The Work-related Learning Guide – First edition

A guidance document for employers, schools, colleges, students and their parents and carers

The Work-related Learning Guide 

The Work-related Learning Guide – First edition
This guide is intended to provide people with a good understanding of work-related learning. It is aimed at everyone involved – young people and their parents or carers, employers, schools and colleges, and the Education Business Partnership Organisations that help to make it happen.
In this respect, the Guide differs significantly from previous information and guidance about work-related learning which, generally, has been directed towards individual groups of people or organisations and often been quite technical. The primary focus of the Guide is work-related learning for 14-19 year-olds in England but it will have relevance to activities across the whole age range from age five upwards. It explains, clearly and simply: • what work-related learning is; • why it is important; • who is involved in making it happen; • how to get the best out of it; • how young people are kept safe while they are doing it; • other things that are useful to know, and • where to find further information, help and support. It is very deliberately entitled a ‘first edition’ because it will be followed by subsequent editions which will take account of new developments as they arise and of comments made to the editor by the people who use it. Comments and suggestions about the guide can be sent to the following email address:

Important notice
This guide is not a complete statement of the law. It is intended for general information only and is not a substitute for seeking specialist advice in particular circumstances. DCSF does not accept responsibility for loss caused as a result of a person acting in reliance on this guide.

Ministerial foreword Introduction What is work-related learning? Why is work-related learning important? What does work-related learning look like? What’s the truth behind some of the myths about work-related learning? Who does what to make work-related learning happen? How can we get the best out of work-related learning? How do we keep young people safe during work-related learning? What other key things do I need to know? Where can I find case studies? Useful sources of information Annex 1: The QCA framework Annex 2: More about health and safety Annex 3: More about child protection Annex 4: More about insurance Annex 5: Key source documents Annex 6: Useful websites for young people and their parents Annex 7: Useful websites for employers Annex 8: Useful websites for schools and colleges 05 06 08 09 10 13 15 18 22 27 35 36 37 40 41 42 44 45 46 47

The Work-related Learning Guide 

Ministerial foreword
Work-related learning plays a vital role in young peoples’ journey to a successful adulthood and is a key part of our reforms to the curriculum and the new Diplomas. It helps young people connect their learning with the world of work, develop the employability skills that employers value, build their enterprise capability, and make more informed choices about their career options. Those outcomes are important for us all. They mean that young people, as adults, will be better placed to take their place in society and able to make a positive contribution to the communities in which they live in and our future economic prosperity.
Employers play an essential role in delivering work-related learning, for example by opening their workplaces for visits, giving career talks in schools, including business mentoring, and providing work experience places for students. All of these activities help to prepare young people for their future working lives and open up a full range of career opportunities that they might not have been aware of otherwise. Schools and colleges are becoming increasingly successful in the way they work with employers and deliver work-related learning across the curriculum and to a wider age range of students. All of the evidence, including from young people themselves, points to the progress being made. This new guide brings together, in an accessible way, information about work-related learning for anyone who is or wants to be involved in giving young people the excellent education that they deserve and from which we all benefit.

Jim Knight Minister for Schools and Learners 

The Work-related Learning Guide

Work-related learning is about preparing young people for the ‘world of work’.
Work-related learning is an essential part of young people’s education. It has developed rapidly in recent years and many bridges have been built between employers, schools, colleges and Education Business Partnership Organisations (EBPOs) who are all involved in delivering it. Work-related learning benefits young people by: • enriching their education and giving them a greater understanding of the ‘world of work’ which lies ahead of them; • helping them to develop the ‘employability skills’ that make them attractive to their future employers; • helping them to think through their learning options and career choices, and • raising the possibility that they might be recruited in the future by employers they come into contact with – there have been numerous cases of young people accepting job offers from employers they met through work-related learning.

Work-related learning benefits employers by: • giving them fresh ideas and perspectives that can help deliver their business objectives; • helping them to keep abreast of modern qualifications and developments in education; • providing opportunities to demonstrate the jobs and careers available within their organisation (or employment sector) and to find recruits from a regular supply of school leavers who are more ‘job ready’, thereby helping to reduce their recruitment and training costs; • providing opportunities to contribute to local communities and to build links which will enhance the profile and reputation of their own organisation and sector; • providing opportunities to contribute directly to young people’s education, through influencing their attitudes towards work and helping them to develop their capabilities, and • providing motivational and personal development opportunities for those members of their staff who are directly involved with young people and their schools and colleges – through broadening their own perspectives, developing their communication and management skills and increasing their sense of responsibility, self confidence, self esteem and job satisfaction.

The Work-related Learning Guide 

Work-related learning benefits schools and colleges by: • helping to increase levels of attainment and participation rates; • helping them bring the curriculum to life through showing how subjects are applied and valued in the workplace; • enhancing the learning experiences and opportunities they provide for their students, and • making links between different subjects within the curriculum Work-related learning benefits teachers, tutors, trainers, mentors and others who are directly involved in delivering it, by: • helping them to connect the subjects they teach to the world of work; • contributing to their professional development and management skills, and • increasing their job satisfaction. There is good evidence from studies carried out by both Ofsted and the Qualification and Curriculum Authority (QCA) that there have been significant improvements in the delivery of work-related learning since 2004. Schools had made real improvements in the way they provide work-related learning– especially in enterprise education. Learners, teachers and tutors view work-related learning very positively. Work-related learning can appear more complicated than it really is and people should be encouraged to explore what it involves, its many benefits and the extensive range of help and support that is available. Lots of useful sources of information, guidance and tools have been developed – such as the QCA’s new nine-point framework for ‘economic wellbeing’ and the new DCSF ‘standards for work experience’– which help everyone to understand what work-related learning is about and how to get good value from it. Education Business Partnership Organisations and others have developed a vast amount of expertise in planning and organising work-related learning and helping to ensure everyone involved gets the most out of it. This guide will help you to understand what you need to know and were to find further information and support – this is plenty available if you know where to look. Most of the content of the Guide is likely to be of general interest to all readers – though some sections are more relevant young people and their parents or carers, to employers or to schools and colleges. To help readers find the sections most relevant to them, the following colour code has been used throughout the Guide: Young people and their parents or carers Employers Schools and colleges

“…it was really enjoyable and helped me understand what the adult world was like.” Year 10 student 

The Work-related Learning Guide

What is work-related learning?
The formal definition of work-related learning is: Planned activity that uses the context of work to develop knowledge, skills and understanding useful in work, including learning through the experience of work, learning about work and working practices, and learning the skills for work.
A simpler way of putting it is ‘FAT’: Work-related learning is For work, About work, Through work. In the context of this simpler definition: • For work is about developing skills for enterprise and employability (for example, through problem-solving activities, work simulations, and mock interviews). • About work is about providing opportunities for students to develop knowledge and understanding of work and enterprise (for example, through vocational courses and careers education). • Through work is about providing opportunities for students to learn from direct experiences of work including developing the employability skills and ‘can-do’ attitude that employers value. For example, through work experience or part-time jobs, enterprise activities in schools and learning through vocational contexts in subjects. The underlying aims of work-related learning are: • to develop employability skills; • to provide young people with the opportunity to ‘learn by doing’ and to learn from experts; • to raise standards of achievement; • to increase the commitment to learning, motivation and self confidence of students; • to improve the retention of young people in learning after the age of compulsory schooling; • to develop career awareness and the ability to benefit from impartial and informed information and guidance; • to support active citizenship; • to develop the ability to apply knowledge, understanding and skills; • to improve understanding of the economy, enterprise, personal finance and the structure of business organisations and how they work; and • to encourage positive attitudes to lifelong learning.

The Work-related Learning Guide 

Why is work-related learning important?
Increasingly, young people want to see that their education is relevant to their future working lives. They want to be sure that what they are learning is going to help them become more employable. Work-related learning ‘connects learning with earning’ and, for many, this is a strong motivator.
Learning about work and enterprise is only one aspect of work-related learning. A basic understanding of how the economy works is essential for everyone, including the role of business and financial services within it. Work-related learning helps to develop this understanding. Many of the skills that are valuable in higher education or future employment can be developed through work-related learning activities. It can help overcome the feelings of low self-esteem and limited aspirations that young people might have by drawing out and letting them use their talents. It can improve motivation and self-confidence. Developing a better understanding of the labour market and of employers’ needs is also important, as is the need to help young people make better informed decisions about their future learning and career choices.

