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The Dead Christ. the feet would have been shown as far to make the larger. 15 Sep 2013 09:13:41 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Smith demonstrated that the supporting slab. makes Mantegna's independence all too clear. beginning with the classic Kristeller of 1902 and his article of 1908.3 Using acterizing two photographic studies [Figs. 2].1 title. 1]. ismore objective if less visually descriptive. obviously inspired by the Quattrocento from any formula canvas.2 The same point is also evidenced by Robert Smith's description of the artist's perspectival process. char as one it versus "natural scientific of vision". as shown in the canvas. 3. following the designation "Christo in scur as to the the first artist's son. psychology for its pictorial impact.6 Close commercial in viewpoint photographic to what circles is now known as a "crotch in the crassest shot".5 Keith canvas recent study of the controversial Christiansen's affirmed this view. A recent photographic image by Sam Taylor Wood. Before the last few decades. as painted by Andrea Mantegna (Galleria Brera.8 Contesting all earlier criticism of the image. singular and vivid is that of the dead Christ.7 First of the signif monograph icant articles devoted to the canvas is Hans Jantzen's of 1927. one of the most memo rable. Milan) [Fig. he viewed in using such a radical perspectival the painter's purpose 9 figure.198. the uniquely "in your Unprecedented face" aspect of Mantegna's image may explain why relatively few painters or scholars chpse to follow its form or signifi cance. So//7o quy VII. the can vas' perspective camerawork. as represented by Mantegna. The other commonly used title. must have been viewed This content downloaded from 130. So recalls unfortunate the dubious a genre of pornographic association may present-day relative neglect among English and explain the painting's American scholars until the recent academic acceptability of and gender. almost all scholarship on the canvas was by Germans. was first correctly stressed by Schrade.COLIN EISLER Mantegna's Meditation on the Sacrifice of Christ: His Synoptic Savior Among all Quattrocento images. and then to". relatively novel studies of visuality. perspectival Were this the case.5 on Sun. would have been seen from a distance of one-and-a-half-meters. This rela tively small canvas (66 x 81cm) is usually listed as the Fore shortened Christ. though descriptive by long standing. along with other requisite adjustments correct.49. applied painting by That and of Vasari. 1999 [Fig. 4]. is somewhat misleading since it implies an orthodox applica tion of a mathematically determined method. numerically image conform with any proportionally devised construction formula. while the from no less than twenty-five meters away!4 The "anti-renais sance" character of Mantegna's line of sight. concluding that the monumental figure's in fore presentation was "anything but an academic exercise shortening". as evident in this small painting.
Galleria Brera.5 on Sun.49. Milan. representation of the sacred image was realized This content downloaded from 130. presentation expressive not one. so much contributing as a technical to the device Savior's but rather an Masaccio's perspectiva! discoveries. to Jantzen. 15 Sep 2013 09:13:41 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .COLIN EISLER ~J **& LV? 1) Andrea Mantegna. by taking leave of the purely formal. Referring to 10 tegna was According Mantegna's the first to make yet another decisive step forward.198. ?The Dead Christ?. Jantzen noted how Man secularization shock tac (Entg?ttlichung) through an almost Expressionistic tic achieved by such an indiscreet vantage point.
?Soliloquy VII. 1999?.5 on Sun.198. 11 This content downloaded from 130.49. 15 Sep 2013 09:13:41 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .MANTEGNA'S MEDITATION ON THE SACRIFICE OF CHRIST: HIS SYNOPTIC SAVIOR 2) Sam Taylor Wood.
drying her tears. from approximately photographed ca. anticipating issues and sources raised by subsequent scholarship. dependent upon the observer's viewpoint. by Herbert von Einem (1983). concerning article by Mary Ann Graeve on the role of the Stone . forceful foreshorten distorted corpse. communicates incorporating previous placed special emphasis upon Christ's resting upon the Stone information This is the of Unction Deposition traces ele proximity. As if of Unction. her work sharing in the tragic Last Farewell. 1973. intensified by the ing of the horrendously narrow enframement".49. Dead Christ ca. the viewer comes close to participation in the preparation of the body for burial within the rock-cut sepulcher.COLIN EISLER 3) Robert Smith.wringing his hands. Incontrast with the tangible presence of the feet is a scarcely visible halo surrounding the savior's head. with John to her left. headlong. comment ed upon the "almost spooky. Next to him is a third figure. a lengthy material.9 ments Graeve's of the notes dramatic anticipate scene a back number to Mantegna's of the major canvas. Written in 1958. Two years all later.5 on Sun. 15 Sep 2013 09:13:41 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Dead Christ 4) Robert Smith.11 A pioneering study in English has important the Mantegna canvas in its footnotes.198. ?Model posing as Mantegna's one and a half meters?. Still the most comprehensive study of the Brera canvas is that by Hubert Schrade almost all the (1930).as stressed in his Epitaphios by Caravaggio for the Chiesa Nuova. placed hindmost and seen as a scarcely visible 12 This content downloaded from 130. canvas' Northern a startling especially source. photographed ?Model posing approximately as Mantegna's 25 meters?. 1973.12 sense of the Mantuan tiveness article as an Andachtsbildnis by Andreas Prater. Mary is seen in the foreground. According are the bearers of the highest symbolic value.the . from use of orthogonals. points that Another examination. wherein the spectator comes uniquely close to the feet of Christ. Those are the through the perspectival lines parallel to the picture plane according to Albertian per to Jantzen the orthogonals spectival construction. concentrating upon the image's effec would those The be elaborated addressing Brera painting upon by later scholarship.
