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# 3.

Equilibrium

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Introduction
Static deals primarily with the description of the force conditions necessary and su cient to maintain the equilibrium of engineering structures. When a body is in equilibrium, the resultant of all forces acting on it is zero

All physical bodies are three-dimensional, but we can treat many of them as two-dimensional when the forces to which they are subjected act in a single plane or can be projected onto a single plane. When this simplication is not possible, the problem must be treated as three

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## Modeling the Action Forces

To draw Free Body Diagram (FBD), you need to be able to model correctly the action forces.

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## Modeling the Action Forces (cont.)

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## Modeling the Action Forces (cont.)

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## Modeling the Action Forces (cont.)

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## Construction of Free-Body Diagrams

1

Step 1. Decide which system to isolate The system chosen should usually involve one or more of the desired unknown quantities. Step 2. Next isolate the chosen system by drawing a diagram which represent its complete external boundary. This boundary denes the isolation of the system from all other attracting or contacting bodies, which are considered removed This step is often the most crucial of all. Make certain that you have completely isolated the system before proceeding with the next step. Step3. Identify all forces which act on the isolated system as applied by the removed contacting and attracting bodies, and represent them in their proper positions on the diagram of the isolated system Step4. Show the choice of coordinate axes directly on the diagram Pertinent dimensions may also be represented for convenience.

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## Examples of Free-Body Diagrams

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## Examples of Free-Body Diagrams (cont.)

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## Free Body Diagram Exercises

In each of the ve following examples, the body to be isolated is shown in the left-hand diagram, and an incomplete FBD of the isolated body is shown on the right.

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## Free Body Diagram Exercises (cont.)

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## Free Body Diagram Exercises (cont.)

In each of the ve following examples, the body to be isolated is shown in the left-hand diagram, and either a wrong or an incomplete FBD is shown on the right.

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## Free Body Diagram Exercises (cont.)

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## Free Body Diagram Exercises (cont.)

Draw a complete and correct FBD of each of the bodies designated in the statements. The weights of the bodies are signicant only if the mass is stated. All forces, known or unknown, should be labeled.

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## Free Body Diagram Exercises (cont.)

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Categories of Equilibrium
In two dimensions, the equilibrium can be expressed as:

The application of the above equations can be grouped into four categories as follows: Category 1, equilibrium of collinear forces, clearly requires only the one force equation in the direction of the forces (x -direction), since all other equations are automatically satised. Category 2, equilibrium of forces which lie in a plane (x -y plane) and are concurrent at a point O, requires the two force equations only, since the moment sum about O, that is, about a z -axis through O, is necessarily ero. Included in this category is the case of the equilibrium of a particle.
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## Categories of Equilibrium (cont.)

Category 3, equilibrium of parallel forces in a plane, requires the one force equation in the direction of the forces (x -direction) and the one moment equation about an axis (z -axis) normal to the plane of the forces. Category 4, equilibrium of a general system of forces in a plane (x -y ), requires the two force equations in the plane and one moment equation about an axis (z -axis) normal to the plane.

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## Categories of Equilibrium (cont.)

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## Two- and Three-Force Members

The equilibrium of a body under the action of two forces only

## The equilibrium of a body under the action of three forces only

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## Alternative Equilibrium Equations

The rst alternative: Fx = 0 MA = 0 MB = 0

## The second alternative:

MA = 0

MB = 0

MC = 0

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Example 3.1
Determine the magnitudes of the forces C and T, which, along with the other Forces shown, act on the bridge-truss joint.

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Example 3.2
Calculate the tension t in the cable which supports the 500-kg mass with the pulley arrangement shown. Each pulley is free to rotate about its bearing, and the weights of all parts are small compared with the load. Find the magnitude of the totl force on the bearing of pulley C.

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## Constrains and Statical Determinacy

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Adequacy of Constrains

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## Adequacy of Constrains (cont.)

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