 45. Mirror of Perfection: chapter 90. Assisi Compilatio: chapter 13.
Texts and commentaries:

Armstrong, 250-1. Armstrong and Brady, 44. Brady, Ignatius C., O.F.M. "Exhortation to the Poor Clares." Grottaferrata, 1977. Boccali, Giovanna, O.F.M. "Canto di esortazione di san Francesco per le `Poverelle' di San Damiano." Forma Sororum 14 (1977): 54-70; Collectanea Franciscana 48 (1978): 529. English: "Words of Exhortation to the 'Poverelle' of San Damiano." Trans. Jane Frances, P.C.C. [Unpublished typescript.] Butler, S. We Were with Francis. Chicago: Franciscan Herald Press 1977. 175-6. Franciscan General Curia. Pro Monialibus 86 (1981): 4-7. [ Pro Monialibus (For the Nuns.) was a newsletter circulated among Franciscan contemplative nuns until 1980. Some issues kept at the Franciscan Institute Library, St. Bonaventure University, NY.] Grau, Engelbert, O.F.M. "Verba exhortationis `Audite poverelle' des heiligen Franziskus." Franziskanische Studien 72 (1990): 47-69. Italian: "Parole di Esortazione `Audite Poverelle' di san Francesco." Forma Sororum 27 (1990): 82-101; 28 (1991): 154-65. Hart, Fidelis, O.S.C. "Audite, Poverelle." Communications March (1980). Karecki, Madge, SSJ, TOSF. “Francis, Clare and Family.” The Cord 53 (2003: 193-206. Omaechevarria, 436-9. Regole e Costituzione Generali delle Monache dell'Ordine di Santa Chiara. Rome, 1941. English: The First Rule of Saint Clare and the General Constitutions. Boston: Grimes Printing Co., 1952. xviii-xix.

Schmucki, Ottaviano, O.F.M. "Das wiederentdeckte Mahnlied `Audite' des hl. Franziskus für die Armen Frauen von San Damiano." Fidelis 68 (1981): 17-30.
c. Francis' "Last Will" for Saint Clare and her Sisters (1226) This brief text will be found in chapter 6 of the Rule of Saint Clare beginning with the words: "I, Brother Francis," and continuingresources:

Armstrong, p. 252. Armstrong and Brady, p. 46. Esser, Kajetan, O.F.M. "Gli Scriti di Francesco a S. Chiara." Forma Sororum 18 (1981): 184-90.
d. The Friars' Rule of 1223. The Rule written by Saint Francis in 1223 contains an indirect reference to the Poor Ladies insofar as it gives the friars guidelines concerning their visits to monasteries of nuns.

The Later Rule of 1223, Chapter XI: 2.
e. Canticle of the Creatures (1225) Some scholars see the role of the Clares described in this poem. See stanzas 5, 7 & 9. Here Francis speaks of Sister Moon with the stars, of Sister Water, of Sister Earth our Mother, which signify for him the contemplative life of the nuns. Articles have been written on this Clarian concept.

Armstrong, 247-249. Fortini, Arnaldo. "Di alcune questioni riguardanti la composizione del Cantico del Sole." Santa Chiara d'Assisi: Studi e cronaca del VII Centenario. Assisi: Comitato Centrale per il Centenario Morte S. Chiara, 1954: 275. Omaechevarria, 426-36. Pro Monialibus 88 (1981): 3-7.
f. Francis' Blessing on Clare and Her Sisters As Francis lay dying, Clare feared she would never see him again. He sent her a blessing which has been recorded in the following:


Armstrong and Brady, Francis and Clare: The Complete Works, New York: Paulist Press: p. 160. "Legend of Perugia," section 109. Armstrong, Regis J., ed. Clare of Assisi: Early Documents, St. Bonaventure, NY: The Franciscan Institute, 1993: 320.
THE TESTIMONY OF THE BROTHERS a. Bartholomew of Pisa (13th cen.) There are various early prints containing his well known work: De conformitatae [The Book of Conformities] which elaborated upon the ways Francis was like Christ. He included in his work bits of information about Clare not found elsewhere. It is he who wrote that Francis sent Clare begging as part of her training.