the veil of the Veronica . should be kept inmind.5 on Sun. even that daring artist. to merge as explored the events by Graeve of farewell. A contrast vivid between 74-77).49.. particu larly so for the Cristo in Scurto. the presentation Strikingly lacking in Albertian decorum."14 What specific devotional needs and references lead to this representation? Among the most important is the prominence of the Stone of Unction inConstantinople. xxxvi. probably close in date to the Mantegna.in a similarly small painting .the Sudarium. The Brera canvas playwright-satirist-cartographer ductive the two.21 was employed most effectively several works of Mantegna. Munich). among others. the joint presence of Mantegna and Alberti at the Gonzaga court points to the distinct possibility that a pro interaction between the great artist and the unprece dented^ virtuosic humanist architect-painter-sculptor-theorist existed. such as the stone fragment from the Holy Sepulcher. a rectangular rock-cut chamber. Piero tegna's self-image. a Man of Sorrows from Tempio Malatestiano (Rimini. Nat. A second of Pliny's passages Timanthes concerning comes strikingly close to Man rival of Zeuxis and Parrhasios With della Francesca. Fra Bellini and Giovanni (Alte Pinakothek. readily identifiable with the first painter in classical antiquity to in all branches of learn be recorded as being highly educated arithmetic and ing.25 his thumb with a thyrsus]. In the Lowlands. His conventional representation its contents picture provides a framework for eternal witness. Venice). "None of the mourners dare touch the corpse. along with many other images of.23 Another aspect of the Brera figure. one of the few to take on a related subject for Rome's Chiesa Nuova. between may very well reflect dynamic exchanges such productive synergy having been key to the development of painting in Northern Italy. long resident inUrbino. 15 Sep 2013 09:13:41 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Ang?lico (Palazzo Ducale.] he put there several satyrs who were measuring the giant's thumb by com the most intimate and ing's major purpose is that of accessing at the same time comprehensive views of the Sacrificial Christ. of the Mantegna Dead Christ might appear alien to the Floren tine humanist's outlook in view of his almost puritanical val ues. charged with a quality of verisimilitude so stunning that even a Caravaggio before such patron might have hesitated a daunting image.17 The Brera paint in son with that of the North. Lamentation or Piet?. lies in its Cyclopean monumentally. Significantly. France and parison with sleeper seemed them [measuring immense".MANTEGNA'S MEDITATION ON THE SACRIFICE OF CHRIST: HIS SYNOPTIC SAVIOR that of the Magdalen.of the gigantic sleeping Cyclops (Pliny. as laid out upon the Stone of Unction seen within the Sepul cher. painting could never attain perfection. Alberti noted how Timan thes "understood this form of comparison [. The possibility of Hugo's having made an Italian journey.15 Prater pointed out that its relics.24 the possibility of an Albertian source. XXXV. Timanthes 13 This content downloaded from 130. seen as if through a window frame . He is untouchable. fusing all three into one singularly potent tableau. the the Italy. so perspectival described by Schrade. pictorial large and small is cited several times inDelia pittura. However. so Timanthes maintained. various mourning. so may the latter have received valuable stimuli from his presence. Another passage of Pliny's concerning the qualities of the Brera canvas: suggests the ancient master "Indeed. always very thinly painted so that the weave showed through. Without the aid of such learning. Florence). and relics from the Stone of Unction in Italian shrines must have played a role in the genesis of the Brera canvas. as was certainly true for his friend Joos van Ghent. Just as his art may have benefited from exposure to North Italian currents. one going far beyond in its devotional shock effect. the episode variously known as the Mantegna combined Last Farewell. rare in Quattrocento Italian practice in compari The picture's witness/viewer is placed at the end of the Stone of Unction upon which Christ is about to be anointed in the winding sheet for burial.198. canvas. Mantegna must have seen himself as Italy's most erudite humanist-artist. by Roger van der Weyden (Uffizi.here diminutive one seizing Christ's hand . by placing the first scene within the sepulcher itself. Hist.22 in which the tomb opening the manner is Significantly. in examples miniscule ointment jar on the viewer's right provides a dramat ic sense of scale for the central figure. make much of the rectangular opening to the sepulcher. as if to convey a sense of the of the divinely transferred image such as that of miraculous.19 Where other Northern artists had been seen to be an influ ence on the Brera canvas.18 Several of these paintings.20 Several of the Fleming's canvasses as well as his huge Portinari Altar (Uffizi. included probably in the whose unguent jar is Canvas. In the Mantegna canvas. A related juxtaposition of a dead divinity and the very small in scale . head.is certainly in the Albertian Mantegna idiom. Florence) came to Italy in the fifteenth century. Mantegna's "Image as Aperture" affords a confrontational sense of presence and of the present.is found in mourning angels. especially geometry.. created a far more conventional canvas. ca) by Mantegna's brother-in-law. long kept at the Saint Chapelle (Louvre)16.a device employed by in several other works . For This also suggests that humanist was much taken by Pliny's description of Timan thes' effective presentation . Caroline Elam singled out Hugo van der Goes as important for several works by Mantegna. together with the Entomb ment. experiments and were made entombment. Pinacote Giovanni Bellini.13 As Schrade has and wrapped noted.
reserved for losers .49. once again. always surpassed by his genius. was particularly current in This sort of spiritual experience Franciscan thought which played an especially active role in Mantua." is the only artist inwhose works more is always implied than and whose is execution. feet-first presentations in battle. and George Coppel's and new vision"40. Christ's head rests upon a damask 46. of painting male figures. possibly executing having gone to Venice to design mosaics. provided visibility of all wounds. Both authors agree as to the dox approach futility of investigating an academic application of perspective for Mantegna's image construction. "seeing him in his grave entering clothes [.] a work inwhich he has included the whole art of supreme perfection. Mantegna protection.31 Whatever method have been might Kemp employed. 67r) in conjunction with the Brera canvas. or a perspective grade of "machine [. might far better be.37 while jective element of the canvas' the second stressed the sub presentation. arrived upon through the most imme diate presentation of a sacred site. Frescoes by Pisanello of fallen tournament partici pants.35 a "feet first" view used by Jacopo for a Death of the Virgin (Bri tish Museum "Drawing Book". tions of the extreme foreshortening of his figures. when what is conventional sent a unique moment as a mathematical device is deliberately distort understood ly to the constructing of ed toward a theological mission. Uffizi. She recalled the Savior's Sepulcher. now lost Paduan works which Mantegna is said to have admired..5).COLIN EISLER_ in Piero della Francesca or precedents gating possible in later spatial pursuits found in Leonar through continuation do or even D?rer. painted for the Ducal Palace in Mantua. sent to her friend Marcella.. just as Uccello had done". a rather sim process of planar projection pler version as later illustrated by Leonardo. inwhich the participant recalls such an occasion and enters its drama. Florence) or seen among the flood vic tims in his great Deluge fresco (Chiostro Verde.27 Mantegna would have known the letter of Jerome's wealthy Roman disciple Paula. Possibly such a location for Timanthes' from work might have been understood as anticipating that of the late 15th-century Roman church of Santa Maria della Pace. are usually saved for Significantly. He painted a Hero [. those Mantegna's image to the concept of the canvas' space as suspended "old geometry and oratory39.38 Two tions of devoted between perspective of the possible widely ranging explorations implica are of Corrado Maltese. Mantegna. a convincing figure designed to communicate doctrinal truths. "what Bellini Caravaggiesque He and Kemp singled out began. National Gallery.34 Yet.. pletely convincing relationship with the Brera canvas' almost effect. London. one unprecedented for a devotional image. the painter "does not follow through the full implica observed. Ep. though consummate. In the canvas. The Brera canvas' startlingly documentary character leads to a spiritual pilgrimage.] the napkin folded at his head" (Jerome. Mantegna completed".32 in Renaissance have burnt the perspective Specialists so stunning an oil of how the issue addressing just midnight could have been constructed. Possible links to previous foreshortened fig ure representations father-in-law Jacopo Belli by Mantegna's ni have even been suggested by Schrade33 and Martin Kemp. these certainly similarly audaciously known to Mantegna. "Why"?41 The canvas may repre in visuality. and tends in the Camera Picta as in the Dead Christ to play down the rela tive increase in size of the nearest forms. a far more the genesis of Mantegna's rewarding question concerning unusual vantage point.36 This follows Kristeller and Schrade's belief that there the first is no absolute.30 Uccello was well known inNorthern Italy. also included foreshortened figures.whether indecorous misadventure. investi image as Mantegna's 14 raising the issue of "How?". Florence). viewpoint..29 The painter though with familiar have been Uccello's employment of a relat might ed vantage point for fallen soldiers found in the three compo nents of the Medici Palace battle cycle (Louvre. this formula for misfortune or defeat and applies it to the most noble of sacrificial victims.198. noting. this work is now in the Temple of in Rome. for the Only illusion can make the impossible possible effective of visual fidei. as Schrade noted.5 on Sun. that remains of the lance scarcely seen. Yet Kemp cautioned that Mantegna may have one a a full-blown of of any employed variety techniques: in Piero's manner. Paris) bear any com (British Museum. fol.. 15 Sep 2013 09:13:41 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . The role of such a devo tional journey of mind and heart comes close to what Ewert Cousins calls the "mysticism of the historical event".. unwrapped however. describing Paula's pilgrimage to the Holy Land. by flood or the ignoble.28 cushion. Santa Maria Novella. Paris. depicted. its unortho to perspective. Such other exposure was though a fate for those suitable deprived of divine designated pictorial takes over With extraordinary audacity.] or the study of sculptural models. scientifically worked-out seeing the canvas as "an artistic experiment rather than as an independent work of art". but none of those victims in the Venetian's two Drawing Books London and Louvre. Yet few texts or depictions present the corpse still the within tomb chamber. So purposes immediately propaganda studies of the Brera canvas' "construction" might first ask which cultic imperatives were privileged by so extraordinary an optical vantage point as the one employed for Mantegna's combination of a Last Farewell and Entombment? Rather than This content downloaded from 130."26 This was built in the Forum with spoglie Peace the Jewish Wars.