“…it gave me more self confidence and helped me think seriously about what I wanted to do later in life.” Year 10 student

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What does work-related learning look like?
All students experience work-related learning at some point in their education – although sometimes they might not know it! They will certainly take part in it during the last two years of their compulsory education (Key Stage 4) because it is a statutory part of the curriculum at that stage. It is also a vital component of the new Diplomas.
Work-related learning is not a subject, in the same way as, say, science is. Rather, it is a way of delivering learning. Many people think of it as just the one or two week work experience placement, but it is much broader range of activities than that. So much so that young people, employers, schools and colleges are always able to find one or more opportunities which appeal to them. For some students, work-related learning is built into the subjects they are studying and supplemented with additional careers education and work experience. For others, it is distinct element of their learning, for example in the new Diplomas, leading to an applied qualification. Work-related learning – including but not restricted to a minimum of ten days’ work experience – is a key component of the Diploma structure which puts a strong emphasis on learning by doing. Many parts of the Diploma qualification will be taught in a manner that relates directly to the world of work, an approach which will better prepare students for employment. See page 0 for more information about the Diploma qualification.

Work-related learning activities
The ‘spider diagram’ opposite gives examples of different kinds of work-related learning activities – they are explained briefly in the table which follows. Students who look at this diagram will probably recognise that there have been many occasions during their studies when they have been ‘doing’ work-related learning.

Work-related learning as part of Diplomas
The Diploma is a new qualification which will enable 14 to 19 year olds to progress into employment as well as into college and university. It is designed to provide an excellent learning experience for young people and best meet their needs. The Diploma is an integrated course of study that will allow students to apply their learning in a practical and relevant way and make decisions about what kind of work they want to do.

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Work simulations or role plays

Enterprise education

Work experience



Part-time work

Work shadowing

Work-related learning
Practical experience Careers info

Industry days

Curriculum linked visits

Mock interviews Projects


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Examples of work-related learning activities (arranged in alphabetical order)
Activity Careers information Description Careers Education helps to develop the knowledge and skills needed to make successful choices, manage transitions in learning and move into work. Careers Guidance enables young people to use the knowledge and skills they have gained to make decisions about learning and work that are right for them.

Curriculum-linked Student visits to work environments. Schools and colleges link with businesses to plan visits visits and agree learning outcomes. The information and experience gained from the visit is then incorporated into the students’ studies. Enterprise education Industry days Mentoring Mock interviews Practical experience Part-time work A key element of the work-related learning framework, which aims to encourage young people to be more enterprising. One or more employers delivering sector-specific information to groups of learners on school, college or employer premises. People with industrial or commercial experience providing 1-to-1 encouragement and support to students or trainees. Simulated interviews by people who interview candidates as part of their job – injects reality into job/placement searches. Short job-specific tasks and other hands-on experiences which provide opportunities for students to practice what they have learned in the classroom – e.g. drafting a guide or interpreting a set of financial accounts and preparing a report. Increasing numbers of young people take part-time employment at age 16+ – this provides opportunities to learn about taking responsibility, customer and cash handling and health and safety procedures as well as to gather evidence for building a portfolio, whether for A-levels in vocational subjects, key skills or general records of achievement. Students, individually or in teams, working on analysing and or solving business related problems. Taster sessions providing insights into the world of work – usually in sector or industry-based workshops – organised by employer forums or Education Business Partnership Organisations. Teams of students taking part in business games and work simulations to resolve complex business-related problems and using role playing, teamwork, decision-making and problem-solving skills. A placement with an employer in which a young person carries out a task – or range of tasks – and duties in much the same way as an employee with the emphasis on learning from the experience. Work experience provides opportunities for learning about the skills and personal qualities, careers, roles and structures that exist within a workplace or organisation. Work experience is a requirement of 14-19 Diplomas. Learners observing others in real working environments, undertaking tasks and talking to staff to find out more about organisations. Employers lecturing and/or leading discussions with students on school, college or employer premises about the realities of the employment and training environment.

Projects Tasters Work simulations or role plays Work experience

Work shadowing Workshops

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What’s the truth behind some of the myths about work-related learning?
The myth 1. ork-related learning W doesn’t do any good. The truth Yes it does. There’s lots of very positive feedback from those who’ve participated in it. For example, the CBI Report ‘Time well spent’ referred to a 2006 survey of 14-16 year-olds who had recently been on work experience. It said that over two-thirds of respondents agreed or strongly agreed that work experience had helped them to understand how learning at school is important in getting a job and that almost 80% agreed it had given them a good insight into the world of work. Not true. Work-related learning programmes provided by schools can include a wide range of activities. These programmes may link to the QCA framework on Economic wellbeing 11–19: career, work-related learning and enterprise (see Annex 1). A key element of the work-related learning framework, which aims to encourage young people to be more enterprising.

2. he statutory requirement T at Key Stage 4 is for 2 weeks work experience. 3. oung people under 16 can’t Y do placements in industry or some sectors for health and safety reasons. 4. ach member of an E employer’s staff who is involved in work experience has to have a CRB check. 5. nterprise education E is separate from work-related learning. 6. oung people with Y special or additional needs can’t take part in work-related learning. 7. ore employers are M needed to provide work-related learning.

No they don’t. CRB checks are only needed in certain situations – please see pages 18 – 21 of this guide for more detailed information.

Not true. Enterprise is part of work-related learning as well as an output from it. See section in Guide headed ‘What is Enterprise Education and how does it fit with work-related learning?’ No. Young people with special or additional needs do take part in workrelated learning – it happens all the time, all over the country and achieves some really positive results. It is well worth making the effort to help these young people to take part. Employers have reported that the experience ‘transformed the workplace’. Not true. Over 300,000 employers are currently involved in providing work-related learning and there is a strong focus on ensuring the quality and value added of the work-related learning already taking place. What is needed is |a greater range and depth of employer involvement, especially to make a success of the new Diplomas. Employers who are interested should get in touch with their local Education Business Partnership Organisation.

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The myth 8. ork-related learning is W very time consuming and onerous for employers.

The truth It doesn’t need to be. There is a broad range of work-related learning options to help the development of young people. They can involve different kinds and levels of commitment – employers who are interested in getting involved can choose which ones appeal to them most and support is available from Education Business Partnership Organisations to minimise any bureaucracy. Work-related learning is happening in rural areas. The issue is more about employers in rural areas being harder to find than it is about ‘no employers’. Almost all young people participate in work experience, including those in rural areas. That isn’t necessarily the case as most employers will already have in place insurance policies that cover most risks arising from work experience and other visits, provided that the work experience is in accordance with the normal business practices of the employer (see the ABI guidance at Annex 4). Not true. It’s only difficult if you try to do it all by yourself. There is lots of help and support available (see Annexes 6 to 9).

9. e can’t find employers W to provide work-related learning in rural areas. 10. nsurance is expensive. I

11. etting involved is really G difficult and there’s no support available to help me.