Bartholomaeo de Pisa. " De conformitatae vitae Beati Franciscus ad vitam Domini Jesu." Analecta Franciscana. Agnes joined Clare in death 15 days after Clare, III, 174; Gregory's letter to Clare, 183; English friars preached at San Damiano, IV, 208; Francis sent Clare begging, 352; Clare's fasting, 354; Clare distributed corporals through the friars, 355; Alcoranus Franciscanorum. [Also known as: L'Ancoran des Cordeliers; Livre de Conformitez.] Chapter 84 treats of the story of Clare, her meal with Francis, the miracle of the loaves, the corporals the friars delivered for Clare, Agnes of Bohemia, Helen of Padua, etc.
The only English translation of some of these incidents appears in note of the following work:

Balfour, Charlotte. The Life and Legend of the Lady Clare. Trans. from the French work of Francis du Puis. Introduction by F. Cuthbert, O.S.F.C. London: Longmans, Green, & Co.,1910: 44, n.1; 73, n.2.
b. Bonaventure of Bagnorea (1217-1274) Perhaps the best known connection we have between Brother Bonaventure and the Poor Ladies is his letter to them during his retreat on Mount Alvernia. Some of the available texts are:

"A Letter to the Abbess and Sisters of the Monastery of St. Clare in Assisi (1259)." St. Bonaventure's Writings Concerning the Franciscan Order. Ed. George Marcil, O.F.M. St. Bonaventure, New York: The Franciscan Institute, 1994: 67-70. Armstrong, Early Documents, p. 272-3.

Clasen, S., O.F.M. "Franziskanische Christusbrautschaft. Die Stellung des hl. Bonaventura zum Orden der hl. Klara." Franziscanische Studien 35 (1953): 313-7. "Letter of St. Bonaventure to the Abbess and Sisters at San Damiano." Pro Monialibus 16 (1969): 7-9. "Letter of St. Bonaventure to the Poor Clares in Assisi." Trans. Gregory, O.F.M. The Cord 33 (1983): 215. "Letter of St. Bonaventure to Poor Clares." Trans. David Temple, O.F.M. The Cord 39 (1989): 193. Omaechevarria, p. 366-9. Vorreux, p. 252-4.
Other letters that concern the care of the Sisters in English.

"Two Letters on the Friars' Relations with the Poor Clares (1263)." Works of Saint Bonaventure, vol. 5. Writings Concerning the Franciscan Order. Ed. George Marcil, O.F.M. Trans. Dominic Monti, O.F.M. St. Bonaventure, NY: The Franciscan Institute, 1994. "St. Bonaventure: Letters III and IV." Trans. Canisius Connors, O.F.M. The Cord 35 (1985).[Concerning the Care of the nuns.]
Bonaventure’s Major Life of St. Francis: References to Clare.

Clare, the first flower in Francis' garden: Chapter 4: 6. Francis asks prayers of Clare: Chapter 12: 2. Clare's witness to the Stigmata of St. Francis: Chapter 13: 8. Clare saw the stigmata and kissed the body of Francis: Chapter 15: 5.
Resources for these references:

___. "Legenda maior." Analecta Franciscana. Vol.10: Legendae S. Francisci Assisiensis saeculis XIII et XIV conscriptae.Ad codicum fidem recensitae a patribus collegii, editae a patribus Collegii S. Bonaventurae, adiuvantibus aliis eruditis viris. Quaracchi: Collegium S. Bonaventurae, 1926- 1946: 555-652. Cousins, Ewert. Bonaventure: The Soul's Journey into God. The Tree of Life. The Life of St. Francis. New York: Paulist Press, 1978: 179-327.


Fahy, Benen, O.F.M. Trans. "Major Life of St. Francis by St. Bonaventure." St. Francis of Assisi: Writings and Early Biographies. English Omnibus of Sources for the Life of St. Francis. Ed. Marion A. Habig, O.F.M. Chicago: Franciscan Herald Press, 1973: 627-787.
c. Bernard of Besse (Early 13th. century) Bernard was Bonaventure's secretary. He recounted a story of Clare's sisterly care for the friars:

Wadding, Annales: 1211, n.22 and 1216, n.8. Annalecta Franciscana III, 678. Vorreux, p. 272-3.
d. Jacques de Vitry's Letter (October 1216). As he was traveling through the region of Umbria, Jacques de Vitry was struck by the fervor of the men and women who followed the poor man of Assisi. A section from his letters describes how they appeared to him. There is some discussion as to whether the women described are, in fact, Poor Ladies, of San Damiano. If so, how were they living in those early days?