feet understood of the body. the mother When. The probability of such rejection. her name popular Wounds in fourteenth-century of Christ. This originated increasingly prominent in the later four Thuringia53._MANTEGNA'S MEDITATION ON THE SACRIFICE OF CHRIST: HIS SYNOPTIC SAVIOR Doctrinally. Truchsess George Landesbibliothek. W?rttembergisches and technique. The cult reflected a new urge toward visualization.198. 1470 for the canvas46. where and how were the stimuli in effect for the genesis of such a challenging and original presentation of the its patron was identified with a rela dead Christ? Presumably new Feast of the that of the movable observance: tively IIvon Wald in the Prayer Book of Truchsess Georg . The Savior's feet were washed by the Magdalen42: "that evil-doing woman saw him and wiped his feet with her tears and her hair. Mr. Northern given his Saint martyr to Cardinal son. spectator's eye and assumed presence is allowed to come Schrade space.5 on Sun. as first pro since the canvas was left in posed by Kristeller. Saint Bar A Northern bara was associated with veneration of the Eucharist and with 15 This content downloaded from 130. its than a patron might have effect have proved more devastating no mere for because description or sketch could bargained have prepared the prospective purchaser for the impact of the finished work. from the Prayer Book of IIvon Waldburg. king's daughter and major martyr.this a variant on the Arma Christi providing burg [Fig. She and her husband Ludovico Gonzaga were patron tua that the artist's major The was of patrons. as seen in a depiction of the Five Francesco Gonzaga's Wounds mistress. of the Prussian-born Barbara of Hohenzollern (the mar chioness' mother and her daughter of the same name) having ordered the painting.49. 5]54 in a single the pioneering of all five wounds presentation heraldic format. follow Graeve in commenting its extensive 5) ?The Five Wounds of Christ?. becoming teenth and earlier fifteenth centuries. humblest aspects closest . one with scant pictorial following.51 While Northern presentation qualities. quite so striking a perspectival depiction.45 had originally proposed a dating Crowe and Cavalcaselle of ca. as noted how the feet seem to come into the viewer's if touchable. Kristeller found its presentation of that of a ceiling figure.47 as a graphic at the canvas degli Sposi of 1474. close to Meder's characterization of the canvas rather than as a horrifying exercise in artifice (K?nstelei) art. predating Mantegna's frescoes for the Camera 1457-1459.49 closer to later critics have argued for a genesis Though the artist's death in 1506. one painted the Dead Christ essentially for experimental purposes. Caroline Elam50 has returned to Kris teller's ing mid-career and placement Prater for the canvas' upon genesis."43 In the canvas' presentation.44 Since no previously known image of a dead Christ affords this particular presentation. is suggested the artist's studio at the time of his death in 1506. 15 Sep 2013 09:13:41 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . fol. why should the feet be seen first? This ungain it is just there that the view may have been selected because ly to be the lowest. Mary [Martha's sister] saw him and would not depart from before his feet. nor was it in Mantegna's lavish funerary destined for installation chapel. placing with the work Voll contented himself describing tour de force48. If so.52 Barbara was so was also a holy in Man of Mantua.Stuttgart. may well have addressed a commissioner's specific requirements. are found in other works by characteristics Netherlandish in this context they suggest the distinct possibility Mantegna.
COLIN EISLER_ and canon tables . Its founder.65 Placed on the Stone of Unction. the mystic tells his reader to Writing of the open wounds. simultaneous viewing of his wounds. described this surgery as already approaching the Eucharist because the officiating surgeon/priest. bathed in this first the wound that sacramental fluid. in the "enter them in your heart and have your sins washed remained central blood flowing from them". with living faith they cannot be looked upon without a special feeling of religion and devotion.63 That event's primary importance is indicated by the veiled penis' placement situated at the exact intersection point of the diagonals of any and all perspectival construction used for the Brera canvas. sacrifice. these parts of hands.198. artist went to considerable lengths to indicate blood loss at the pleasing Inanother a spiritual exercise for Fridays. as well as by Saint Catherine of Siena. sion with the blood sweat of the Agony the of the and the hands and feet. A poem describing the Patronal Feast of the Cologne Carthusian monastery of Saint Barbara states that her Feast Day was also devoted to the cult of the Five these so prominently featured in the Brera canvas. with central empha constructed "synoptically". Luke."64 That initial began to shed his consecrated Eucharistie (Gift of Grace) significance of the Circumcision con tributes to the uniquely conspicuous centrality of its site in the Brera canvas. "It is the blood. granting the viewer a uniquely dra These are seen matic. Wounds were subject to the renewed devotional scrutiny of the Brotherhood of Common Life.68 brought Though reproductions. and Jesus is the Sav ior" (44). the body of Christ in the Brera canvas is seen as if upon an altar.that distinctly Northern theme . Flagellation. precisely because they suffered special pains for our salvation. and on account of these wounds we venerate also the feet. that makes atonement. Wounds. to use a tired but suitable The expression. selected as their firstborn son's patron saint. Our Lord's most holy body being more worthy of a special cult than the others. Close medieval study in texts such as those of of the performance of circumcision the biblical practice of Durandus.] the Five Wounds of Christ are honored by a Mass and an Office.60 This veneration to Christian to be as powerfully observed by thought.oh.. Lutheranism as it had by Catholicism. 15 Sep 2013 09:13:41 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . their words printed in parallel columns.62 Just so was Mantegna's Christ "foreshortened" to create what may be the ultimate imago pietatis. and side of the most loving Redeemer.49. by piercing ending with the Lance wound. stressing see to the to hard in the fore. radically foreshortened. ever more popular in the Vitae Christi. and reproached so as to be like and to his lover. and to draw near the inner acts of Christ . immediate presentation of the body. Fran Franciscan Meditationes fifteenth-century to the painter cis must have also been especially meaningful and his wife. as the seat of life. As stated in Leviticus (17:11). This passage was emphasized by Jacopo da Vor?gine. tried.56 the Wounds are a particular con cern to Northern observances. Geert Grote. For he shall save his people from their sins" (Matthew 1:21). Bishop of Mende. declared: When a holy mind begins to love the humanity of Christ powerfully. 2:21)." Framed by the Stone of Unction. Among the most popular of late medieval commen taries. as oil from a rock and honey from the hardest crag (Dt. Jesus' name (Joshua) was first revealed to Joseph in a dream .55 Long a very considerable source of contemplation and ven eration in patristic literature. Grote passage. Therefore."57 The Wounds were the focus of new pietistic concern at the time of the Second Crusade by Saints and Bernard and Francis. the Wounds of Christ.67 Blood sacrifice is ever the key to expi ation and propitiation. becomes a glyph of corporeal Christ. perspectivally sis upon the initial site of blood loss. the Circumcision. and (usually) John as to enable the reader to compare the canonical texts at the same time. "He was called Jesus. and because they are decorated with these wounds as with an illustrious mark of love. the In Northern fifteenth-century pietistic observances. Vor?gine shedding sion was followed by the second shedding initiating the Pas in the Garden. A shockingly seven all sites of blood the sacrificial savior is loss. the devout to look at the image of Christ Crucified. A memorial of the Polish bishops to the Saxon-born Clement II (1046-1047) noted how: "[.. how much then will he yearn to be vexed.66 Discussing of Christ's how the noted Circumci blood. a pillow at the far end. and to suck upon the wounds of Christ. Voragine's singles out the Circumcision's supplementary meaning: "The second event is that today our Lord Jesus Christ blood for us. This first shedding of blood also received special in Northern painting near the end of the first pictorial emphasis third of the fifteenth century in the art of Robert Campin.61 advises 16 This content downloaded from 130. "X marks the spot". noting. even beyond every delight in this world. The Arma .59 What contributes to the Circumcision's theological impor tance is that just before its performance.those of gospels synoptic were so arranged Matthew.58 That saint's Stigmatization attention to the Wounds once again.was the sub ject of a lost painting by Mantegna for the Mantuan church of re-directed pious San Francesco.5 on Sun. holding a cup of wine. placed just where."Thou shalt call his name Jesus. Emphasis upon the Holy Wounds Blood alike could have been of particular interest to a Northern female donor since special meditations upon the Wounds and Blood were provided by Saint Bridget of Sweden who lived in Italy from 1349-1373. Mark.
