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Sec 4EXP Pure Chemistry Paper 1 answers 1) B 11) C 21) D 31) B 2) C 12) B 22) B 32) D 3) D 13) D 23) A 33)

B 4) A 14) B 24) B 34) D 5) D 15) C 25) C 35) A 6) D 16) D 26) D 36) C 7) C 17) A 27) B 37) A 8) A 18) C 28) C 38) C 9) B 19) A 29) C 39) D 10) C 20) B 30) A 40) B

Sec 4EXP Pure Chemistry Paper 2 answers A1 (a) (b) (c) (d) A2 (a) (b) Carbon dioxide Chromium Silicon dioxide Brass Insert a moist blue red litmus paper into the gas. The gas will turn the litmus paper red and then bleaches it. Sodium burns with a bright orange flame. Sodium burns vigorously with chlorine. / The reaction happens vigorously. (c) (d) 2Na + Cl2 2NaCl Legend: Dot: electron of sodium Cross: electron of chlorine [1] [1] [1] [1] [1] [1] [1] [1] Cation- [1] Anion- [1]

(e)(i)

Sodium chloride has a giant ionic structure that consists of strong electrostatic forces of attraction between oppositely-charged ions. A lot of energy is needed to overcome these bonds, hence a high melting point.

[1]

[1] [1]

(e)(ii)

In the molten state, the giant ionic lattice structure is destroyed to release the sodium and chloride ions. These free ions are able to conduct electricity as they move about in the molten liquid.

[1]

A3

(a)

Carbon dioxide. Bubble the gas produced into limewater. A white precipitate is formed in the limewater if the gas is carbon dioxide.

[1] [1] [1] [1] [1] [1] [1] [1] [1]

(b)

Observation: A yellow precipitate is formed. Ionic equation: 2I-(aq) + Pb2+(aq) PbI2(s)

(c)

Filter the mixture to obtain the residue (precipitate). Wash the residue with a little distilled water and press it dry between sheets of filter papers.

A4

(a)

Part P: Condenser. Function: It is to condense the hot vapour back into liquid so it can be collected as distillate in the receiving flask.

(b)

First modification: The bulb of the thermometer should be placed near the outlet of the distillating flask. This is to ensure that the thermometer measures the boiling point of the vapour. Second modification: Water should be flowing against the flow of vapour. This is to ensure the presence of a permanent cold surface on which all the vapour will condense back into liquid effectively before it leaves the condenser.

[1] [1]

[1] [1]

(c)

The temperature remains constant.

Substance Y starts to boil and during change of state, temperature [1] remains constant. (d)(i) (d)(ii) A5 (a) (b) (c) X is a volatile liquid. / Boiling point of X is too low. Place the receiving flask in a water bath. Weak acids. Sulfuric acid is a strong acid and it will react with the heating coil which is a metal. Yes. Vinegar is ethanoic acid which is a weak acid. (d) Effervescence will be observed. [1] [1] [1] [1] [1] [1] [1]

A6

(a)

The atomic radius increases as atomic number increases. 2

[1]

As the atomic number increases, the number of electron shells also increases. (b) Atomic number: 2 Helium (c) A7 (a)(i) (a)(ii) The first ionization energy for sodium is higher than potassium. Therefore it is harder for sodium to lose its outermost electron. Zn(s) + CuSO4(aq) Cu(s) + ZnSO4(aq) The oxidation state of zinc increases from 0 in zinc to +2 in zinc sulfate. This is oxidation. The oxidation state of copper decreases from +2 in copper(II) sulfate to 0 in copper. This is reduction. Since oxidation and reduction occurs simultaneously, it is a redox reaction. It acts as a catalyst. When the volume of copper(II) sulfate increases, more and more zinc is used in the displacement reaction. There will lesser zinc left to react with sulfuric acid to produce hydrogen gas. Therefore, volume of hydrogen decreases as volume of copper( II) sulfate increases. (c)

[1] [1] [1] [1] [1] [2]

(b)(i) (b)(ii)

[1] [1] [1]

When temperature increases, the zinc atoms and sulfuric acid [1] molecules have greater heat energy and hence gain kinetic energy and move at higher speeds. This increases the frequency of effective collisions between them [1] and thus, rate of reaction increases.