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Who does what to make work-related learning happen?
Work-related learning works best when young people, their parents or carers, schools, colleges, employers, work-based learning providers and Education Business Partnership Organisations (EBPOs) work together to make it happen. They do so in many ways with no single standard arrangement because what works best depends on local circumstances and individual needs.
Most schools and colleges use the services of EBPOs. EBPOs operate locally, nationally and/or are concerned with specific work-related learning activities or subjects, for example engineering or mentoring. Together they cover all parts of the country and can support every part of the curriculum. Their structures, membership and funding arrangements vary quite widely – some may be part of a local authority or careers service, others may be private sector companies or social enterprises The range of services EBPOs provide can also vary. They may provide work-related learning products and services directly and/or provide brokerage facilities to help schools and colleges access employers and other providers of workbased learning. Whatever the variations between them, however, the role of an EBPO is basically the same – to develop partnerships between education and business in the geographical or subject area they cover and to make work-related learning easy to arrange. Most of the work-related learning provided by schools and colleges which involves third parties is now organised through EBPOs. In addition, many schools and colleges have long established partnerships with employers and work-based learning providers that they maintain directly. Both of these arrangements lead to good workrelated learning opportunities for young people. At national level organisations such as the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA); Ofsted and the National Education Business Partnership Network (NEBPN) work to maintain and develop the policies and infrastructure that helps work-related learning at local level to take place and be effective. The rest of this section outlines the important roles played by young people and their parents or carers, schools and colleges, employers and brokers. What are young people doing to make work-related learning happen? • They think about what kind of work-related learning they would find useful and the sorts of work-related learning activities that appeal to them. • They talk to their parents or carers and their teachers about their thoughts, ideas and aspirations to help them decide what specific form(s) of work-related learning they would most like to take part in (This could also take place as part of studying for the new Diploma qualification). • They influence the work-related learning opportunities provided for them by discussing their ideas and preferences – and the reasons behind them – with their teachers and tutors.

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What are parents and carers doing to make work related learning happen? • They talk to their children about work-related learning and encourage them to think about how they can benefit from it. • They help their children to think through the work-related learning options and opportunities that are available to them and to identify which are likely to the most relevant to their needs, interests and aspirations. • They encourage their children to talk to their teachers and tutors about their ideas and preferences – and the reasons behind them – to influence the work-related learning provided for them. What are schools and colleges doing to make work-related learning happen? • They identify the individual learning needs of their students and arrange the work-related learning activities that will meet them. • They arrange – and ‘buy in’ where appropriate – work-related learning activities, programmes and placements which meet the learning outcomes they have planned for their students. • They work in partnership with employers, work-based learning providers and others either directly or via Education Business Partnership Organisations. • They fulfil their primary duty of care for their students – ensuring their students are kept safe when they are involved in work-related learning activities, whether these are on or off site. What are employers doing to make work-related learning happen? • They contribute their knowledge, skills, experience and, in some cases, their premises and facilities – through Education Business Partnerships Organisations or through direct contact with schools and colleges. • They provide a range of work related learning activities for learners across the whole education age range including work experience placements, supporting the new Diplomas, and Apprenticeships. • They give presentations about their organisation and/or occupational sector to young people and those involved in their education and training. • They help to run business/enterprise workshops, work simulations and problem solving exercises for students. • They provide coaches or mentors. • They involve themselves in schemes such as Community Engineers, Science & Engineering Ambassadors and Young Enterprise. • They ensure healthy and safe environments for students who take part in work-related learning on their premises. • They provide enterprise, industry and personal development placements for teachers.

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What are Education Business Partnership Organisations doing to make work-related learning happen? • They work in partnership with schools, colleges, employers and work-based learning providers – often in a particular geographical area – raising awareness and providing, arranging and supporting work-related learning activities. • They offer a range of services which, although varying between EBPOs, typically, include: – helping employers to get involved in work-related learning – in places and in ways that are right for the employer; – establishing and maintaining partnerships between employers, schools, colleges and work-based learning providers – matching needs, interests, aspirations and opportunities; – maintaining databases of employers and work-based learning providers and the work-related learning opportunities they are able to provide – carrying out health and safety checks and that other legal requirements are met, including insurance; – arranging and brokering work-related learning activities including: - work experience placements with employers, carrying out health, safety and welfare visits; - mock employer interviews, including interview preparation and interview feedback sessions; - curriculum-linked industry visits; - employer talks; - careers events; - in-school and in-college business/enterprise workshops, work simulations and problem solving exercises – run by employers for small groups of students; - vetted, trained and briefed volunteer mentors from local businesses; - projects that introduce young people (including those of primary school age) to business practices and help them acquire new skills whilst having fun, and - professional development placements for teachers. – providing facilities – increasingly on-line – to make it easier for schools and colleges to find employers to work with them; – monitoring and evaluating work-related learning schemes to identify the impact they are having and to improve and maintain their quality, and – using their expertise to simplify matters for employers, schools and colleges and providing them with short-cuts to finding solutions – for example, in relation to health and safety, child protection and CRB checks.

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How can we get the best out of work-related learning?
This section builds on the previous one about ‘who does what’. It offers guidance, based on good practice, on the steps that schools, colleges, and employers can take to ensure they each get the most out the work-related learning activities they provide. It also outlines ways in which Education Business Partnership Organisations can help them do so.
The separate sub-sections contain guidance aimed at each of the groups identified, but they are all likely to be of interest to those who wish to understand more about the wider issues involved and about good practices that can help deliver further improvements. How can young people get the best out of work-related learning? • By taking full advantage of opportunities to: – participate in work-related learning that is relevant to their needs and circumstances; – express their preferences to their teachers or tutors; – discuss and agree individual learning outcomes, and – review the extent to which those learning outcomes were achieved. • By responding positively to the help and encouragement they receive from their school or college, employers and their parents or carers. • By absorbing information provided during briefings and inductions and actively taking responsibility for getting maximum benefit from the work-related learning in which they participate. • By acknowledging and understanding the importance of taking responsibility for their own actions in relation to the health, safety and welfare of themselves and others when taking part in work-related learning, particularly when on employers’ premises. • By thinking about what they have learned, how it has benefited them and what further work-related learning would help them to move in the direction they would like to go.

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How can parents and carers help their children to get the best out of work-related learning? • By actively encouraging them to: – take full advantage of work-related opportunities open to them, and – adopt a responsible attitude towards the health, safety and welfare of themselves and others. • By providing relevant information to schools or colleges about any medical or behavioural conditions which have or may have implications for the kind of work-related learning opportunities that are appropriate for their children. • By checking information provided by schools, colleges or placement organisers about work-related learning experiences that have been organised for their children and satisfying themselves that the arrangements are suitable and sufficient before giving any consent requested. • By informing schools, colleges and or placement organisers of any actual or potential health and safety problems they may be aware of in premises where their children are engaged in work-related learning. • By talking to their children about the work-related learning they have experienced to help them evaluate how they have benefited and to think about what further work-related learning would be appropriate. How can schools and colleges get the best out of work-related learning? • By recognising the role that work-related learning, together with the employers that support it, plays in delivering learning outcomes, raising attainment and improving participation. • By ensuring clear policies, responsibilities, and resources, to develop and maintain the relationships with employers that make a high quality programme of work-related learning possible. • By applying the QCA framework for Economic Wellbeing to provide work-related learning across the curriculum to improve learning outcomes. • By working with employers to provide professional development opportunities for teacher and tutors as well as work-related learning for young people. • By actively reviewing, with their partners, and evaluating their programme of work-related learning including gathering feedback from employers and learners to establish the impact that it is having. – work-related learning with employers and work-based learning providers; – using experts to advise on health and safety and insurance issues; – seeking out any local authority support that might be available, and – reaping the benefit of teachers/tutors with recent business experience. • By recognising that market forces mean the delivery capabilities and rates charged by EBPOs, and other work-based learning providers can vary – and taking care therefore to ensure appropriate value for money. • Establish clear quality standards for: – managing, evaluating and reviewing employer involvement, and – determining learning outcomes and learning achievement measures.

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• Define the skills that different employer engagement activities can develop and match them appropriately with the defined skills learners need to develop at their stage of learning and in the context of their career ambitions and requirements. • Consider running ‘Enterprise Days’ to enable students to take part in business simulations or problem solving activities – feedback suggests students derive great benefit from this kind of sustained activity that would be difficult to generate in normal lessons. Managing relationships: • By recognising that to employers education, and the language of education, can appear complicated and confusing and to take account of this when managing relationships with them. • By recognising that employers, and others, will often come with an expectation that they will be dealt with as they would deal with a business client or customer. Appropriate facilities should be made available to meet these expectations. • By building on good relationships – this will make them feel valued over the long term. • By involving parents and carers when defining learning outcomes for their children, and informing them and seeking their written consent in good time when plans are made for their children to take part in off-site work-related learning activities.