are actually rendered MEDITATION ON THE SACRIFICE OF CHRIST: HIS SYNOPTIC SAVIOR viewpoint and with media. Sant' Andrea. these tormented areas in particular. The tomb is being prepared cut cave The at the far left. works in all of Northern of recalls the School relentless Christ's physicality & Albert Donatello Dead Christ mourned by Angels (Victoria Museum. which. one particularly associated with the altar itself The Brera painting is synonymous whose five crosses symbolize the Wounds of Christ. the Holy Sepulcher. and possibly engraved by the and Longinus?. the site narrative of the Passion. Supported by marble Stone of Unction. and would also provide For devotional both housing political for Mantegna's and commercial funerary chapel. following the ritual formula of the Pontifical .71 Along with the Holy Blood.72 as reasons.49. and Longinus to the far right. London) and Rosso Fiorentino's far later. these optically contrived so as to best echo display their redemptive message. That sacred masonry was recalled in name and liturgical function by the Byzantine embroidered altar covering of the same name showing the dead Christ outstretched upon its surface. in its grandest. An in a vast annual brought engraving designed by Mantegna shows Saint Andrew bearing the cross (to the left). especially since the cult and relic of mission the Lance (festum lanceae et claviorum Domini) was intro duced there in 1354. location of the initial bloodletting. displayed most modern on was and classical church. from the The pictorial placement of the body upon a sacrificial structure in the Temple.198. Lance and Blood alike by brought were Ascension the city's Day most and treasured preserved possessions. Designed by Alberti. displaying his punc tured hands and feet. form framed of altar. 7]. Boston) where all three figures refer to the Eucharist whose became observance increasingly strong throughout the fif teenth and early sixteenth centuries. in both his the artist Brera chose canvas to "de-emphasize" and in the Man the of Sor the gripping of Mantegna such placement In all likelihood. with the con sent of Isabella d'Est? and her husband. the resurrected Jesus with the banner cross at the center. 15 Sep 2013 09:13:41 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .69 In 1510. so (Statens Museum for Kunst. It is making as ifby his forefronting and centralizing the site of the Circum the terminal blood cision. even more corporeal Dead Christ with Two Angels (Museum of Fine Arts. Copenhagen) not if hard this critical aperture impossible to see. the Lance was closely to the Holy Wounds. Curiously. connected Supposedly to Saint Mantua Andrew. the Holy well as ?The Risen Christ with Saint Andrew 6) Andrea Mantegna. of Unction._MANTEGNA'S site of each wound. Gonzaga was permitted to acquire the Cardinal Sigismondo Mantegna canvas70. the Epitaphios. concerns of that period. rows sacrifice was a scarcely needed visual reference. by the this Stone canvas extends such understood thought as to her another Son. and deceptively brusque technique. the Copenhagen ?mage may refer to the Mass of the Angels. That itmight writer. according to the present use. Though brutal in its uncompromising the painting.5 on Sun. observances surrounding Blood and Lance influx of pilgrims. it built to allow a massive viewing of the blood relic.74 the new Eucharistie second half of the Quattrocento.73 Just as the Virgin was viewed as an altar for bearing Jesus. with along the three with crosses so many seen images Brera canvas. wound 6]. would have image suggested extending the canvas' emphasis upon the red [Fig. two mourning angels. was have been initially destined a Mantuan com for his mother's is appropriate. So this small canvas not only encompasses the sacrificial aspects of with the timeless function of the bread and the wine along with 17 This content downloaded from 130. in the rock above. holding the lance lance [Fig. purposes. to that part of refers back to the Presentation the Friday Liturgy where the Child is "offered [in the temple] over the altar to his heavenly Father". with Christ seated at the very edge of a much foreshortened altar/sarcophagus. designed artist. the extreme so often delicacy reminiscent found in Mantegna's finesse.Altare Christus est.
Whether in an seeing anatomical his wounds. In the Italian and Latin text this reads: "His grave will be glorious". The picture seems then to have entered the collection of a third cardinal. That ers of site and stress homoeroticism continued He a source of special could encountered also prove in works shock pertinence.80 Just as the Italian's Christian perspective was needed to bring together all the Holy Wounds for the Brera canvas in novel fashion. theaters were depicted on the wall immediately upon this commenting with the Delphic above cryptic the injunction. Mantegna's up in victory" (Corinthians who canvas. image was Rembrandt's drawings Humility The noted. Deijman (Amsterdams Historisch Museum) of 1656.COLIN EISLER_ Gonzaga.and possi the painting for its original.except seen ater. 132d). on the Stone the martyred in the case of Unction corpse of sight" or studied by (Ale. may have found the relentless focus of Mantegna's canvas upon the location of the penis. Museum ?The for Kunst. "Know stat cadaver's Christ the Savior. Rembrandt was conversant with the theological issues dictating the Mantuan painting's perspective point. This was Jules Mazarin.5 on Sun. specifically bly even employed devotional purpose. a Protestant. Italian's prints in the among and of Chantelou. never but went it was to adapted 15:55). but with its pronounced optical emphases upon all loci of the Holy Blood and upon the Epitaphios. tainly He knew received considerable of Passion Catholic when commissions he saw it.77 close Northern These princes of the were connections. keenly aware of what they supposedly gave up upon taking vows of chastity. received extensive members church. Whether. sec understood ond only to the Resurrection itself. Man of Sorrows?. Copenhagen. I.10). Deijman's multiple dissections. as a portable or fixed altar. could artists such as Hans Baldung North was referred most and for an to by admired the version. forefronting the feet and crotch.81 the ond cardinal 18 long after its possession by cardinal Sigismondo is known This content downloaded from 130.49.78 not many have seen by Northern Italy. probably aware of the Transalpine vas' imagery. the anatomy is beside and the cer Dissection thyself" head. These three men of the cloth. All three prelates doubtless realized . and Paul's: "Death is swallowed Rembrandt. who acquired the painting was seen in it following the Sack of Mantua (1630).76 relevant by for another the pow mas ter. Pietro Aldobrandini. so too did Rembrandt seek a similarly synoptic surgical display of Dr.79 adapting etched Madonna Mantuan's for the Dutch certainly Anatomy utilized. and a copy that circulated Mantegna owning engraved his was painters. 15 Sep 2013 09:13:41 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . They certainly origins of much how the of the can tomb. to have been owned by a sec The is known will tell you what ed: "I and what it advises us. Lesson as is so often master's of Dr. inscribed Socrates. who art: some too of the effects of Mantegna's patronage from Caravaggio. of the College all with unusually of Cardinals. Isuspect There the Delphic are not many inscription means analogies to be becomes found .198. and of its initial bloodshed. as 7) Andrea Statens Mantegna. represented the triumph of Christ as prophesied by Isaiah (11. whereupon the prelate's Roman palace by F?libien75. also a portable Brera canvas altar par excellence.