Huygens, R.B.C., ed. Lettres de Jacques de Vitry. Lettre I. Edition critique. Leyde, 1960: 7576. Jacques de Vitry. " Letter from Genoa." St. Francis of Assisi Writings and Early Biographies; English Omnibus of Sources for the Life of Saint Francis of Assisi. Ed. Marion A. Habig, O.F.M. Chicago: Franciscan Herald Press, Third edition 1973: 1608.
e. John of Perugia (1240-1241) One of the earliest companions of Francis is believed to have composed a work known as the "Anonymous of Perugia." This, too, holds an important insight concerning the early Friars and Clares.

Anonymus Peruginus. Edited by Lorenzo DiFonz. Miscellanea Francescana 72 (1972): 117483 [Chapter 9: how the brothers established monasteries of recluses for women who wanted to follow Francis]. “Legend of Perugia”. Trans. Paul Oligny. Saint Francis of Assisi Writings and Early Biographies English Omnibus of the Sources for the Life of Saint Francis, ed. Marion A. Habig, O.F.M.. Chicago: Franciscan herald press, 1973: Ch. 9.

f. Brother Leo (13th cen.) There is a tradition that Leo gave Francis' breviary to Clare after his death. It is now among the relics at the Proto-Monastery of St. Clare and contains a particularly notable insight into the commonality of the family of friars and sisters. This lies in a prayer the friars recited daily ..."pro abbatissa nostra." [for our Abbess]. Also for "famulae tuae abbatissae nostrae." [ the family of our Abbess.] This reference is a footnote in Volume I of the following work:

Lainati, Chiara Augusta, O.S.C.,ed. Temi spirituali dagli scriti del secondo ordine Francescano. Anthologie del pensiero spirituale Francescano. Assisi: S. Maria degli Angeli, 1970: 87, note 1.
Brother Leo, a Friar author and one of the first companions of Francis may possibly be the author of the "Mirror of Perfection," an account of the early days of the Friars. A few references to Clare and her sisters are found here.

“Mirror of Perfection.” Trans. Leo Sherley-Price. St. Francis of Assisi: Writings and Early Biographies. English Omnibus of the Sources for the Life of St. Francis. Habig, Marion A., O.F.M., ed. Chicago: Franciscan Herald Press, 1973: 1024-5; 1084-5. How the Friars and Clares were born of the same mother - in the chapel of St. Mary of the Angels. Chapter 84. How Francis saw Clare and her sisters as the glory of the friars and edification of the Church. Chapter 90: How Clare was ill while Francis lie dying and sent word to Francis of her desire to see him again; his letter to her and the sisters; his body is brought to her. Chapter 108:
g. The Legend of Perugia (ca. 1246) Also known as the Compilation of Perugia. The Following chapters bear testimonies from friars who knew Clare and her sisters.

Habig, Marion A., O.F.M., ed. St. Francis of Assisi Writings and Early Biographies. English Omnibus of the Sources for the Life of St. Francis. Chicago: Franciscan Herald Press, 1973: 1024-5; 1084-5. Canticle and exhortation for the Poor Ladies, Chapter 45. Clare's illness; Francis' desire to comfort her, Chapter109.


h. The Legend of the Three Companions (c.1246) The prophecy about the monastery of women who would be established at San Damiano is found only in the Testament of Saint Clare and in this legend. Memories of the early friars concerning Francis assembled by Brothers Leo, Angelo and Rufino, as requested by Minister General Crescentius Grizi of Jesi.

Francis' prophecy concerning the Poor Ladies. Ch. 7: 24 Growth of the Second Order; appointment of Brother Filippo as visitator and guide. Ch. 14: 60
i. Filippo Longo This Brother was named Visitator of the community at San Damiano by Francis at a time when he was away from Assisi for a long period of time.

