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**Superelevation & Spiral Curves
**

١

Horizontal Curves

• Purpose:

To provide change in direction to the C.L of a road

• Process: When a vehicle transverse a horizontal curve, the centrifugal force acts horizontally outwards through the center of gravity of the vehicle

٢

١

١١/٠١/١٤٣٢

**The centrifugal force acting on a vehicle passing through a horizontal curve has two effects:
**

P

1-Overturning Effect 2-Transverse P = W V2 / g R Skidding Effect

P/W = V2 /g R

٣

1-Overturning Effect

P

C. G

∑M A = P h – w b/2 0.0 = P h – w b/2

h

A

b/2 b/2

B

W

P h = w b/2 P/W (Centrifugal Ratio) = b/2h

This means there is a danger of overturning when the Centrifugal Ratio or V2/ GR attains a value of b/2h

٢

G P = f RA – f RB P = f (RA + RB) h fRA A b/2 b/2 fRB B P= fW P/W (Centrifugal Ratio) = f RA W RB This means there is a danger of Transverse Skidding when the Centrifugal Ratio or V2/ GR attains a value of f Horizontal Alignment • Design based on appropriate relationship between design speed and curvature and their relationship with side friction and superelevation • Along circular path.١١/٠١/١٤٣٢ 2-Transverse Skidding Effect P C. side friction and superelevation generate an acceleration to offset inertia ٦ ٣ . vehicle attempts to maintain its direction (via inertia) • Turning the front wheels.

01e + f = = R 15 R v : vehicle speed.١١/٠١/١٤٣٢ Superelevation “e” & side friction coefficient “f” on horizontal curves f e ٧ Relationship between speed v. and curve radius.01e + f v2 = 1 − 0. ft/s R: radius of curve.01ef gR In practice: 1 − 0. e. R 0. f.067v 2 v2 0.01ef ≈ 1 and g is calculated: 0. ft e: rate of superelevation. percent f: side friction factor (lateral ratio) ٨ ٤ .

and change position within a lane when acceleration around a curve becomes “uncomfortable” AASHTO: 0. make sudden lane changes. DOT.35 @ 60 mph f decreases as speed increases (less tire/pavement contact) ١٠ Radius Calculation ٥ . and based on comfort – drivers brake.١١/٠١/١٤٣٢ Rmin = ___V2______ 15(e + f) Where: Rmin is the minimum radius in feet V = velocity (mph) e = superelevation f = friction (15 = gravity and unit conversion) ٩ Radius Calculation • • • • Rmin uses max e and max f (defined by AASHTO.5 @ 20 mph with new tires and wet pavement to 0. roadway surface. weather condition. tire condition. and graphed in Green Book) and design speed f is a function of speed.

The rest is to determine v when R is known. or determine R when v is given.١١/٠١/١٤٣٢ normally. f is given ( from 0. mountainous) – Type of area (rural or urban) – Frequency of slow moving vehicles who might be influenced by high superelevation rates ١٢ ٦ . Application: Minimum radius Rmin V2 = 15(emax + f max ) ١١ Max e • Controlled by 4 factors: – Climate conditions (amount of ice and snow) – Terrain (flat. e is also known when the location of the designed highway is known. rolling.16) .12 to 0.

American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. ١٣ 2001 4th Ed. what is the minimum radius? fmax = 0. Washington.08 + 0.١١/٠١/١٤٣٢ Source: A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets (The Green Book). DC.12 (from Green Book) Rmin = _____602________________ 15(0. Radius Calculation (Example) Design radius example: assume a maximum e of 8% and design speed of 60 mph.12) Rmin = 1200 feet ١٤ ٧ .

08 f: Side-friction factor. 0.١١/٠١/١٤٣٢ Radius Calculation (Example) For emax = 4%? (urban situation) Rmin = _____602________________ 15(0.500 feet ١٥ Minimum Safe Radius R = V2/127 (e+f) Where: R: Radius in meters V: Speed in Kilometers per hour e: superelevation.04 + 0.06-0.14 for 80 kmph ١٦ ٨ . 0.12) Rmin = 1.

١١/٠١/١٤٣٢ Horizontal Curves Spiral (Transition) R = Rn R=∞ Straight road section ١٧ Spiral Curve A spiral curve is a curve which has an infinitely long radius at its junction with the tangent end of the curve. this radius is gradually reduced in length until it becomes the same as the radius of the circular curve with which it joins. ١٨ ٩ .

١١/٠١/١٤٣٢ Curve with Spiral Transition Circular Curve Tangent Spiral SC TS Spiral to Curve CS Curve to Spiral ST Spiral to Tangent Tangent to Spiral ١٩ Location of Transition Sections ٢٠ ١٠ .

Provides natural.١١/٠١/١٤٣٢ Spiral Curve Transitions • Vehicles follow as transition path as they enter or leave a horizontal curve • Combination of high speed and sharp curvature can result in lateral shifts in position and encroachment on adjoining lanes ٢١ Spirals 1. Aesthetic ٢٢ ١١ . easy to follow. lateral force increases and decreases gradually b. path for drivers (less encroachment. Provides transition in width when horizontal curve is widened d. Provides location for superelevation runoff (not part on tangent/curve) c. promotes more uniform speeds). Advantages a.