How can employers get the best out of work-related learning? • By being clear about what they want to get out of participation and how, if appropriate, they will evaluate whether their aims have been met. • By identifying the activity or activities most likely to deliver those benefits and which are realistic to their business activities, constraints and opportunities. Almost all employers will be able to get involved in some way. • By being clear about the costs of involvement versus the benefits. It is important to recognise that a successful contribution to work-related learning does involve a resource commitment. For example management and staff time or the costs of preparing materials and activities. Making use of the support available, including making use of an EBPO, can help minimise these costs. • By recognising that legal requirements apply just as much to learners on work experience as they do to employees and because of that are often not onerous • By making sure that any staff who will work directly with young people have the ability and are properly prepared to do so. • By working in partnership with schools and colleges including reaching a mutual understanding of what each party expects to get out of the relationship. • By being prepared for the fact that 14 to 19 year-olds may behave differently from older employees because of their level of maturity and relative inexperience. • By working with schools, colleges and EBPOs to prepare effectively for work experience placements, almost as they would for a new member of staff. This includes for example ensuring that learners receive an effective induction, health and safety, any other workplace restrictions are explained and understood, and emergency restrictions.

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How Education Business Partnership Organisations help others to get the best out of work-related learning? • By providing high quality products and services which help their key customers – schools, colleges and employers – to gain maximum benefit from their work-related learning activities. • They help schools and colleges: – By providing single point of contact brokerage services on behalf of schools and colleges – By encouraging employers to work r schools and colleges by promoting the business benefits; and schools and colleges to work with employers by promoting the benefits to learners, to the teaching workforce and to education more widely. – By exploring the scope for obtaining economies of scale – for example, work experience materials such as student diaries might be produced more cost-effectively across an area rather than by each school or college acting independently. – By stimulating them to consider new ideas and programmes. – By sharing best practice. • They help employers: – By reducing and removing barriers which discourage employers from taking part or extending their involvement in work-related learning. – By meeting with employers to help them to: - identify and evaluate the benefits they could gain by involving themselves in work-related learning, and - considering – or reconsidering – their cost-benefit equation. This is particularly important for smaller employers who may be discouraged from getting involved in work-related learning because they perceive, incorrectly, that the costs will inevitably outweigh the benefits. – By providing a single point of contact and minimising multiple calls from different institutions. - By minimising bureaucracy; – By guiding employers who, although very familiar with their responsibilities for the health and safety of their own employees and members of the public, may be wary of the health and safety, child protection and insurance implications associated with work-related learning for young people. – By stimulating them to consider new ideas and programmes. – By sharing best practice. More information on Standards for work experience can be found at:

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How do we keep young people safe during work-related learning?
Work-related learning has an outstanding track record on health and safety and everyone wants to keep it that way. Changes to the curriculum and the new Diplomas means more work-related learning, greater employer involvement, more contact with different people and more movement of young people between different locations. Keeping young people safe in this environment will require continued careful attention and good management.
This section highlights how young people are kept safe during work-related learning. The regulations and requirements that must be observed surrounding health and safety, child protection, insurance and data protection are there to ensure that young people are protected during their learning, in particular during work experience. They should not be unduly daunting or onerous for schools, colleges and employers who already take their responsibilities seriously and make use of the extensive help and support that is available. More information is included in Annexes 2, 3 and 4 and in the DfES publication ‘WorkRelated Learning and the Law: Guidance for schools and school-business link practitioners’ (DfES/0475/2004).

Key responsibilities
Schools have the prime ‘duty of care’ for their students at all times – including times when students are involved in work experience or other off-site work-related learning. Colleges, employers and other training providers have responsibility for the health, safety and welfare of everyone on their premises, including any students who are there or engaged in activities which they organise. These responsibilities include: • complying with child protection legislation; • checking their insurers are aware of the implications of their involvement with work-related learning and, in particular, 14-16 year-old students; • agreeing and implementing workable attendance, reporting, monitoring and emergency procedures in partnership with the school; • supporting their staff in adjusting to teaching young people by organising training and establishing workable and effective policies, and • complying with legislation and good practice on data protection.

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Work experience placements
Key points to note include: • Schools retain a duty of care at all times – in particular, they have responsibility for ensuring: – placements are vetted by a competent person, and – their students are prepared and briefed generally about health and safety and understand how to identify hazards and the sort of control measures that can be put in place to reduce the risk of injury or accident. • Most schools use EBPOs to arrange placements with employers and to carry out health and safety checks on placements which the school or their students find themselves. EBPOs that have a contract with the Learning and Skills Council have to promote ‘safe learners’. For more information about ‘safe learners’ see Annex 2. • All health and safety assessments of employers and their workplaces are required to meet the LSC’s Health and Safety Procurement Standards’ (HASPs). For more information about HASPs see Annex 2. • Students on work experience placements are designated as employees for the purposes of health and safety – employers have the same responsibilities for the health, safety and welfare of students on work placements as they do for their own workforce. This includes compliance with the Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974, Management of Health and Safety Regulations 1999 and the Working Time Regulations 1998. For more information about this legislation see Annex 2.

• According to the HSE, employers’ duties generally include : – making the workplace safe and without risks to health; – ensuring plant and machinery are safe and that safe systems of work are set and followed; – ensuring articles and substances are moved, stored and used safely – providing adequate welfare facilities; – giving employees the information, instruction, training and supervision necessary for their health and safety. More detailed information can be found under:

Workplace visits
These are one of the most popular and longstanding types of work-related learning activity. Parents and carers should be informed in writing of any offsite activity or visit unless it is a regular part of the school curriculum which they have already been informed about through the school prospectus or a letter. When organising workplace visits schools retain the primary duty of care. Employers responsible for students when they are on their premises or on a site or in a situation where the employer has duties under health and safety legislation and codes of practice, just as they would be for other people. A formal assessment of the risks that might be met on the visit has to be carried out in advance of the visit to identify any risks and, where necessary, identify what actions to take to minimize them. Visits to places where there is an unacceptable level of risk to students don’t take place.

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Comprehensive guidance for schools on organising educational visits is included in the DfES publication ‘Health and Safety of Pupils on Educational Visits’ (1998). A copy of this document can be downloaded from healthandsafety/visits/ See also Work-Related Learning and the Law: Guidance for schools and school-business link practitioners’ (DfES/0475/2004), Chapter 5.

When are CRB checks and additional safeguards required?
Additional safeguards and, where applicable, CRB checks are required where one or more of the following conditions is met: • The placement is for more than one day per week; • longer than one term in any academic year; • aimed at children who may be vulnerable (those with special needs or under the age of 16) • one where the work place supervisor or a colleague will have substantial unsupervised access to the child, because of the nature of the business or • one which has a residential component If any of these conditions apply, additional safeguards should be put in place. As part of those, CRB checks, normally arranged by the organisation setting up the placement, are required for any person whose normal duties will include regularly caring for, training, looking after or supervising a child in the workplace. This applies to people who are specifically designated to have responsibility for looking after, supervising or directly training a child or children throughout the placement. Such members of staff should also have some basic child protection training and be aware of their responsibilities set out in ‘What To Do If You’re Worried A Child Is Being Abused’. They must be given details of a person to contact if they have any concerns for a student for whom they are responsible. Other additional safeguards include: • School staff or other partners who arrange, vet or monitor the work placements should have training in child protection. • Employers or training providers hosting students should be asked to endorse a child protection policy or statement of principles. It would aid employers if such a document was drawn up by the school, EBP or other placement organiser.

Child protection
Child protection and safeguarding can be a cause of concern for everyone involved in work-related learning, especially during work experience placements. An important reference for schools and FE colleges is the guidance document ‘Safeguarding Children and Safer Recruitment in Education’ (DfES/04217/2006). This document covers recruitment and selection processes, recruitment and vetting checks, and duties for safeguarding and promoting the welfare of children in education. Schools and FE colleges are using this guidance to ensure they have effective policies, procedures and practices in place for safeguarding their students. The care that schools, colleges and EBPOs have taken in delivering and supporting work experience placements, especially those of a longer duration where young people would be more vulnerable, has meant there have been no reported safeguarding or child protection issues during them. Criminal Record Bureau (CRB) checks play an important role in child protection. They enable employers to check the backgrounds of candidates who apply for roles that involve working with children or vulnerable adults and to establish whether information is held about them which may make them unsuitable.

