©1992 HISTORY OF THE POOR CLARES IN NORTH AMERICA

Poor Clares from France came to the United States during the Revolution in 1792 but did not remain.

"The First Poor Clares in the United States." Baltimore: The Voice, St. Mary's Seminary, 1936. Naughten, Gabriel J., O.F.M. "The Poor Clares in Georgetown: second convent of women in the United States." Franciscan Studies 3 (1943): 63-72.

Colettine Poor Clares from Belgium came at the invitation of Bishop Fenwick in 1826 but did not remain.

Zadrosney, Marianne, O.S.C. Sr. Mary Frances Vindivoghel, c. 1835, and Her Poor Clare Community in the U.S. A paper completed at the Franciscan Institute, St. Bonaventure University, NY, 1980.

Mother Mary Maddalena Bentivoglio and her sister, Mother Mary Constance, were commissioned by Pius IX, and Bernardino de Portuguaro, O.F.M. Minister General, to bring the Order of Saint Clare of the Strict Observance, observing the First Rule of Saint Clare, to North America in 1875

Butler, Mary Veronica, O.S.C. "Poor Clares in the United States: Trials and Tribulations of Mother Mary Maddalena." Catholic Twin Circle Oct.25 (1987): 10-11. Casper, Henry W. History of the Catholic Church in Nebraska. Milwaukee: Bruch Publishing Co., 1966. [Vol. 2 contains a thorough account of the foundation in Omaha.] Desobry, Jean. "Bi - Centennial of a Poor Clare Odyssey." The Cord 43 (1993): 211-7.

Fiege, Marianus, O.F.M. "Early History of the Poor Clares in the United States." The Princess of Poverty: Saint Clare of Assisi. Evansville: Monastery of St. Clare, 1909; Chicago: Franciscan Herald Press, 1989. Kleber, Albert, O.S.B., S.T.D., Vice Postulator of the Cause. A Bentivoglio of the Bentovoglio: The Servant of God Mary Maddalena of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, 18341905. Foundress of the Order of St. Clare of the Strict Observance in the United States of America. Evansville, IN: Monastery of St. Clare, 1984. Mary Thaddeus and Mary Ellen, O.S.C. "Mother Maddalena Bentivoglio, O.S.C., Foundress of the Poor Clares in the United States." The Cord 30 (1980): 6-11, 83-6, 142-7, 208-14, 274-80, 323-9. Poor Clares. 100 Years - A Brief Recall, (1875-1975). Delray, FL: Monastery of Christ the King, 1975.

In 1877 Poor Clares of the Colettine Observance arrived came Germany:

Immaculata, Mother M., P.C.C. "The Poor Clare Nuns in the United States." The Cord 3 (1953): 210-21. Koester, Mary Camilla, P.C.C. Into this Land. A Centennial History of the Cleveland Poor Clares, Monastery of the Blessed Sacrament. Cleveland: Robert J. Liederbach Co., 1980. Poor Clare Nun. A Cloistered Life. Venerable Mother Mary Veronica, Poor Clare Colettine. Cleveland: Catholic universe Publishing Co., [n.d.]

In 1885 two women posing as Poor Clares came from England, but were eventually discovered and returned to England.

Mensing, Raymond C., Jr. "The Rise and Fall of the Pseudo Poor Clare Nuns of Skidaway Island." Georgia Historical Quarterly 61 (1977): 318-28.

20th Century Poor Clares: Development of Poor Clare Federations

Family of Clare in the United States. 1. Federation of Mary Immaculate, by Mary Francis Aschmann, P.C.C.; 2. The Most Holy Name of Jesus Federation, by Mary Emmanuel, O.S.C. Ed. Frances Ann Thom, O.S.C. The Cord 34 (1984). Fraine, Mary David, O.S.C. Doing What is Ours to Do. Poor Clare Nuns, One Hundred Years in Boston. Oston: Monastery of St. Clare, 2006. Hanley, Boniface, O.F.M. The Franciscans. New Jersey: St. Anthony's Guild, 1962: 197209. "Poor Ladies of Assisi." Companion July/Aug. 1986: 4-13. [An article about the Clares in Assisi, Quebec, B. Columbia, Minneapolis] Seed Sown in Sorrow: Mother Mary Magdalen Bentivoglio, Foundress of Poor Clares in the United States. Monastery of St. Clare, 200 Marycrest Drive, St. Louis, MO, [n.d.] Wassmer, Agnes Olivia, O.S.C., A Century of Love, 1875-1975). New Orleans: St. Clare's Monastery, 1975. [The Communities of the Mother Magdalen Bentivoglio and Most Holy Name of Jesus Poor Clare Federations]

General History

Marie - Colette, O.S.C. Regard sur L’Histoire des Clarisses, IV vols. Clarisses of Paray de Monial, France, 1982. O’Brien, Celsus, O.F.M. The Story of the Poor Clares. Franciscan Friary, Henry Street, Limerick, Ireland, 1992.