Lazzeri, Zephyrinus. "De Philippo Longo anno 1244 omnium Clarissarum Visitatore atque de initio monasterio um Volaterrarum et Castri Florentini." Archivum Franciscanum Historicum 13 (1920): 286-9.
j. Salimbene of Parma (1221 -1290) The Poor Clares were dear to the heart of Salimbene. His mother, sister, sister-in-law, and a few nieces became Clares. Even his famous chronicles, written for a niece, Karacosa, who later joined the Order, tells about Poor Clares and their monasteries. He also relates a story not found in any other writing supposed to have taken place on the day St. Clare was canonized.

The Chronicle of Salimbene de Adam. Ed. and trans. Joseph L. Baird, Giuseppe Baglivi, and John Robert Kane. New York: Medieval & Renaissance Texts & Studies, 1986: 316, 385, 462. d'Alatri, Mariano. "Chiara e le Clarisse nella cronica de Fra Salimbene." Collectanea Franciscana 61 (1991): 481-9. "The 750th. Anniversary of the Birth of Friar Salimbene." Pro Monialibus 28 (1971): 10. Vorreux, Damien, O.F.M. Sainte Claire d'Assisi: Documents. Paris: Éditions Franciscaines, 1983: 275-6. [Salimbene tells the story of a priest who asked a favor "for the love of St. Clare.]
k. Stephen "the Simple" of Narni (c. 1200-1240)

Habig, "A New Fioretti." 1849, section 22. [Francis refers to Clare as 'Christiana']

Vorreux, p. 73-4; 364, note 14. Oliger, Livarius, O.F.M. "Descriptio Codicis S. Antonii de Urbe." Archivum Franciscanum Historicum 12 (1919): 382-4. [An account by Thomas of Pavia about Brother Stephen the Simple.]
l. Thomas of Celano (13th. cen.) There are specific references to Clare and her sisters in Brother Thomas of Celano’s First Life of Saint Francis:

How Francis built the Church of San Damiano, and extolled the virtues of the Lady Clare. Chapter 8, section 18. On Clare and the life and virtues the Poor Ladies. Chapter 8, section 19. On the holy life of the Poor Ladies. Chapter 8, section 20. The grief of the sisters over the death of Francis. Chapter 10, sections 116-7. Francis' gift of a lamb to the Poor Ladies at San Severino. Chapter 28, section 78..
In Celano’s Second Life of Saint Francis:

Of the Poor Ladies and Francis' affection for the sisters and the directions he gave the brothers concerning their relationship with them. Chapter 155, sections 204-5. On the sermon Francis preached more by example than by words. Chapter 157, section 207.
m. Thomas of Eccleston and Jordan of Giano In his Chronicles Brother Jordan of Giano mentions incidents about Clare that include the friars:

Elias went without permission to houses of Clares: 83. Brother Philip was a champion of the Poor Ladies and filled the office of Visitator: 140.


Hardick, Lothar, O.F.M. Nach Deuteshland und England. Die Chroniken der Minderbrüder Jordan von Giano und Thomas von Eccleston. Werl/Westfalen, 1957. Thomas of Eccleston. The Comming of the Friars to England. Trans. and ed. Leo SherleyPrice. 1964.
n. Ubertini da Casale (c. early 14th cen.) In 1305 Ubertino da Casale wrote his Arbor Vitae Crucifixae Jesu. It contains a reference on how Clare was sent begging by Francis.

Ubertino de Casale. Arbor Vitae Crucifixae Jesu. Venice, 1485. [How Francis sent Clare to beg, Bk. 5, chapter 5.] ___. “The Tree of the Crucified Life of Jesus (Excerps),“ Francis of Assisi: Early Documents. The Prophet, vol. 3. New York: New City Press, 2001: 141-202.
o. Armaud de Sarrant or Samatan or Arnold de Savano (14th. century) The chronicles written by this Minister Provincial of Aquitaine reveal a number of references to Clare and her sisters. Unfortunately, there do not seem to be any English texts, except in the notes of Balfour's work.