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• School, FE college, or local authority policies and procedures should define what actions need to be taken by whom and when if any child protection issues are raised, prior, during or after the placement. • Students should also be given clear advice and a point of contact in the school in case of any problems.

gender, and do not give rise to comment or speculation. Attitude, behaviour and language all require care and thought. Recent child protection developments include the passing of the Safeguarding Vulnerable Groups Act (2006) and the creation of the Independent Safeguarding Authority (ISA). A new ISA vetting and barring scheme will be introduced in 2009. Current CRB checking arrangements will continue in the meantime. A link to the guidance document ‘Safeguarding Children and Safer Recruitment in Education’ can be found at: resources-and-practice/IG001/ For more information about child protection see Annex 3.

When are CRB checks and additional safeguards not required?
CRB checks and additional safeguards are not necessary (unless any of the other conditions above apply): • For short-term extended work experience for half a day or a day per week lasting one term or less; • For visitors who will only have contact with children/ young people on an ad hoc or irregular basis for short periods of time; • For people who will have contact with children/ young people simply because they are in the same location or as part of their work but will not have regular, unsupervised access to the children/ young people at work; • For secondary pupils undertaking voluntary work, citizenship or vocational studies or work experience in other schools – in these cases the school placing the pupil should ensure that s/he is suitable for the placement in question. Where people on short term work experience do have regular, unsupervised access to children/ young people, for example an electrician taking a student from site to site, the situation should be risk assessed. Employers providing work-related learning should do all they reasonably can to avoid putting young people into a vulnerable position. They should ensure their employees’ relationships with young people on work experience are appropriate to their age and

Injuries and damage to or loss of property during work-related learning are quite rare but it is important for schools and colleges to ensure appropriate insurance arrangements are in place, particularly for students on work experience placements and workplace visits. The main risks are: • injury to: – students; – others on the premises (employees, visitors, customers, etc); – others who are not on the premises (including customers and members of the general public); • damage to, or loss of, property belonging to: – employers, and – others (e.g. students, customers).

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The good news is that these main risks should be covered by normal employer insurance arrangements. Most employers carry insurance policies that cover most risks arising from work experience and other visits, provided that the work experience is in accordance with the normal business practices of the employer. Any injuries caused to employees or students, provided they arise out of activities undertaken in the employer’s name, should normally be covered by the employer’s Public Liability policy or Employer’s Liability policy. Damage to the employer’s property may be covered by the employer’s material damage policy. Damage to anyone else’s property on the premises should normally be covered by the employer’s Public Liability policy. Schools and colleges should nevertheless satisfy themselves that work-related learning activities involving employers are checked for insurance issues – suitable and sufficient insurance cover should never be assumed. For more information about insurance see Annex 4.

Data protection
Schools need to share relevant information about students with colleges, employers and training providers to help them to make decisions about appropriate forms of work-related learning activity and aspects such as health and safety. Information about students might also be collected through employer assessment and student evaluation forms and on visits made to students who are in placements. The disclosure of personal information collected before, during and after work-related learning is covered by the Data Protection Act 1998. This Act regulates how personal information is used – it provides a common-sense set of rules which prohibit the misuse of personal information without stopping it being used for legitimate or beneficial purposes. It is important that these rules are not overlooked.

For more information about the Data Protection Act 1998 see data_protection.aspx

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What other key things do I need to know?
This section provides an overview of a few subjects that are a part of or related to work-related learning. They are: • • • • • • The statutory requirement for work-related learning at Key Stage 4 Enterprise Education The new secondary national curriculum Personal Health, Social and Economic Development (PHSE) The new Diploma qualification; ‘Employability’.
The latest version of this QCA framework is titled ‘Economic Wellbeing 11-19: career, workrelated learning, and enterprise’ (see Annex 1). It comprises the same nine elements as the orginal version but the text has been revised to take account of developments including the new secondary curriculum, Diplomas, the Government’s 14-19 reform programme and strategies for enterprise and career education. It covers the 11-19 age range and brings together career, enterprise and work-related learning under the outcome of Economic Wellbeing. The framework allows a high degree of flexibility for schools to take account of their local circumstances and for different approaches to match the needs of individuals and groups of learners. It is also a very useful source of reference for colleges, employers and others involved in planning work-related.

The statutory requirement for workrelated learning at Key Stage 4
The statutory requirement aims to ensure all Key Stage 4 students have suitable and high quality work-related learning opportunities as part of a broad and balanced curriculum. Work-related learning programmes provided by schools are required to ‘have regard to’ the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA) guidance. This takes the form of a nine-point framework covering the range of work-related learning opportunities that, together, would deliver the Key Stage 4 statutory requirement. In the context of this framework, schools are responsible for deciding how, and in what form, they provide opportunities for their students to experience work-related learning – the arrangements for each student depending on their personal learning needs. The framework is used by Ofsted as the basis for carrying out its inspections of work-related learning.

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Enterprise Education
Enterprise is part of work-related learning – it is also a key output from it. If you don’t get Enterprise out of work-related learning, you’re doing it wrong! Enterprise education is defined as ‘enterprise capability’, supported by ‘financial capability’ and ‘economic and business understanding’. ‘Enterprise capability’ is the ability to: • handle uncertainty and respond positively to change; • to create and implement new ideas and ways of doing things, and • to make reasonable risk/reward assessments and act upon them in one’s personal and working life.

Enterprise capability is a key output of workrelated learning programmes – to be ‘enterprising’ means being creative and innovative, taking risks and managing them, and having a ‘can-do’ attitude and the drive to make ideas happen. ‘Financial capability’ is the ability to manage one’s own finances and to become a questioning and informed consumer of financial services. ‘Economic and Business understanding’ is the ability to understand the business context and make informed choices between alternative uses of scarce resources. Effective ‘enterprise learning’ takes place in a school, college, community or business setting, where young people are given autonomy to tackle relevant problems or issues that involve an element of risk and uncertainty about final outcomes, as well as reward for resolving them successfully. They are expected to take personal responsibility for their own actions through an ‘enterprise process’ based on the following four-stages:
Involves generating ideas through discussion to reach a common understanding of what is required to resolve the problem or meet the need. Involves breaking down tasks, organising resources, deploying team members and allocating responsibilities. Involves solving problems and monitoring progress. Involves reviewing activities and final outcomes, reflecting on lessons learned and assessing the skills, attitudes, qualities and understanding acquired.

Stage 1: Tackling a problem or need

Stage 2: Planning the project or activity Stage 3: Implementing the plan Stage 4: Evaluating the processes

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In its 2007 survey of work-related learning in secondary education, the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA) found that schools considered Enterprise Education to be important for all learners and that there had been a significant increase in provision since its previous survey in 2004. The proportion of schools reporting that they provided activities to develop and apply skills for enterprise and employability for all or the majority of their students had increased to well over 90%.

All current national curriculum subjects remain, but increased flexibility for schools to build their own curriculum gives teachers greater scope to cater for their local circumstances and to meet the particular needs, capabilities and aspirations of their students – for example, by offeringcatch up sessions for those who are struggling, especially in English and mathematics, and stretching those with particular gifts or talents. This is very much in keeping with the Government’s ‘personalisation agenda’, which is about: • taking a structured and responsive approach to each child’s and young person’s learning in order that all are all able to progress, and • strengthening the link between learning and teaching by engaging pupils – and their parents – as partners in learning. A common format across subject areas will make it easier for teachers to make connections between subjects and identify cross-curricular themes such as financial capability, diversity and creativity. The new approach will create time and space for teachers to develop a sharper approach to subject study, and help students better understand what they are studying and why. These features provide a strong platform for the development and integration of work-related learning across the curriculum. For more information about the new secondary national curriculum see -action/secondary_curriculum.aspx

The new secondary national curriculum
The new secondary national curriculum – effective from September 2008 – will enable schools to help all their students to meet the challenges of life in our fast-changing world. The aims of the new curriculum link directly to the outcomes of Every Child Matters. They are to enable all young people to become: • successful learners who enjoy learning, make progress and achieve; • confident individuals who are able to live safe, healthy and fulfilling lives, and • responsible citizens who make a positive contribution to society. The new national framework for the curriculum guarantees an entitlement for everyone – all maintained schools are required to provide a balanced and broadly-based curriculum that: • promotes the spiritual, moral, cultural, mental and physical development of learners at the school and within society, and • prepares learners at the school for the opportunities, responsibilities and experiences of adult life. 