15 V3 RC L = 1.6 V3 R Where: L = minimum length of spiral (ft) V = speed (mph) R = curve radius (ft) C = rate of increase in centripetal acceleration (ft/s3) (use 1ft/s3 -> 3 ft/s3 for highway) ٢٤ ١٢ .١١/٠١/١٤٣٢ Source: Iowa DOT Design Manual ٢٣ Minimum Length of Spirals Larger of L = 3.

٢٥ Maximum Length of Spirals • Safety problems may occur when spiral curves are too long – drivers underestimate sharpness of approaching curve (driver expectancy) ٢٦ ١٣ .١١/٠١/١٤٣٢ Length of Spirals More practical = assume L = to length of superelevation runoff The radius of a spiral (by definition) varies inversely with distance from the TS from infinite (at TS) to circular curve radius at SC.

2 ft/s2) R = radius in ft or m Various methods are available for determining the desirable superelevation. Methods a. Rotate about inner edge of pavement c. Must be done gradually over a distance without appreciable reduction in speed or safety and with comfort 3. Tangent to superelevation 2. but the equation above offers a simple way to do it. ٢٧ Attainment of Superelevation General 1.81 m/s2 or 32. Change in pavement slope should be consistent over a distance 4. Rotate about outside edge of pavement ٢٨ ١٤ . Rotate pavement about centerline b. The other methods are presented in the next few overheads.١١/٠١/١٤٣٢ Superelevation Design Desirable superelevation: ed = V2 − f m ax gR for R > Rmin Where. V= design speed in ft/s or m/s g = gravity (9.

١١/٠١/١٤٣٢ Superelevation Transition Section • Tangent Runout Section • Superelevation Runoff Section ٢٩ Tangent Runout Section • Length of roadway needed to accomplish a change in outside-lane cross slope from normal cross slope rate to zero For rotation about centerline ٣٠ ١٥ .

02 c S = w * e 1 : 200 c c s s ٣٢ ١٦ .١١/٠١/١٤٣٢ Superelevation Runoff Section • Length of roadway needed to accomplish a change in outside-lane cross slope from 0 to full superelevation or vice versa • For undivided highways with crosssection rotated about centerline ٣١ Method 1 Centerline Ls = 200 s or 1.6 v3 /R L1 = 200 c C = w *0.

02 S = w * e ٣٤ ١٧ .02 c S = w * e c c c s s ٣٣ Outside Edge Method 3 c c c c c s s C = w *0.١١/٠١/١٤٣٢ Inside Edge Method 2 C = w *0.

they depend on drainage. the method of rotation about the centerline (Method 1) is usually the most adaptable • Method 2 is usually used when drainage is a critical component in the design • In the end. an infinite number of profile arrangements are possible. aesthetic.١١/٠١/١٤٣٢ Which Method? • In overall sense. topography among others ٣٦ ١٨ .

http://www.gov/hq/oppd/hdm/pdf/chp0200.dot.١١/٠١/١٤٣٢ Example where pivot points are important Bad design Pivot points Good design Median width 15 ft to 60 ft Source: CalTrans Design Manual online.ca.pdf ٣٨ ١٩ .

١١/٠١/١٤٣٢ Attainment Length Location Without a horizontal transition curve (spiral or compound).Mechanical Widening Wm = n l2/2 R l = length of wheel base (m) n = Number of lanes R = radius of the curve 2.Psychological Widening Wps = V/9. superelevation must be attained over a length that includes the tangent and the curve Typical: distribution of runoff is 2/3 on tangent and 1/3 on curve if no spiral ٣٩ Widening on Horizontal Curves 1.5 √ R V = Design speed (Km/hr) ٤٠ ٢٠ .

١١/٠١/١٤٣٢ Front axle Rear axle Sight Distance on Horizontal Curve Minimum sight distance (for safety) should be equal to the safe stopping distance Highway Centerline sight PC Line of sight HSO PT Sight Obstruction Centerline of inside lane R R ٢١ .

٢٢ . p 225.١١/٠١/١٤٣٢ Stopping Sight Distance & Horizontal Sightline Offset (HSO) Exhibit 3-53.

g.86 ft – Sight obstruction (e. building) 12 ft from curve (M = 12 ft) • Question – Recall: car going 60 mph needs SSD of 475 ft – Does curve have enough SSD for a car going 60 mph? ٢٣ .١١/٠١/١٤٣٢ Sight Distance on Horizontal Curves • Issue • Standards – Set by American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Example of Using SSD • Consider – Curve with R = 1909.

١١/٠١/١٤٣٢ M = R 1 − cos ∆ ( ∆ 2 LC = 2Rsin 2 ∴ cos ∆ = 2 R −M R 1909.86' LC = 2Rsin Δ = 427.86' ∴ ∆ = 6°35'34" 2 ) ( ) M = 12' LC = ? R = 1909. Required SSD60 = 475' • Not enough sight distance for 60 mph – Post lower speed limit or redesign curve ٢٤ .86' − 12' = 1909.86 × sin(6°35'34" ) • Available sight distance = 428'.5' ( 2) = 2 × 1909.

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