585. view. 159. As noted by Hal Foster in his Prosthetic Gods. The latter seems to have been the god-son of the first scientifically trained Venetian master of perspectival construction. by Ch. 1901. Duchamp's endowed with inverse sanctity. Mantegna. the Burnstein ever for his resourceful adroit editorial assis Institute Research to William at The Morgan curator Librarian. Smith. Where Duchamp counted upon the twin forces of kitsch and exposure for his "In your face" fallen Judy with her run away sacrificial image is keyed to Jack.83 Marcel Duchamp. and P. This spectacle of rape's results is entitled ?tant Donn?s: 1? La Chute D'eau 2? Le Gaz D'?clairage. Library.. Figure 1974). by Michael 3 R. 15 Sep 2013 09:13:41 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . one staging the conse MEDITATION ON THE SACRIFICE OF CHRIST: HIS SYNOPTIC SAVIOR 'lack expressed in the phenomenon of castration'. des Beaux-Arts. Kristeller. Gazette see Smith. degrees Reproduced May. pp. also pp. 4 For the distant Fig. shop-window scenography. in Art in America.85 diorama was Long an "Unholy of Unholies".5 on Sun. so death. il Dipinto. demonstrating that our gaze is definitely In that photograph by Sam Tay marked by sexual difference. its perception "realer than real". lorWood [Fig. Petraroia. that quences of rape. which coincides here with the vulva of the mannequin. Giovanni Fontana. in an image cal artist of the Quattrocento. Jacopo Bellini. presented a voyeuristic "tableau mourant" of viola tion (Philadelphia Museum of Art. for the near 19 This content downloaded from 130. See too the mono 242ff. The critic discerns how ?tant Donn?s "can be read as a making-physical one that connects our view of perspective. 588. beyond reproduction as a "graven image". by this culatedly dwelling could have subconsciously that alien operation associated with castration is far from unlikely. long forbidden submission to the impersonality violence of the camera eye. 239-248. Fig. whose concepts were followed in the art of Mantegna. 4.]". This recently waived prohibition invest ed the artist's construction image with the power of the divine. A sacred peep show. 1997. to the vanishing point. that continues those mathematically devised requirements for creat ingminiature theatres as first prescribed by the Mantuan artist's at the Gonzaga architectural associate court.. pp. Even a chart outlin ing the way inwhich the work perceived) surviving the artist's farmore richly given That a Catholic demonstrates that perspectival vision is not innocent. This is a 20th century per spectival stage set. let alone scientific. in another of the and the uneasy mixing public private [. A C-type with a camera print. in the Renaissance".. ing point. 241ff. Andrea Berlin and Leipzig. 1 P. view.84 Duchamp's re-enactment is a "direct re-creation of a primal scene. By marrying the latter's daughter. endowing him with the immortality by the master's ?tant Donn?s. The Mantuan master demonstrat ed how perspectival vision can indeed never prove innocent. which. Commentary Rush. It 87 1/2 by 95 1 /4 in. This includes Rome. peopled by one large fallen dummy. "Natural Versus Vision: the Foreshortened Scientific Smith.49. Also Document graph Dentro Paris.] [is] reframed almost as a peep show. as Lacan in the form of a diorama. and was photographed rotating 360 in five sections. so centrally upon the site of circumcision Warmest tance. Mantegna's "Synoptic Christ" anticipated French artist's point of view. Duchamp's construction was devised (and remains guarded by estate copyright. Leon Battista Alberti. as represented provides by far the most inventive continuation of Mantegna's viewpoint in the Forshortened Christ.82 Mantegna had been the student of the major early Venetian master of perspective.. 2000. 2]. Giovanni Bellini. 190. studies of the painting but little of any special pp. p. through the holes. Mantegna's Foreshortened Christ is inmany ways a Duchamp avant le lettre. 2 measures Matthew Marks Gallery. not needing that artist's fallen light along with all the rest of his sophisticatedly vulgar. But what traumatic origin does one revisit here? The diorama brings together two old obsessions of Duchamp: perspectival vision and sexual violation [._MANTEGNA'S Paradoxically. that our gaze ismarked by sexual difference. the self-same "discovery" is re-made once in all its again resplendent obviousity. 1946-1966. technical x-ray and other significance has emerged. ever enthralled by the sexual magic of viewpoint. it is a "real" scene. To this scene of violation's presumably fatal consequences the French artist added further frisson by letting the viewer wit ness the victim's violent fall through a peep-hole. let alone scientific. and 84 (July-Dec. 3. New York.198. and to Rory O'Dea. 1902. he became the brother-in-law of yet another virtuoso of pictorial sleight-of-hand. Mantegna. Voelkle. provides a startling anticipation of the Lacanian gaze as sacralized in 20th century art and its literature. Gift of the Cassandra Foun dation 1969). Duchamp in a seminar contemporaneous with the unveiling commented of ?tant Donn?s". The force of his "Synoptic Christ". Yriarte. even unaware of the transgressive vista seen through the peep-holes. since the latter was insensitive to. 583. the power of Mantegna's ultimate violation toward salvation. Active five centuries before the the Duchamp. thanks to Clare to Richard Hills Nova.
15 Sep 2013 09:13:41 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . pp. Holbein the Wounds pratiques the Younger". Noted His discussion of the du Moyen Hand Paris.. the relationship between the canvas and 8 H. p. coming sarion enced 14 15 role of Byzantine relics and theology of Cardinal West the Sack. realized ings set within and earlier fifteenth also relate to this principle. have it is very in both likely that van Eyck would Italy and the North. Oxford. 1983.F. Braun. of Art. Florence). served su As solely la dolce used Hol by Mantegna. delbergerjahrb?cher. 1979. pp. geometry in in der Malerei des Renaissance". cit. Muraro. p. esp. 5. from the figure in 1930 by first made cal study! 30 See See his Chiostro Plate Parronchi. Louvre. Beilage Mitteilungen in large part with der graphischen K?nste. inArte. The role of the Chiostro in his "Mantegnas in Christo by Hans Jantzen tegna was also proposed Scurto" p. Seidel. 175 for a radically prospettiva. p. of Castagno. strukte und des Bildes in der Renaissance meint nennen. p. and of the presence Bes following is important for the painter's many Constantinopolitan-influ images. with reliquaries. 80. Rathe. in the anthology den Gotischen Kirchenraum und ?ber s?tze. in Scurto". Schrade. impor was tance for Mantegna than Alberti's his personality: here writings was a humanist who also practiced painting (or so Alberti claimed). See R. 1958. p. by de L. 25 Della edited Florence. the possible inter-relationship to the Brera canvas (p. 166-167. the subject 1957. Paint in the fourteenth fictive altarpieces and niches. and note 20. pp.1927.. 1989. is reminiscent framing. Paris. p.COLIN 5 EISLER_ noch zur Einheit ist eine plausible und suggestive Ver fugt. 74-77. XL.49. 1989. feet. confused the Epitaphios despite function. Gougaud. 10 H. Prater. pp. p. is found de Tart chr?tien II. 103-132. 75-111. und Rhetorik Geometrie Anfangs und tradiertes Wis Visuelle and M. linking the Alberti completely dead pittura where in every limb.was their with the Holy Sepulchre. geschichte. sitting at Christ's de J?sus. et D?votions 1927. He cites L. 163-190. von Einem. S. cit. separate 18 Prater.135-137. A. Was sprachartige eben die Konver of Sir (p. 10ff. barkeit und Sagbarkeit [. 77-82.] eigentlich eine Heterogenit?t. Virgin and Child before artist is among the The Netherlandish studied very closely by Mantegna. a "stupende zwischen Sicht notes Differenz The author pp. tegna's it to a convergence of of the canvas For a complex relating analysis see G. according bein lost any and religious others. p. Mantegna's Presentation (Gem?ldega a proto-funerary in typically fashion. Book XXV.1938. 22 See M. 49-59. p. Sprache von Geometrie und Rhetorik" genz beiden Aspekte.198. No. 'Sebastian' XX. p. R?au. in the History Studies of Art. no. that if she icons". 9. 1961. Chapter Berlin. 1951. cat. 19 See Graeve and Prater. pp. of the Stone of Unction. 24 Schrade. 520. pp. 9 Schrade. 34). 473 (16). someone architect who viewed artists as colleagues rather than intellectual inferiors. Links between Christiansen p. Translation by author. 20 See her catalogue in Splendours of the entry no." 23 It in the Quattrocento have first been realized in the work might a painter ever aware of the force of the framework. votive reconstructions 17 canvas was also the first to A major Nuova study of the Chiesa canvas in the Brera. by all other writers. p. 28 G.. pp. "Mantegnas in der Ca' d'Oro".. 98-115. Nat. 27 at the E. painter artist of his day. 111). 78. 26 Loeb IX. For the use of canvas The Begin of Netherlandish Canvas and 1400-1530. judging by the was a Grotto Italian master's (Uffizi. Muraro it to the famous aspect of in passages must the corpse Florence. 1983. pp. Neue Hei N. pp. The latter deals Darstellungen. note 56. by Schrade. pp. See also F. con in rapporto e cultu pensiero e con la Toscana an initial explo He provided between both men. nings Painting. 16 Le tr?sor de la Sainte exh. 111. dies sich den subjects. Verde frescoes for Man tute. a painter who. op. of Man scientific for some of the encyclopedic. Victoria and Albert Museum. "Mantegnas zum 6. cat. 1925. 181. 1908. giovanile fonti figurative". Pfisterer Topoi Erfindung sen in den K?nsten der Italienischen Munich-Berlin. "The Portrait H. Prater. See also the very informative article by J. 3. note 56. 17ff. Mantegna. 8. "The pilgrim's gaze and beyond the Renaissance. By the fifteenth century . 21 in the north see D. P. Cousins. Pliny. 62-77. in Scurto und verwandte Cristo "?ber Mantegnas zur Symbolik Ein Beitrag des Perspektive". But this image. "However. see pittura. 11 A. geometrische Kon Formen Inhalte wir die formulieren. Nuova".. Renaissance. Visuali Cam Nelson. Fran p. 12 M. 20. shroud. Milan. can An unusually of the subject of Mantegna's treatment opaque vas in L. by Stephen D. 49) and is followed (op. cat. Paula's she can see the watches long enough. in der ganz ausdr?cklich visuelle bzw. Andrea and Met Christiansen. 20 This content downloaded from 130. ed. 77. but first found un compianto e qualche indicazione sulle g?. See of Mantegna's the complexity explore the Stone of Unction Graeve. 231. 49). pp. 3. Hist. emphasizing the Resurrection. significance it supposedly Studi less whatever. asc?tiques ?ge. pp.5 on Sun. 13 idea was Andreas Ibid. For the foreshortened figure see also K. 279-299. 1937. f?r Kunst Cristo Zeitschrift "Mantegnas No. Die Aus extrem of the Warburg Insti druckfunktion verk?rzter Studies Figuren. 317. 223-238. Malle. found in so many of his condensation cross-referencing Complex symbolic of the art of Jan van Eyck. A. issues. also and religious crossroads". empty seemingly sepulchre of early of this subject other examples Prater presents along images etc. of Unction in Caravaggio's "The Stone painting for the Chiesa Art Bulletin. ration of refers Della show Keith "Mantegna rinascimento e Alberti". Royal Academy of Art. 1992. in Stephaniskop. in the age before ed. and such as the were and Mantegna very well described by of even greater (op. "Francis of Assisi: Christian mysticism traditions. 73-75. to this writer. 11ff. 77. Chapelle. R?misches Jahrbuch f?r Kunstgeschichte. centuries. 100. Boehm. been a source aspects first painters ion for many art. 1985. p. ty before bridge goes angel UK. p. U. "Der Topos des two aspects and rhetoric. Was gelingt. 69. 155. 49-51. employs proleptic faux-lapidary Brera canvas. inGraeve. on to state 29 pp. 2000. part 2. M. by R. 78-90. foreshortened was Verde This proposal Deluge. cit. later anatomical in scurto". 101. 43-48). ra a Mantova nel primo il V?neto. Brian The Tuke National by Hans Gallery of Christ. ropolitan Museum 7 f?r vervielf?ltigende der Gesellschaft Kunst. Hand. Iconographie In the Renaissance. and who had risen to be the foremost in Italy. 49-53. pp. 1981. XL.9. London. F. "II Sodoma: at the very center. The developed throughout to the significance in Mantegna's Prater's of the Stone article devoted canvas. Cristo Jantzen. Milan. Cambridge New York. 1930. Reprinted with andere Auf schr?nkung. Paris. Wolfthal. Graeve. 33. the open has the large figure of the angel at the right is filled by a vertical. op. Frank. 6 K. lerie. La S?pulture Paris. xxxvi. vol. pp. as a pretext for anatomi 1964. Berlin). letter p. 33-49 of (for a discussion see pp.. 2000. 1950. Gonzaga. cit. a fictive in the Byzantine fash to employ lapidary framing famous As the most of his panels. 77. to Saint Bernard as a key early figure for of Clairvaux points (1090-1153) the development of the Cult of the Five Wounds. Schrade. 79. Mysticism Katz. Paragone. exh. 110. pp. Vertical. Ernst Fabricius Freiburg. 2003. 95.
New Haven. Encyclopedia. 101. Thorns 59 Letter and the Imitation of Christ". p. 1896. Arte Lombarda. and R. A History of Painting in North London. vol. they offer no to see He wishes the Ibid. of Caulibus. k?rperliche Ausdrucksfor ter. may first have been accentuated aspect by it to the early Rubens related in the Galleria work in Lexikon und Kirche. 35 Schrade. At are the nails and pincers. pp. by J. utriusque 58 For the Arma see the pioneering article by R. Devotio Basic trans. ed. Berliner.5 on Sun. p. 1961 on the basis of the canvas' left in the artist's stu Mantua. Cavalcaselle. refers to Mantegna's Gauricus. 54 Fol. 47 The late dating has been maintained by the Mostra Mantegna. Cord. lower und Moralidaxe des Sp?tenmittelalter". pp. "De rat. The major is by I. Anzeiger See H. p. Plates of Italian Renaissance that Art. 1961. See Ambrose For specific references and a discussion. showing though go. parallel at of Christ to the feet. the Carthusian Karthauser-Orden deutschen Karthausen. Dottrina alle Cinque Rovi Piaghe. 1990. p. Ein Beispiel Kartause For den 1994. pp. "Kartauserspiritualit?t. to divinity in the frescoes applied again in the cen foreshort figures such as those tury after Mantegna's. Schreiner.. the canvas places K. p. p. 64. The Science p. p. leaving Only Jantzen (op. in the artist's middle She dates the canvas Since period. cit. this image. are placed Here the Instruments of the Passion in the foreground. noting History is too large and the feet to small in the Mantegna. Klein New York. p. Only was a similar in Mantua. for Mantegna's explanation pictorial discovery. zur Ikonographie his "Ein Beitrag also des Christusdarstel 35-116. 96. such painters may have counted upon Mantegna the elements of reversal to make and paradox their re-application of the perspectival The canvas' Schrade. Frescoes. Gebedenboek ed. Seligman. Italy. figures to be seen with a single eye. Vergleichende Munich and Leipzig. p.. so she did what she could. by F. Cologne. the place where I received his mercy". to this cult in fif p. 44 Schrade. see teenth century Limburg in Een Limburgsch reprinted E. p. Reichenlechner.D. B. 49ff). A. of Mantua and Pisanel The Gonzaga F. 36 M. N?rnberg. G. col. Schiller. 37 Kristeller. 33. 88. a good color plate (viii) follows p. 262. ologie ticism no reference 1952. She could pierced. She gazed and upon his feet. 32 R. being dio at his death. as emphasizing entire purpose of the canvas the Stone of Unction. 46 J. A Crowe and G. historische Quelle of Art. lo's Arthurian MEDITATION ON THE SACRIFICE OF CHRIST: HIS SYNOPTIC SAWO/? in The Dictionary of Art. men. Holweck The Five Sacred". 1907. noted that (p. Princeton. 53 See Sauser's citations Christi". 183 49 J. G. And on another feet which occasion she had moistened with tears of now much more copiously she washed with waves of tears of contrition. See W. Jahrhundert". 208. A. K?lner Kart?user in exh. In these with iccio. Hartt. Christian and n. "Old Perspective and New Vision". Die K?lner 2 vols. the Man of Sorrows". p. cat. aussere "Inneres Auge. the New York. Kalendarium manuale Nilles. Suckale lung". p. loe. Borghese. 105. politisch-soziale Kontexte. 20-30. Flohs Prims. 76. 60 Ibid. Roth. 50 of the Gonzaga. SS. 38 Schrade. trans. so wounded dried out and blood-smeared. 85. Writings. At least she washed "Please the with on the Life of Christ. in Germany Der in Deutschland aus oder Lebens und Leidensbilder Cologne. cat. "Arma Christi. The Catholic from N. Ilr in the W?rttembergisches Landesbibliothek. 39 C. Leonardo XV/4. directed uit de XVde eeuwe. Jesu et Mariae". fest. 60-65. 16. I. Far below the Crown of upper right. 1885. 15 Sep 2013 09:13:41 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . See also G. 62-63. more of Giulio ening commonly and Fontainebleau Primat Romano and in Bologna by the Bolognese in the art of Correggio at Parma. 213-240. Rome) (Ham view its relatively Mantegna's whether utilization. of Iconography "The Arma Christi' Art. 2002. London. The 106-107. Louvain. 1972. 1988. Borenius. p. 245. Stifter und Auftraggeber im sp?t mittelalterlichen "Stifterbilder als 1994." John um 1500. That theorist may have meant vulgar figures "humorously the found once in the painter's allegories. that Pomponious in his De Sculptura. as their forerunner. "Arma Christi". Das M?nster. X. 6. that this might have been dictated suggests by cultic it at that. 57 Translation in his entry on the "Wounds. the head suggested meant were in the Arthurian like the similar frescoes canvas. Kemp. For devotions the prayers to the Wounds. 1983/1. Schmid. 83. pp. pp. in repose". 1912. do nothing his feet else. pp. 283) Prater. Finaldi. pp. VI. Ein Diskussionsbeitrag Praxis in Fr?m her tears. 306. und des Germanischen Nationalmuseums. text volume. p. 392. 1919. p.1500. "On Patience p. He makes to the Brera canvas. 77. im Mittelal migkeit Fr?mmigkeit visuelle Praxis. by T. Complines). 41 the simultaneous Schrade. 88. by 1926. p. 269-276. 55 was von The poem written Karch by Samuel Lichtenberg between 1486-1489. Stutttgart. 1991.. or Wilhelm Tr?bner Spada. Die Handzeichnung. ("Wunden with early his date. Mattese. pp. Bonetti. Blick Asheville. 1982. and wept very bitterly. repr. van the the head left. Miller. K. Jacobsen at considerable in his discusses the canvas length article on "Perspective in some of Mantegna's early panel paintings". M. Mary Stallings-Taney. commenting upon visibility of all wounds. Meditations from the Latin and ed. "Friday Devotion". see also T. this. Stuttgart). W?rzburg 56 and Augustine. 1987. Gem?ldestudien. pleaded. Autumn. C. and introduced Moderna. 21 This content downloaded from 130. 33 34 p. 62. 1988. pp. ?berlegun mittelalterlicher Staedel gen zur Zeichenhaftigkeit Andachtsbilder". She 48 Arte would Veneta. device He sacrificial so effectively in a fresh context. Munich. A. Meder. by J. New York. by F. p. Jahrbuch. oth Rupert von Deutz among ers. unorthodox by Annibale (Galleria p. has paid any to this issue. see C.s. 245. "Mantegna". Vienna. Woods-Marsden._MANTEGNA'S 31 See J. 111-128. xxxviii. cit. 15. Voll. see Sauser. ninth century monas X. 79. 2000. Orazio Borgianni burger Kunsthalle). ed. issues. 126. Order "II Pianto tra geometr?a sul Cristo del Mantegna: e oratoria". 714. 1249) of Irish-Scottish as well as Bede. at a relatively indicate his placing the canvas 52 Picotti. 20. 177-208. That Mantegna to the Arma Christi in too may have been referring a fashion in his Brera canvas oblique may be indicated by the "correc tion" made in Annibale version Carracci's (Staatsgalerie. Petrus Damiani. Lentes' zur Visuellen und Heilige Schau. 11 Iff. explains infrequent Carracci (Staatsgalerie. p. pp. Christi. um 1500". 43. 422. 45 Kristeller. 42 let me wrap the feet. 1955. trans. der K?ln..198. 80. 108) observed (Form and Meaning. no. attention 43 Devotion to the feet of the dead Christ is emphasized by The on the Life of Chrtist Meditations in Chapter 40 (Passion at Meditations In wrapping the Magdalen the body for burial. Coppel.. sorrow and compassion. Richerche storiche. 184ff. Annibale placed in the lower right corner. 1977. Splendours 51 Ibid. Trier Ph. 194.1982. 40 G. in K?ln und N?rnberg im 15. at ca. together pp. Stuttgart). and G. See pp. and instances. J.49. See also thesis. 77-97. M?nchner der bildenden Jahrbuch Kunst. 123. f?r The Note 4. Taney. Engen. Le stimate della study of the subject e storia della devozione Passsione. 1979. p.