(d)

Number of moles of hydrogen produced = 0.160 / 24.0 0.00667 mol (3sf) Mass of zinc used = 0.00667 x 65 = 0.433 g (3sf)

[1] [1] [1] [1] [1] [1] [2]

B8

(a)(i)

Endothermic. Temperature decreases as the reaction proceeds which means that heat energy is taken in from the surroundings.

(a)(ii)

5oC

(a)(iii) No more potassium nitrate can dissolve in the water so temperature did not decrease. B8 (a)(iv) The total energy taken in during bond-breaking is more than the total energy given out during bond-forming. Therefore this is an endothermic reaction and a decrease in temperature occurs. 3

(b)(i)

Total energy taken in for bond-breaking = 4(+413) + (+614) + 2(348) = +2962 KJ Total energy given out during bond-forming = 4(-413) + 3(-248) + 2(-330) = -3056 KJ H = (-3056) + (+2962) = -94.0 KJ [1] [1] [1] for correct axis with labels [1] for correct shape of graph C3H4Cl2 [1] for all correct labeling

(b)(ii)

C3H4 + Cl2 H= -94.0KJ

B9

(a)

October Carbon monoxide and PM10.

[1] [1]

(b)

Carbon monoxide reacts almost irreversibly and readily than oxygen with haemoglobin in red blood cells to form carboxy-haemoglobin, a stable compound. This inhibits the transportation of oxygen around the body, leading to dizziness or even death on prolonged exposure.

[1] [1] [2] [1] [1]

(c) (d)

Stay indoors. / Wear a mask when going outdoors. Sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen are pollutants which causes acid rain that damages buildings. These pollutants also cause irritation of the eyes and skin. Therefore it is important to monitor the levels of these pollutants in the air. Sulfur dioxide: Combustion of fossil fuels containing sulfur / Volcanic eruptions Oxides of nitrogen: Reaction of nitrogen and oxygen gas in the air at high temperatures around car engine / Lightning activities.

(e)

[1] [1]

A10

(a)

Platinum / Carbon 4

[1]

Either (b) Electron flow anode All correct [1] Electron flow cathode

(c)

30 40 50 60

16.40 20.80 25.60 25.60

6.60 11.0 15.8 15.8

All correct [1]

(d)

Axis labels [1] Plots and best fit line [1]

(e)

Anode: 4OH-(aq) O2(g) + H2O(l) + 4eCathode: Cu2+(aq) 2e- Cu(s)

[1] [1] [1/2] [1/2]

(f)(i) (f)(ii)

Blue solution. Colourless solution.

(g)(i)

[1]

(g)(ii) A10 Or (a)

Blue.

[1] Axis labels [1] Plots and best fit line [1]

(b) (c)

444 cm3 ( 5cm3) Zn +2HCl ZnCl2 + H2 Number of moles of hydrogen produced =0.500/24.0 =0.0208 mol (3sf)

[1]

Number of moles of hydrochloric acid = 2x0.0208 = 0.0417 mol (3sf) Concentration of hydrochloric acid = 0.0417/0.0500 =0.833 mol.dm3 (3sf) 6

[1]

[1]

(d)(i) (d)(ii)

Total volume 250 cm3 Graph has a greater gradient. Half the total volume of gas will be produced since the number of moles used is halved. The gradient of the graph will be steeper as a higher concentration of acid is used faster initial rate of reaction.

[1] [1]

[1]

(e)

Using zinc strips decreases the total exposed surface area for [1] reactants to act on. This leads to a smaller number of effective collisions per unit time and [1] thus, speed of reaction decreases.