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Science: Grade 8 Unit: Levels of Organization Lesson: Organ Systems Introduction
Duration:
60 minutes (one class)

Outcomes:
GCO: Students will construct knowledge and understandings of concepts in life science, and apply these understandings to interpret, integrate, and extend their knowledge (Skills 3: Knowledge) SCO: relate the needs and functions of various cells and organs to the needs and functions of the human organism as a whole (304-8), describe the basic factors the affect the functions and efficiency of the human respiratory, circulatory, digestive, excretory, and nervous systems (304-9), describe the interdependence of various systems of the human body (304-10)

Preparation:
Read up on the organ systems Print two worksheets 1. “Human Organ Systems” 2. “Word Bank”

Body:
Recap levels of organization  Cell  Tissue  Organ  Organ System  Organism  Have students give examples of each Write the five organ systems listed in the grade eight curriculum on the board. Have students brainstorm in pairs which organs belong is which systems. Give them a list of organs, and a sheet with the titles of the systems.  Respiratory o Passes oxygen from the air to the blood o Removes gaseous wastes from the body o Organs:  Nose – cillia, mucus, and blood vessels to warm, to moisten, and to filter the air you breathe  Trachea (windpipe) – smooth muscle (involuntary)

2   Lungs – allows the body to absorb oxygen in the blood stream Diaphragm – muscle, inhale = contracts and moves down, exhale = relax and moves back up to resting position

 Circulatory o Carries food, water, and oxygen o Removes waste from cells o Maintains body temperature o Fights disease o Carries chemicals o Main organs:  Heart  Hardest working organ, never stops  Make a fist with your hand, its about that size, and shape. Everyone’s is different  Blood vessels  Arteries – lead away from the heart  Capillaries – tiniest blood vessels, cells must travel single file, connect the arteries and veins  Veins – carry blood back to your heart  Digestive o Uses food like fuel in a car, on an empty tank you cant go anywhere o Food for energy, building, and repairing o Mechanical vs. Chemical o Organs:  Salivary glands – produce saliva (chemical)  Tongue – forms bolus (mechanical)  Esophagus – food tube, peristalsis movement (muscle contraction like an inch worm)  Stomach – gastric juices (chemical)  Small intestine (7 m tube) – completely breaks down nutrients in a usable form, covered in villi, surrounded by capillaries  Pancreas – produces juices to break down carbs, proteins, and fats, works very closely with the small intestine  Liver – makes bile to further break down fats  Gall bladder – stores bile  Large intestine (2 meter tube) – separates useful water from solid food waste  Excretory o Getting rid of wastes o Large intestine – solid food waste o Lungs – gaseous wastes o Urinary system Organs (make up the urinary tract)  Kidneys (2) – filters water, salts, and urea from the blood and convert them into urine  Ureters – connect kidneys to bladder

3  Bladder – muscular sac holds the urine  Urethra – leads from the bladder out of the body o Skin – through sweating  Nervous o Coordinates the body systems (breathing, heart beating, feelings, learning, movements, etc.) o Keeps you conscious, coordinates your senses, learning and memory o Organs:  Nerves – 12 pairs of cranial nerves, 31 pairs of spinal nerves, the messengers  Brain – the message interpretation center  Spinal chord – also sends messages, begins with the brain stem that controls many of your automatic processes

Assessment:
Worksheet is complete

Differentiated Instruction: