You are on page 1of 15

CHAPTER 3 DISPLAYING AND DESCRIBING CATEGORICAL DATA, PART 2

September 18, 2013

DO NOW
Pick two questions, copy, and answer. 1) Explain the difference between and frequency table and a relative frequency table and what do both of them describe? 2) Draw a example of a contingency table. 3) What is a marginal distribution?

AIM AND HOMEWORK


How do we display and describe categorical data? Homework #3: Read pages 30 36, pages. 38-40 #25-35 ODD, 40 Check answers in the back of the book. I will only go over EVEN answers.

HOMEWORK #3
Please check your homework answers against homework answers in your group. Check correct or incorrect answers with a COLORED PEN/PENCIL and staple if you need to. Make sure to make corrections on answers that were wrong.

THINK BEFORE YOU DRAW


Always

check for the categorical data condition the data are either counts or individuals in categories. When making a relative frequency chart, make sure that the categories do not overlap so no one is counted twice. If the categories do overlap, you cannot make a pie chart.

CONTINGENCY TABLES
A

contingency table is a table that shows how the individuals are distributed along each variable, contingent on the value of the other variable. Based of occurrence or non-occurrence of an event.

CONVERT THE COUNTS IN THIS TABLE INTO PERCENTAGES


Democra Republic t an VOTED 30% 20% Indepen dent 15% Total 65%

DID NOT VOTE


TOTAL

20%
50%

5%
25%

10%
25%

35%
100%

Which of the following graphs represents the purpose better??? Argue your point. (Purpose: Relationship of Party Affiliation and Voting in National Politics)

CONDITIONAL DISTRIBUTIONS
Democra Republic t an VOTED 30% 20% Indepen dent 15% Total 65%

DID NOT VOTE


TOTAL

20%
50%

5%
25%

10%
25%

35%
100%

In order to find a conditional distribution for democrats or republicans who voted, divide the # of dems/repubs who voted by the total dems/repubs.

LOOKING FOR ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN VARIABLES


The table shows results of a poll asking adults whether they were looking forward to the Superbowl game, looking forward to the commercials or didnt plan to watch. (A) Create a relative frequency bar graph comparing men vs. women in various categories. (Clue: use the total for men and women separately.) (B) Does there seem to be an association between interest in Superbowl coverage and a persons sex? (C) Which type of data representation helps more? Explain.

LOOKING FOR ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN VARIABLES


Male Game Commercials Wont watch 279 81 132 Female 200 156 160 Total 479 237 292

Total

492

516

1008

LOOKING FOR ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN VARIABLES


60.00% 50.00%

40.00%

30.00%

Male Female

20.00%

10.00%

0.00%

Game

Commercials

Wont Watch

BERKELEY ADMISSION STANDARDS


The admission figures for the fall of 1973 showed that men applying were more likely than women to be admitted, and the difference was so large that it was unlikely to be due to chance.

BERKELEY ADMISSION STANDARDS


Women tended to apply to competitive departments with low rates of admission even among qualified applicants (such as in the English Department), whereas men tended to apply to less-competitive departments with high rates of admission among the qualified applicants.

SIMPSONS PARADOX
A

trend that appears in different groups of data disappears when these groups are combined, and the reverse trend appears for the aggregate data. This result is often encountered in socialscience and medical-science statistics, and is particularly frequent when categorical data are unduly given causal interpretations.

CONCLUSION
What

did we learn today?