Arnaud de Sarrant. Chronica XXIV Generalium Ordinis Minorum (1209-1374). Analeca Franciscana III, Quaracchi 1897. Pp. 1-575. Arnold de Savano. "Chronique des XXIV Gènèraux de L'Ordre des Mineurs." Analecta Franciscana III, Ad Claras Aquas, 1917. Balfour, Charlotte. The Life and Legend of the Lady Clare. London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1910. [Some of these references are in the notes.]
p. Ugolino Boniscambi (1328-1337) Little Flowers of St. Francis Tradition has woven colorful stories about Francis and Clare. These were gathered together into a collection known as the "Actus Beati Francisci" written by Brother Ugolino Boniscambi around 1330. In 1370/1375, an Unknown friar collected 53 of these stories and entitled it "Fioretti." [Little Flowers.] To these he added his treatise on The Consideration of the Stigmata. Since then the "Fioretti" assumed various forms. Manuscripts from 1480 added other pieces as well. For our purposes we cite only the chapters dealing with Francis and Clare.

The meal Clare shared with Francis and the friars. Ch. 15:

How Francis went to Clare for prayer to discern his vocation. Ch. 16. Clare cared for Francis in his last illness; was consoled by him. Ch. 19. How Clare blessed bread and crosses appeared on them. Ch. 33. How Clare heard the friars at the Cathedral of St. Francis. Ch. 35.
Studies have been done on this important product of oral tradition by Benvenutus Bughetti, O.F.M.

Bughetti, Benvenuto, O.F.M. "Alcune idee fondamentali sui `Fioretti di San Francesco.'" Archivum Franciscanum Historicum 19 (1926): 321-33.
There are many texts available. Only a few are given here:

Boniscambi, Ugolino. “The Little Flowers of Saint Francis (A Translation and Re-Editing of The Deeds of saint Francis and His Companions by an Anonymous).” Francis of Assisi: the Prophet. Early Documents, vol. III. Ed. Regis Armstrong, O.F.M.Cap., J. A. Wayne Hellmann, O.F.M. Conv., William J. Short, O.F.M. New York: New City press, 2001. Brown, Raphael. The Little Flowers of St. Francis. First Complete. Ed. with 20 Additional Chapters. Also the Considerations of the Holy Stigmata, the Life and Sayings of Brother Giles, the Life of Brother Juniper. New York: Hanover House, 58; St. Francis of Assisi: Writings and Early Biographies. Ed. Marion A. Habig, O.F.M. Chicago: Franciscan Herald Press, 1972, 1973. Hughes, Serge. Trans. and intro. The Little Flowers of Saint Francis and Other Franciscan Writings. New York, 1964. Sabatier, Paul, ed. Actus Beati Franciscus et Sociorum Ejus. Paris 1902.
q. Lectio Assidua (Ancient Life of St. Anthony of Padua.) This basic source for the life of Saint Anthony of Padua was composed by an unknown friar who completed it before 1234. It provides a colorful account of the Poor Ladies' love for Anthony and their intense endeavors to have his body remain with them. Clare was living at this time.

On the grief of the Poor Ladies and how they worked to obtain the body of Anthony. Chapters 19 to 25
Resources for the Lectio Assidua:

Abate, Giuseppe, O.F.M.Conv. Trans. Lectio Assidua. 1968. Ch.19-25.


Gamboso, Virgilio. Trans. Lectio Assidua. 1981. Ch. 19-25. "Sant'Antonio e le Clarisse." Forma Sororum 18 (1981): 126-131. The legend of St. Anthony of the Order of Minorites. Trans. Temple, David, O.F.M. Unpublished typescript.