Rippberger. Theologie". 1995. cit. including 72 Five Sacred". 68 the canvas' sacrificial Schrade. Journey Princeton 1985. manuscript Century. 66 Guillaume ou Manuel des divins offices. con canvas to be seen under may also have been highly designed Heimann trolled As seen Paul with aters circumstances toward stated Hartt suggested above. Luke ii. 67 H. See F. 392). 112. Purtle. Gas Given: Marcel Duchamp's by Museum of Art Philadelphia Mantegna's image on (?tant donn?s). the Gonzaga. aware of the Byzantine tradition p. a cave for the as the Holy Family before features placed Byzantine in point. Devotion Princeton. 1992. op. 243): frequently point to Rembrandt's us in images of the foreshortened els body of the dead Christ facing model this (masculine) how he translates first. See 1964. This was Gallery in scurto' Art in "II 'Cristo by Mantegna". 42-45. note 59). Green. Campin: and S. Manuscript Perspective: and ed. Virgin and his mother the after in an interior: The Child Jesus Child comforting illu in a European in Flanders circumcision". 77. Posner. Mr. around 1400 in Flanders mination see C. through Binski and others deals with seen under images Alberti's writings for special allowing a single especially that the canvas telling was perspective. formerly and reproduced by Prater. B. p. "Wounds. 714-715. Homo-Erotic Art Early Works". pp. cat. 252. cit.H5. Das M?nster. and C. April 1941. in Robert New Directions Ground". 85-116. See D. 81 Like the "tableau morte" voyeuristic staged horrendously seen two peep-holes.The Encyclopedia. 22 This content downloaded from 130. Cardon. Mantegna. VIII. Camesasca. 2. from Cardinal the canvas have perhaps bought See Christiansen. 77. 1941. "Caravaggio's xxxiv. composed through 2 The Illuminating 1 The Waterfall. 15 Sep 2013 09:13:41 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . yet they fail to notice into purely of haptic par excellence representation optical canvas see also J. several of these There were Nuremberg. Philadelphia. pp. Splendours Autografi. For a different Leuven. afforded of "real elements". 42ff. Binstock. 301-324. II. 183-186. op. significance 1986 (8). 328. to Moses. 283. 110. by Cardinal Michelangelo of Nazareth. 231. noted "Commentators mod (p. 82. 1884. 308 and Gallo. George. p. 110-111. p. Schiller. pp.49. note 32. Fig. Mantua. Metropolitan and p. 1991. in February. M. Paris. vol. Rational III. to the Circumcision 1977. by Hans Tietze. on the eighth the Flight the Circumcision during day of her in the desert. and the Canon to the perplexed.. 103ff. on the Life of Christ. in the Navarro collection. op. See Christiansen. 5. p. 158. 443-448. le is an unfailing guide 63 to Jacopo of Vor?gine itwas Mary who performs According into Egypt. Kennedy. Chapel. 177-179. Urbach. G. Ryan. and one by Ludovico of Rembrandt The Hague. feet 61 M.. no.. 1964. 21). Cambridge-London. be entirely 82 For a discussion and Uccello of Alberti in dis to Northern novel Florentine concepts Italy perspectival seminating as Performance". 73 The reference was first signaled to the Epitaphios by Graeve. note 56. a Sodoma of that subject ular among by the Massimo family of Rome (Gallo. Meditations See of the Fourteenth Paris. Framing Riegl's Work. Ragusa and R. New York. 3-4. 83-111). pp. of such images. 75 du palais Mazarin. pp. optical excluded for the Brera canvas. of di Stato. p. New York. The 1964. 413. For an extensive discussion see Camesasca. pp. Lord Jesus Christ 65 of the Campin "On the iconography See S. 8. Gods. Mantegna. 105. 1988. Archbishop Andrea Museum of Art. 71 nos. pp. the Brera from the Giuseppe Itentered Dramatically to have been especially of Christ seem foreshortened pop renderings was owned men of the cloth. Archivio p. p. America. Catholic 15. 328. the Ammonian Sec Harmony As ever. pp. concerned screens. B. 1971. S. London. VIII. Pietro Aldobrandini. by G. cit. al. Hartt.ltal. p. Epiphany painter's (Uffizi) is a case 74 Van Engen. 2. Iconography Prague Christian 1972. He may 302. p. B?hler. by M. P. by G. 76 That the of chastity the upper clergy was the among practice out by the rather than the rule in the Quattrocento is borne exception on the monument orations and symbolic unicorn carved for funerary the Cardinal Portuguese 77 of Portugal. 4.COLIN EISLER_ Elze. 126. 194 and Graeve. Press. Quarterly. Christian baptized martyrs. 51-56. Such or his own view of Christian tuan source. 36. itwas the in their own blood. Les Richesses S. 150-158. 231. Of the Circumcision Ragusa. Caron. Amsterdam. stressed 69 For the eucharistie see A. Foster in Foster's given text for his note 29. p. at least as far as of Christ's blood the first shedding go back from of the abbess Bohemian Passional (1314-1321) Kunigunde Cited convent of St. p. For a reveal Its role for Rembrandt is presented vincing. part". Smeyers and Abroad. 79 Paul Fr?art de of the Cavalier to Bernini Chantelou. Golden Legend. University 80 Schrade an extensive of later influence discussion of provides canvas on Italian and Northern art (pp. p. I. A. "Le corps du Christ". 7. of the canvas.. choir controlled conditions highly through teem with references to peep-show like the possibilities and their need role not so such effects. 78 Schrade. pp. 84 H. New York. 85 is seemingly taken from Foster. Lance". you under my skin: Rembrandt. meant to be cit.. Voelkle was commissioned former Caracci Toni. Ms. p.. G. cat. pp. 44. LEcrit-voir 70 E. No Western painter was more a Man this was due to the Church Whether than Mantegna. p. Eisler. in New York. Corti. "Devotional in Works". 3. the Mantegna Some canvas are not con of these supposed reflections of the Renaissance on pp. Bossis collection. Riegl. p. art is hard to know. of Rembrandt's "I've got ing recent study painting in and the Will of Art History". no. in a panel as added to the traditional Arma Christi cumcision illustrated 1314-1321 64 from the Convent of Saint an BN as the the of cir of of the Morgan in the mysteries of early Christian literature on of the Four Gospels. Kirche. Councils. Prague. of the various versions the artist's hand. p. George. The Lacan quotation of Psycho-Analy that philosopher's The Four Fundamental Concepts sis. 1854. pp. of Our Green. 76-86. Chapter Perspective "City as Stage of Jacopo Bellini. Recent scholarship by somewhat related views. "Die Heilige 1963. XXIX. a seminar given note 29 is to Lacan's on p. Significantly to obviate rite of Baptism that was Circumcision (Luke 1. aspect. one eye (Hartt. The Genius 83 Ties will be the subject of and Fontana between Mantegna a forthcoming study by this writer. Barbera. also The reference p. Paris. 1982. so linking Christ first The cutting of Christ's foreskin is tied to the Massacred Innocents. 303-339. p. Chapter 2004. Bruyn et For the sources of Rembrandt's terms". pp. ed. in the Citadel.198. "Z?ge Zeitschrift sp?tmittelalterlicher f?r Theologie und in Luthers Fr?mmigkeit The 1965. Antwerp. 192. Foister 1996. in Scholarship. see B. France. The Dutch painter may have seen a copy now in the Jacob. Formalism He 2001. Nash. also circumcised son's life. Cosnac. p.5 on Sun. Voelk Tables of Eusebius of Ces?rea. published not seem to be from It does vol. 328. 434. reformer's von der Betrachtung Ein Sermon devotional Christi of 1539 followed later medieval 62 Iam to the omniscient William indebted Library for initiating this theme: Tatian's me tion. Leidens des heiligen meditations. pp. pp. see C. 439. 219-263. op. She refers to the knife of the Art. "Amissing Prosthetic Foster. Chantelou. Durande. interpretation in Interiors: A Search for Madonnas of Campin's "The iconography Common eds. 67. p. A Corpus Paintings.
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