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Personal Health, Social and Economic Development (PHSE)
The new secondary national curriculum introduced two new non-statutory programmes of study into the ‘Personal, Health, Social and Economic Development’ subject area at Key Stages 3 and 4 – ‘Economic Wellbeing and financial capability’ and ‘Personal Wellbeing’. Work-related learning features strongly within ‘Economic Wellbeing and financial capability’ which: • brings together careers education, workrelated learning, enterprise and financial capability, and • provides a context for schools to fulfill their legal responsibility to provide opportunities for careers education at Key Stage 3, and for careers education and work-related learning at Key Stage 4.

Each phase is subject to a three-year pilot period, which means full implementation of the 17 Diplomas will be achieved by 2014. The phases are shown in the table below: From 2013, all 16 to 18 year-olds across the country will have an entitlement to work towards one of the 17 Diplomas if they so wish. All of the Diplomas are being developed with employers to ensure they give young people a rounded qualification which will help them to gain the skills and knowledge they need to succeed in work, study and life – whatever they decide to do next. Studying towards a Diploma will help young people to explore options about career directions and to think about whether they want to go on to further study or into a job with training (or both!) – While still keeping those options open.

The new Diploma qualification
17 different Diplomas are being introduced in four phases – between September 2008 and September 2011 – and there are three different qualification levels, which will mean there should be a Diploma qualification to suit just about everybody. From September 2008: • Engineering; • Information Technology; • Society, Health and Development; • Creative and Media, and • Construction and the Built Environment. From September 2010: • Public Services; • Sport and Leisure; • Retail Business, and • Travel and Tourism. From September 2009: • Environmental and Land-based Studies; • Manufacturing; • Hair and Beauty Studies; • usiness Administration and Finance, and B • Hospitality. From September 2011: • Humanities; • Languages, and • Science.

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Young people of all backgrounds, interests, abilities and aspirations will benefit from pursuing a Diploma. The range of Diploma qualifications is being designed to be equally suitable for: • the most able students preparing for demanding university courses; • young people who find the existing education system does not suit them, and • those who want to go straight into work after leaving school. They will appeal, particularly, to those who like to learn in a practical way.

A new Extended Diploma will also be introduced – across all of the 17 lines of learning and at each of the three qualification levels – to recognise and reward larger programmes of learning. The key features of this will be: • At advanced level, the Extended Diploma will provide recognition of the scale and demand of programmes and is expected to be equivalent to around four and a half A levels. • At Key Stage 4, Extended Foundation and Higher Diploma will recognise achievement of more of the core curriculum – the Extended Foundation Diploma is expected to be equivalent to around 7 GCSEs at grades D to G and the Extended Higher Diploma to around nine GCSEs at grades A* to C.

Diploma qualification levels
There are three different levels of Diploma. They are: • Foundation Diploma – a Level 1 qualification broadly equivalent to five GCSEs grades D-G, which starts in Year 10 or 12 and takes about the same time to do as four or five GCSEs. • Higher Diploma – a Level 2 qualification broadly equivalent to seven GSCEs grades A*-C, which starts in Year 10 or 12 and takes about the same time to do as five or six GCSEs. • Advanced Diploma – a Level 3 qualification aimed at those over 16 – in Year 12 or above – which is broadly equivalent to (and takes about the same time to do as) three A levels. A Progression Diploma will also be available. This is a Level 3 qualification, broadly equivalent to two A levels, which will suit young people who decide they do not wish to complete a whole Advanced Diploma.

Opportunities and flexibility
Young people studying towards a Diploma will be based at their school or college, but may have the chance to do some of their learning in other schools, colleges or in an employer’s workplace. This means that in every Diploma discipline, the best teaching and facilities will be accessible to students in their area. Initially the Diploma will be taught in selected partnerships of schools and colleges, until 2013 when all 16 to 18 year olds across the country will be entitled to take any of the 17 Diploma subjects. In Years 10 and 11, the Diploma involves studying compulsory subjects like English, maths, science and PE alongside opportunities to apply these subjects to practical situations and to develop essential knowledge and skills, such as teamwork, self-management and critical thinking. In addition to learning in the classroom, it includes a variety of work-related learning activities and at least 10 days work experience with an employer. 

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The Diploma does not train young people to do a particular job and will not in itself make them job ready. However, the flexibility built in to each of the Diploma disciplines is of key importance – it means the Diploma will enhance and not restrict their future options. Diploma qualifications will be valued by employers and universities, because they helped design them to ensure young people have all the skills they need. Employers – of all sizes and in all sectors – are making a major contribution to the successful introduction and ongoing development of the Diploma by helping to design the content and by working with schools and colleges to ensure young people have suitable and sufficient workrelated learning opportunities. It’s important for this to continue – to help the Diploma to fulfill its potential to benefit both young people and employers which will be available in the summer. More information on Diplomas can be found at: Information on ‘what good employer engagement looks like for Diplomas’ is included in the DCSF’s new ‘Employer Engagement Handbook’. Employers will benefit from the introduction of Diplomas because they will help young people to gain relevant skills and an understanding of work – this will prepare them better for work and for life and is likely to help reduce employers’ recruitment, training and staff turnover costs. Training will be given to teachers delivering Diplomas. This will cover both the generic skills they will need to teach Diploma courses and the specific skills required to teach the relevant individual Diploma discipline. There will also be specific training for the teaching of functional skills in English, maths and ICT. A range of supporting materials will be made available online and local and regional networks will be set up to share good practice.

If young people are to stand a good chance of getting a job when they leave school or college they need the ‘employability skills’ demanded by employers. These are the skills which will equip them to adapt to the changing roles that are such a feature of today’s economy. Employability skills are now generally recognised as a necessary precondition for developing and using other more specialist or technical skills. But ‘employability’ means more than just skills! In March 2007, the Confederation of British Industry (CBI) published a report entitled ‘Time Well Spent – embedding employability in work experience’. The report proposed that, in the eyes of employers, ‘employability’ comprised a mix of attributes, skills and knowledge which people needed to have to be effective at work. ‘Employability’ is a set of attributes, skills and knowledge that all labour market participants should possess to ensure they have the capability of being effective in the workplace – to the benefit of themselves, their employer and the wider economy. Source: CBI, ‘Time well spent’

The CBI’s seven point model, which the Department for Children, Schools and Families supports, (see below) emphasises the importance of personal attributes that contribute to a ‘positive attitude’ – which includes characteristics such as a ‘can-do’ approach, a readiness to take part, openness to new activities and a drive to make those ideas happen. It also highlights the importance of ‘knowledge’ in the sense of understanding the basics of numeracy and literacy, IT awareness and awareness of matters such as the importance of customer care. The attributes, skills and knowledge which form part of employability are summarised in the following diagram and table.

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The CBI’s seven-point framework

Self management

Team working

Business and customer awareness

Problem solving

Positive attitude

Application of numeracy

Application of IT

Communication and literacy 

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The attributes, skills and knowledge that make up ‘employability’ Self-management Readiness to accept responsibility; flexibility; resilience; self-starting; appropriate assertiveness; time management, and readiness to improve own performance based on feedback/reflective learning. Respecting others; co-operating; negotiating/persuading; contributing to discussions, and awareness of interdependence with others. Basic understanding of the key drivers for business success, including the importance of innovation and taking calculated risks, and the need to provide customer satisfaction and build customer loyalty. Analysing facts and situations and applying creative thinking to develop appropriate solutions. Application of literacy; ability to produce clear, structured written work, and oral literacy, including listening and questioning. Working with numbers and general mathematical awareness and its application in practical contexts (e.g. measuring, weighing, estimating and applying formulae). Basic IT skills, including familiarity with word processing, spreadsheets, file management and use of internet search engines.

Team working Business and customer awareness Problem solving Communication and literacy Application of numeracy

Application of information technology

Work-related learning – in its various forms – can do much to ensure that young people develop ‘employability’ in the eyes of employers. For more information about ‘employability’ see:

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Where can I find case studies?
Case studies can be a really good source of information about good practice, inspiration and reassurance – for those already involved in work-related learning who are keen to make improvements to ensure they get maximum benefit from it as well as for those who might be thinking about it for the first time.
There are lots of case studies available on the websites of various organisations involved with work-related learning. They include: • Qualifications and Curriculum Authority – • Specialist Schools and Academies Trust – • The National Education Business Partnership Network (NEBPN) – and 

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Useful sources of information
There is a lot of detailed information available about work-related learning – Annex  lists key source documentation.
Websites can be particularly helpful because their menu systems and search engines generally make it easier to find information on specific aspects and there is a greater likelihood that the information will be up-to-date. Some websites have sections that are specifically aimed at different groups. Useful websites are included in the appendices as follows: Annex 7: Key websites for young people and their parents and carers Annex 8: Key websites for employers Annex 9: Key websites for schools and colleges

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Annex 1: The QCA framework
Economic wellbeing 11–19: career, work-related learning and enterprise
Elements of provision for all learners 1. ecognise, develop R and apply their skills for enterprise and employability. Suggested minimum provision at each key stage Learners have the opportunity to develop and apply their skills in two work-related activities. Learners have one discussion about the skills they have developed. Through this provision learners can

• nderstand and demonstrate the main qualities, u attitudes and skills needed to enter and thrive in the working world; • valuate the usefulness of a range of skills for gaining e and sustaining employment and self-employment; • anage their continuing career development, m including transitions; • take risks and learn from mistakes; • pply their functional skills and personal, learning a and thinking skills.

2. elate their own R abilities, attributes and achievements to career intentions, and make informed choices based on an understanding of available options.

Learners undertake activities to develop their skills for career management, including a guidance interview focusing on career progression.

• emonstrate an understanding of the concept d of ‘career’; • ecognise and respond appropriately to the main r influences in career choice; • dentify, select and use a range of information i sources to research, clarify and review career options and choices, including financial support for post-16 and higher education; • ssess their needs, interests, values, skills, abilities a and attitudes in relation to options in learning, work and enterprise, and use this process to make creative and realistic choices for progression; • ccess and use an interview with a career guidance a specialist to progress their plans; • ake, review and adapt their individual learning m plan for transition into, through and beyond the 14–19 phase, and • omplete application procedures for their next steps, c including a CV, personal statement and preparation for interview. 

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Elements of provision for all learners 3. evelop awareness of D the extent and diversity of opportunities in learning and work.

Suggested minimum provision at each key stage Learners undertake two tasks that investigate opportunities in learning and work, and the changing patterns of employment.

Through this provision learners can

• nderstand the range of opportunities in learning u and work (local, national, European and global), and the changing patterns of employment; • nderstand the significance of the changes u happening in the world of work and relate them to their career plans; • xplain the chief characteristics of employment, e self-employment and voluntary work, and • ecognise and challenge stereotypical views of r opportunities in learning and work.

4. se their experiences U of work to extend their understanding of careers and work.

Learners have two experiences of work. 14–19 learners have the equivalent of half a day of preparation and half a day of debriefing and follow-up of their work experience and/or parttime work. Learners have contact with two people from different occupational sectors.

• dentify what they have learned about work from i their experiences; • understand what motivates people to work; • dentify the qualities and skills needed for enterprise i and employability; • nderstand the importance of lifelong learning to u employability and progression, and • pply learning gained from their experiences of work a to their curriculum and to their career planning. • nderstand the career motivations and pathways u taken by individuals; • nderstand the importance to employers of skills, u attitudes and qualifications, and • ppreciate the benefit of further learning and a personal development.

5. earn from contact L with people who work.

6. earn about how L and why businesses operate.

Learners undertake two curriculum activities that develop their understanding of work and enterprise.

• utline the main types of business and what o motivates them; • nderstand how different businesses are organised u and structured; • ive examples of rights and responsibilities at work, g work roles and identities, and attitudes and values in relation to work and enterprise, and • emonstrate a basic knowledge and understanding d of a range of economic and business concepts and terms, including the connections between markets, competition, price and profit.

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Elements of provision for all learners 7. Learn about working practices and environments.

Suggested minimum provision at each key stage

Through this provision learners can

Learners have two • nderstand how and why working practices and u opportunities to use work environments differ; practices or environments • nderstand the main hazards associated with u as contexts for learning. particular types of workplace and how these hazards are minimised, and • elate knowledge about work to their learning and r career development.

8. ndertake tasks U and activities set in work contexts.

Learners have two opportunities to use work as a context for learning within the curriculum and record evidence of their learning.

• nderstand the relevance of curriculum subjects u to the world of work and to their own career development; • emonstrate an understanding of economic and d business terms; • nalyse how examples of learning within the a curriculum can be applied to work contexts, and • valuate their experiences and learning to inform e future progress and career plan.

9. ngage with ideas, E challenges and applications from the business world.

Learners undertake one business challenge, problem-solving or enterprise activity.

• know and understand important enterprise concepts; • emonstrate enterprise skills, including d decision making, leadership, risk management and presentation; • emonstrate enterprise attitudes, including a d willingness to take on new challenges, self-reliance, open-mindedness, respect for evidence, pragmatism and commitment to making a difference, and • emonstrate enterprising qualities, including d adaptability, perseverance, determination, flexibility, creativity, ability to improvise, confidence, initiative, self-confidence, autonomy and the drive to make things happen.


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Annex 2: More about health and safety
‘Safe learner’ Safe learners’ are learners who, through the quality of their learning experience: • gain an understanding of the importance of health and safety, and • understand how hazards are identified, risks are assessed and the principles of control measures, and develop a set of safe behaviours, so that they play an active part in the process and acquire practical, transferable skills from their experience. Health and Safety at Work etc Act 14 The Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974, also referred to as HASAW or HSW, is the primary piece of legislation covering occupational health and safety in the United Kingdom. The Health and Safety Executive is responsible for enforcing the Act and a number of other Acts and Statutory Instruments relevant to the working environment. Health and Safety Procurement Standards (HASPs) HASPs were introduced by the Learning and Skills Council to provide clarity, ensure consistency and avoid the wasteful duplication that could otherwise arise if different schools, colleges, EBPOs, and training providers all carried out health and safety assessments on the same employer/workplace. Under HASPs, employers who have been assessed by a competent person are given a certificate of assessment which can generally be accepted by others. However, the standards relating to the individual learner will always need to be discussed and agreed for each student.

Management of Health and Safety Regulations 1 This is an important piece of legislation for health and safety issues relevant to work experience. Detailed advice for employers and schools is set out in two HSE publications: • Young People At Work – A Guide for Employers HSG165 (2000), and • Managing Health and Safety on Work Experience – A Guide for Organisers HSG1999 (2000) Working Time Regulations 1 These regulations regard a young person who is a trainee on work experience – and who is above the minimum school leaving age but under 18 – to be a ‘young worker’. The Regulations set parameters for working hours and rest breaks and can affect students on work experience placements such as in the leisure industry where working hours and attendance times vary considerably. Useful websites for matters relating to health and safety include: • •

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Annex : More about child protection
The Criminal Records Bureau The Criminal Records Bureau (CRB) is an executive agency of the Home Office. It was set-up to help organisations make safer recruitment decisions by providing access – through its Disclosure Service – to criminal record and other relevant information to organisations in England and Wales. CRB checks A CRB check can provide access to a range of different types of information, such as, information: • held on the Police National Computer (PNC), including Convictions, Cautions, Reprimands and Warnings in England and Wales – most of the relevant convictions in Scotland and Northern Ireland may also be included; • held by local police forces and other agencies, relating to relevant non-conviction information; • from the Government’s Protection of Children Act List (PoCA), where applicable; • from the Government’s Protection of Vulnerable Adults List (PoVA), where applicable, and • held by the Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF) under Section 142 of the Education Act 2002 (a list of people considered unsuitable for work with children – known colloquially as List 99), where applicable.