FRANCIS AND THE FRIARS IN CLARE SOURCES a. The Legend of Saint Clare of Assisi

Clare wants to meet Francis. He encouraged her to leave all: 5. Francis guides her leave-taking: 7. Brothers receive Clare at the Portiuncula: 8. At the advice of Francis, Clare moves to San Damiano: 9. Clare promised obedience to Francis; accepts government of the Poor Ladies: 12. Clare shares her bread with the brothers: 15. Brother Questor thinks himself fooled by the sisters: 16. Francis commands Clare to use straw for her bed: 17. Francis prohibits her fasts: 18. Francis cut Agnes' hair; became her director: 26: Clare hears the brothers singing in the Cathedral of St. Francis: 29. Clare leaves her prayer when reminded of Francis' command: 31 Francis sends Brother Stephen to Clare for healing: 32. Brother Filippo preached to the sisters; Clare tells Pope to take away questing brothers when denied of their spiritual assistence.: 37. Clare receives the Eucharist from the Provincial Minister: 42. Brothers Raynaldo and Juniper with Clare in her last illness: 44. Brother Angelo consoled the others who mourned Clare. Brother Leo kissed her bed: 45 The friars came to San Damiano and prayed the Office of the Dead for Clare: 47.
b. Clare’s Form of Life (1253)

Chapter I, part 4, 5: On obedience to Francis and his successors. Chapter III, part 1: Office shall follow custom of Friars Minor. Chapter VI, part 2, 3: At elections, Minister General or Minister provincial should be present. ___. part 4, 5: Francis promises care for the sisters.

Chapter XII, part 1, 3, 4: The Visitator shall be from the Order of Friars Minor; his duties. ___. part 2, 5, 6, 7, 10: A Chaplain from the Friars Minor requested; his duties. ___. part 12: The sisters shall have the same Cardinal as the Friars.
c. Clare's Testament

Section 28: Francis examined the sisters' capacity for hardship. Section 29: Francis promised care for the sisters. Section 50: Clare leaves her Order to the successor of S. Francis and the Friars.
d. Clare's Letters

Letter II, 15 & 16: "Follow the counsel of Br. Elias..." Letter IV, 40: Clare asks recompense for Bros. Amatus and Bonaugura who delivered her letter.

e. Acts of the Process of Cnonization

Witness I, 11b: The brothers delivered the cloth made by the sisters to the churches. ___. 15a: Bro. Bentevenga quested for the sisters. Witness II, 15: Francis sent Bro. Stephen to Clare. Witness III, 13: The Brothers begged for the sisters. ___. 30: Clare heard the Office of the Brothers at midnight Mass. ___. 32: Brother brought letters bearing Papal Bull. Witness V, 5 & XIV, 5: Three brothers lifted door that fell on Clare. Witness VI, 1: Witness entered because of exhortation of Bro. Philip. ___. 16: Clare sent half their bread to the friars. ___. 6 & VII, 2a: Hearing brothers had been martyred, Clare wanted to go. Witness VII, 9: Clare heard the brothers' Matins. Witness X, 8a: Bro. Filippo of Atri preached at San Damiano. Witness XII, 5: St. Francis and the friars took Clare to San Angelo di Panzo. Witness XV, 4: Bro. Marco was chaplain of the monastery. Witness XVII, 3: Francis and Bro. Filippo preached to Clare.

"A Letter from the General Chapter of Friars Minor to Franciscan Nuns Throughout the World." Pro Monialibus 30 (1971): 1-2. 13

Amata, Sr. O.S.C. "Friars Minor and Poor Sisters. Complementarity of the First Order and the Second Order." Communion and Communication 1 (1987): 1-3. [Quaterly of the Office "Pro Monialibus" of the Franciscan General Curia.] Bartoli, Marco. "Chiara testimone di Francesco. La figura di Chiara all'intorno del movimento francescano dopo la morte di Francesco." Quarderni Catanesi di Studi Classici e Medievali 1/2 (1979): 467-98; Forma Sororum 33 (1996): 82-99. "Blessed Francis as He is Esteemed by Saint Clare and by the Order." Pro Monialibus 86 (1981): 1-2. Bodo, Murray, O.F.M. "His Best Friend." The Francis Book. Ed. Roy M. Gasnick, O.F.M. New York: Collier Books, Macmillan, 1980. Bourdillon, A.F.C. The Order of Minoresses in England. Manchester: University Press,
British Society of Franciscan Studies, vol. I, 1926. 3-9.

Brady, Ignatius C., O.F.M. "The Poor Clares and Saint Francis." The Cord 9 (1987): 280-5. Brooke, Roslind B. Early Franciscan Government. Cambridge University Press, 1959. Pp. 40, 64, 152, 174, 215. Brown, Raphael. "Clare and Francis: all their meetings and other links." The Cord 34 (1984): 215-20. ---. Quaderni Catanesi 1: 467-98. Brugnaw, Angela Chiara, O.S.C. "San'Antonio e le Clarisse." Forma Sororum 18 (1981): 126-31. [See Lectio Assidua, the most ancient life of St. Anthony, for an account of the Poor Clares and their efforts to secure his body.] Brunette, Pierre, O.F.M. "Francis and Clare of Assisi: A Journey into Symbols of Growth." Studia Mystica. 12 (1989): 6-20. ---. Une amitié spirituelle: Françoise et Claire d'Assise vus par les symboles de leur itinéraire. La vie des communautés religieuses 47 (1989): 26-48. ---. "Un'amicizia spirituale. Francesco e Chiara d'Assisi visti attraverso i simboli del loro itinerario." Forma Sororum 32 (1995): 267-74; 33 (1996): 50-68. ---. "Clare and Francis: A Saintly Friendship." Trans. Paul Barrett, O.F.M. Cap. Greyfriars Review 11 (1997): 185-227.

Carney, Margaret, O.S.F. "Francis and Clare: A Critical Examination of the Sources." Laurentianum 30 (1989): 25-60. Chiara Giovanna. "Io, Chiara, pianticella del nostro Padre Francesco." Vita Minorum 56 (1985): 439-42. Erikson, Joan Mowat. "The Lady Clare, His Daughter." St. Francis and His Four Ladies. New York: W.W. Norton & Co., Inc., 1970. Gigliozzi, Giovanni. Francesco e la Povera Dama: Chiara d'Assisi: il romanzo di una vita. Rome: Newton Compton, 1984, 1987. (Fiction.) Goad, Harold Elsdale. Franciscan Italy. London: Methuen & Co., 1926. 185, 187, 188. Grau, Engelbert, O.F.M. "Ich, Klara, die kleine Pflanze des hl. Vater Franziskus." Geist und Leben 26 (1953): 267-78. Greco, Michael, O.F.M. "Following in the Footsteps of Jesus Christ: Sameness and Difference in Francis and Clare." The Cord 40 (1990): 312-8. Hardick, Lothar., O.F.M. "Francis and Clare," and " Clare and the Friars." The legend and Writings of Saint Clare of Assisi. Ed. Ignatius C. Brady, O.F.M. New York: The Franciscan Institute, 1953. " He Composed for Us a Way of Life..." Pro Monialibus 88 (1981): 1. Henrion, Albina. "Santa Chiara d'Assisi la cooperatrice di San Francisco." Archivum Franciscanum Historicum 19 (1926): 579-609. Holl, Adolf. The Last Christian. Trans. Peter Heinegg. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday & Co., Inc., 1980:Ch. 8. Lainati, Chiara Augusta, O.S.C. "Clara aconseja a Francisco." Selecciones de Franciscanismo 2 (1973): 171-7. ___."Scitto col cuore." Vita Minorum 14 (1972): 465-73. Lazzeri, Zephyrinus, O.F.M. "Controversiam Inter Fratres Minores et Clarissas spectantia 1266-1297 [Controversy between the Friars Minor and the Clares throughout 1266-1297]" Archivum Franciscanum Historicum 3 (1910): 664-79; 4 (1911): 74-94.