The CRB offers two types of check – Standard and Enhanced. Standard CRB checks are made for a wide range of positions of trust including positions in the Civil Aviation Authority, the Financial Services Authority, accountancy, as well as vets, registered foreign lawyers, judges and others working in courts and some of those working in the RSPCA. Enhanced CRB checks are for posts involving a far greater degree of contact with children or vulnerable adults, such as teachers for example. In general, the type of work will involve regularly caring for, supervising, training or being in sole charge of such people. Enhanced CRB checks contain the same information as Standard CRB checks but with the addition of any locally held police force information considered relevant to the job role, by Chief Police Officer(s).

Further information can be found at: • • childprotection/guidance.htm

42 The Work-related Learning Guide

Annex 4: More about insurance
Insurance and work experience The range and level of insurance cover provided by schools themselves and/or local authorities varies widely. All local authorities should all have insurance policies to cover negligence on the part of their own employees. They may also have personal accident insurance to cover accidents to students when they are on work experience where no negligence can be proved. The Association of British Insurers (ABI) has issued the following guidelines: 1. The principal risks, which may arise as a result of work experience and other visits are: a. Injury to the students themselves; b. Injury to others on the premises (employees, visitors, customers, etc); c. Injury to others who are not on the premises (including customers and members of the general public); d. Damage to, or loss of, employers’ property; and; e. Damage to, or loss of, other property (e.g. the student’s or a customer’s property). 2. Most employers will carry insurance policies that cover most risks arising from work experience and other visits, provided that the work experience is in accordance with the normal business practices of the employer. Employers’ Liability insurance covers the employer’s liability in respect of work-related injuries to employees. This insurance is compulsory by law. The Health & Safety Executive guidance on employers’ liability provides further useful information:

3. Policies must provide cover of at least £5 million per occurrence, although most policies cover up to £10 million. Policies normally cover all conventional employees, contract, casual and seasonal staff as well as temporary staff, including workplace students. Public Liability insurance provides cover for injuries to the public or damage to, or loss of, their property. The term ‘public’ means anyone other than an employee, so it includes students on work experience, volunteers, activity participants, spectators and visitors. Typically, policies offer cover of between £2 million and £5 million. 4. The Association of British Insurers (ABI), the British Insurance Brokers Association (BIBA), and Lloyd’s of London have agreed that, as a matter of convention, students of work experience placements should be treated as employees for the purposes of insurance against bodily injury (that is, they will always be covered by the Employers’ Liability policy). 5. Student injury arising from other visits would normally be covered by the employer’s Public Liability policy. Any injuries caused to employees by students on work experience should normally be covered by the Employers’ Liability policy. 6. In summary, any injuries caused to employees or students, provided they arise out of activities undertaken in the employer’s name, should normally be covered by the employer’s Public Liability policy or Employer’s Liability policy. 7. Damage to the employer’s property may be covered by the employer’s material damage policy. Damage to anyone else’s property on the premises should normally be covered by the employer’s Public Liability policy.

The Work-related Learning Guide 4

Notification of Risk 8. Employers should notify their insurers of the sorts of activities which students will undertake if those activities are onerous or different from the normal business activities of the employer. In these circumstances employers should make sure they obtain written confirmation that the risk has been accepted. Placements lasting longer than two weeks 9. There has been some concern that employers’ insurance policies may not cover students on longer work placements. The agreement referred to above (Para. 3) was based on the assumption that placements will last for about two weeks. However, in the light of new measures to motivate disaffected young people through extended work experience, the Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF) contacted the ABI to discuss the insurance implications of longer placements. The ABI has confirmed that there should be no problem with extended work experience placements.

10.Longer attachments, including those associated with NVQs or GNVQs, will inevitably call for more detailed information. In those cases, employers are advised to submit all the details set out in the form shown at Annex A of the DCSF guidance (although whether or not the form itself is used is a matter for the employer). Even if the activity is likely to be recurring, it should be enough to inform the insurer on one occasion. There may be some adjustment to premiums, but it is still likely to be very small in relation to the overall size of the premium. 11.Work experience organisers are not expected to check the fine print of employers’ insurance policies but they should check, in broad terms, that relevant cover is in place. Organisers are recommended, in advance of placements, to ask employers to complete the checklist reproduced at Annex B of the DCSF guidance, or an equivalent.

For more information about insurance see: • ‘Work Experience: A guide for secondary schools’ (SPD/WES/01/02/02) • ‘Work Related Learning and the Law’ (DfES/0475/2004) • ‘Work Experience and the Law: the essential guide for central organisers, employers, schools and colleges’ (Anthony Johns with Andrew Miller)

44 The Work-related Learning Guide

Annex : Key source documents
N.B. The DCSF guidance referred to in this document is Work Experience: A guide for employers (2002).
Document Work experience: a guide for employers Source Produced by DCSF . Reference: DfES/1471/2005 Can be downloaded from: Work%20Experience%20%20-%20A%20guide%20for%20employ.pdf Produced by DCSF . Reference: DfES SPD/WES/01/02REV Can be downloaded from: Work%20Experience%20-%20A%20guide%20for%20School.pdf Produced by QCA. Reference: QCA/03/1168. Can be obtained/downloaded from QCA orderline at Produced by QCA. Reference: QCA/05/1582 Can be obtained from QCA orderline at

Work experience: A guide for secondary schools

Work related learning for all at key stage 4: Guidance for implementing the statutory requirement from 2004 Work-related learning at key stage 4 [2005 pack]: support material for schools. (copies of this resource should be in every secondary school) Work-Related Learning and the Law Safeguarding Children and Safer Recruitment in Education (came into force 1 January 2007)

Produced by DCSF . Reference: DfES/0340/2006. Can be obtained/downloaded from Produced by DCSF . Reference: 04217-2006BKT-EN Can be obtained/downloaded from It can also be downloaded at

The Work-related Learning Guide 4

Annex : Useful websites for young people and their parents and carers
Topic Apprenticeships Child Protection Website Diplomas (for young people) (for parents) Education Business links Employability Enterprise education Information for students and parents ‘Every Child Matters’ enterpriseeducation/guidance 084BDE4.pdf Qualifications Safe learner website Work experience in Years 10 and 11 DG_10013569

4 The Work-related Learning Guide

Annex : Useful websites for employers
Topic Apprenticeships Child Protection Website Diplomas Education Business links Employability Enterprise education ‘Every Child Matters’. enterpriseeducation/guidance 084BDE4.pdf HTI (Heads Teachers and Industry) National Education Business Partnership Network (NEBPN) Qualifications Safe Learner The Right Start – Work experience for young people: Health and safety basics for employers Work-related learning

The Work-related Learning Guide 4

Annex : Useful websites for schools and colleges
Topic 14-19 curriculum Apprenticeships Child Protection Website apprenticeships/ Citizenship (teaching resources in context of work-related learning) Diplomas Education business links Enterprise education enterpriseeducation/guidance ?return=http%3A// Search%3Dwork-related+learning

‘Every Child Matters’ 084BDE4.pdf

HTI (Heads Teachers and Industry) Qualifications

You can download this publication or order copies online at: Search using the ref: 0048-2008 Copies of this publication can also be obtained from: Department for Children, Schools and Families Publications PO Box 5050 Sherwood Park, Annesley Nottingham NG15 ODJ Tel 0845 60 222 60 Fax 0845 60 333 60 Textphone 0845 60 555 60 Please quote ref 0048-2008BKT-EN ISBN: 978-1-84775-166-9 PPFMP/D35(3863)/0608/53 © Crown Copyright 2008 Published by the Department for Children, Schools and Families Extracts from this document may be reproduced for non-commercial research, education or training purposes on the condition that the source is acknowledged. For any other use please contact

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