___. "Duae bullae ineditae alexander IV et addenda quaedam circa controversiam inter Fratres Minores et Sorores S. Clarae." Archivum Franciscanum Historicum 6 (1913): 389-92. "Let the Sisters Always Grow in the Love of God and in Mutual Charity." Pro Monialibus 92 (1982): 1-2. Manselli, Raoul. "Francis and Clare: Fratres et Sorores Minores." St. Francis of Assisi. Chicago: Franciscan Herald press, 1988. Mary Seraphim, P.C.P.A. "Clare and Francis." The Cord 21 (1971). ___. "See How They Loved One Another." The Cord 33 (1983): 217-24. Maynard, Sara. Princess Poverty: The Story of St. Francis and St. Clare of Assisi. New York City: Longmans, Green & Co., 1941. McGinley, Phyllis. "The Good Companions." Saint Watching. Garden City, New York: Doubleday Image Books, 1975 Metanic, Athanasius, O.F.M. "The Contribution of the Second Order to Our Common Spirituality." Franciscan Spirituality, An Historical Systematic Introduction. Trans. Paul Rotondi, O.F.M. [Typescript.] Nocitra, Maria Patrizia, O.S.C. Urbanist. "S.Chiara, discepola ed interprete di S.Francisco." Forma Sororum 32 (1995): 280-96. Nantes, René de. Les Origines de l'Ordre di Sainte Claire. 1212-1263. Paris: Librarie SaintFrançois, 1912. Pp. 39-62. Pili, Dario, O.F.M. "Poor Clares and Friars Minor. Communion and Sharing in the One Charism." Communion and Communication 1 (1987): 4-8. Poor Clares of Nantes. A la dècouverte de Claire a'Assise, 4 vols. Nantes: Privately printed, 1988. English trans. Regis J. Armstrong, O.F.M. and Pacelli Melanie, O.S.C. Toward a Discovery of Clare of Assisi, 4 vols. St. Bonaventure, N.Y.: The Franciscan Institute, Clare Centenary Series, 1992. Porturas, Antonio, O.F.M. Francis and Clare of Assisi. Trans. David temple, O.F.M. [ Similarities in vocations. Private typescript. pp.7.] "Relations of the Friars Minor and the Franciscan Nuns. Opinions from the different Countries." Communion and Communication 1 (1987): 9-22.

Roggen, Heriber, O.F.M. "De H. Clara en de beweging vaen Franciscus. Waarom nam Sint Franciscus de h. Clara op in zijn bewegging en om welke reden is zij hem gevold?" Sint Franciscus 6 (1962): afl. 3, 22-35. Rosof, Patricia J.F., O.S.F. "The Order of Poor Clares: A Thirteenth Century Struggle for Recognition within the Franciscan Order." The Journal of Historical Studies. Robinson, Paschal, O.F.M. "St. Clare." Franciscan Essays. Aberdeen: University Press, 1912: 42 [ A reference to friars known as "Zealots of the Poor Ladies."] Sabatier, Paul. "Santa Clara." The Life of St. Francis of Assisi. Trans. Louise Seymour Houghton. New York: Scribner's Sons, 1894; 1928. Ch. 9. [Page 148 is reprinted in The Cord 39 (1989): 224.] "Saint Francis, San Damiano and the Poor Clares." Pro Monialibus 87 (1981): 1-2. Sanz, J. Francesco e Chiara. Icona e Parola di Amicizia. Rome: Mo. Re. Fra., 1990. Schmucki, Octavianus, O.F.M. "Speculum S. Francisci in S. Clara eiusque spiritu filiabus relucens. De tribus operibus nuperrime vulgatis." Collectanea Franciscana 41 (1971): 394-408. Turpin, Joanne. "Soulmate to St. Francis." [Condensed from Women in Church History. Cincinnati: St. Anthony Messenger Press, 1990.] Iowa: Catholic Digest Oct. (1990): 53-7. Valderrama, Andrade Carlos, O.F.M. "Clara de Asís, santa, amigay fundadora." Bolivar (Bogotá) 22 (1953): 265-86. van Alphen, Qurinus, O.F.M.Cap. "De H. Klara en de H. Franciscus van Assisi." Chiara d'Assisi 1 (1953): 33-34. Van Asseldonk, Octavio, OFM. "'Sorores Minores.' Una nuova impostazione del problema." Collectanea Franciscana 62 (1992): 596-634. Van Constanji, Auspicius, O.F.M. "Fire, Flood, Death and Ashes." Francis: Bible of the Poor. Trans. David Smith. Chicago: Franciscan Herald Press, 1977. Wadding, Luke. Annales Minorum. 8 vols. Rome and Lyons: 1625-1654. Quaracchi 1932. Clare is treated during the years 1212, 1224, 1243, 1252, 1253.


Zoppetti, G. Ginepro, O.F.M. "The Rapport Between the First and Second Orders." Communion and Communication 13 (1992): 28-9. [Communion and Communication is a newsletter circulated among Franciscan Contemplative Nuns. Some issues may be available at the Franciscan Institute Library, St. Bonaventure University, NY]