You are on page 1of 58

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum http://tech.groups. y ahoo.com/ g rou p /northeast_india_research/

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum Editorial……. Sushil Kumar Shinde recently said in Guwahati that

Editorial…….

Sushil Kumar Shinde recently said in Guwahati that the Government of India had completed preliminary feasibility reports of 62 hydroelectric schemes in this area with aggregate installed capacity of 30.42 MW. This power capacity is the 38% of country’s total potential. Again as reported in the newspaper and stated by the Union Minister of State for New and Renewable Energy, India has 615 small hydro power projects upto 25 MW aggregating 2108 MW as on 29-02-2008. Out of these 127 project are located in the NE states generating around 250 MW of electricity. We should welcome such major projections. Because the generation and utilization of electricity will play an advantageous role in the economy of the NE states. From this issue we are staring a new column: Molecule and Material of the issue. Dr. Utpal Bora has suggested this column and starting with Dr. Joshodeep Boruwa’s article on an under clinical trial drug, Sagopilone. Members are encouraged to submit articles on drug molecules or specific polymer, dye, inorganic crystals, materials which have great impact on human life. Meanwhile, I would like to take this opportunity to thank Dr. Arindam Adhikari for creating NE India Research Forum and also for the help toward finishing the redacting of this issue. I gratefully acknowledge the editorial board for their constructive suggestions. I thank all the authors for their contributions on time, despite being having very busy work schedule. A special thanks to Mr. Anirban Adhikari for his effort in making the significant cover page in a very short time period. Finally I wish success and longer life of this forum.

Happy Rongali Bihu

success and longer life of this forum. Happy Rongali Bihu (Sasanka Deka) 14-04-2008 In April 2008,

(Sasanka Deka)

14-04-2008

of this forum. Happy Rongali Bihu (Sasanka Deka) 14-04-2008 In April 2008, NE Quest enters its
of this forum. Happy Rongali Bihu (Sasanka Deka) 14-04-2008 In April 2008, NE Quest enters its

In April 2008, NE Quest enters its second year of journey. In this eve, I would like to congratulate all the respected and beloved members. Hope we will continue this voyage with creating few new authors and more and more scientific contributions. It is an honour and immense pleasure for me to write the editorial of this issue of the newsletter, Northeast India Research Forum. I would like to thank all the forum members for giving me this challenging and great opportunity. Here I want to mention two important issues of the NE region. Foremost, the situation in the NE India states, particularly in Assam becoming unstable day by day. Don’t you think that we are going to diminish gradually? Everyday we see people are killed in the NE states. I am mentioning about the recent violence and the impact in the NE states, as compared to rest of India. It’s a shame that, even world famous rhino is not safe from the poacher in Assam. Therefore Assam may be the easiest example in the world as an unsafe place. Because, we can not think to do a work selflessly. Something unusual happen, we have the easiest solution: BANDH and block out. Let it be a terrorist group or a political party or some regional unions. Who is actively looking for the improvement of our states? Finally the out come is: Poverty, Illiteracy, Superstition, etc. We, the forum members can take some initiative to solve some of the problems. At least we can try. I think science can help up to some extent. But this is not the complete answer. We have to educate ourselves and the new generation as to the cause of these horrible events. I know I am exceeding my limit of editorial, but some how we should. Because, this is our country, this is our motherland. One other point I want to mention, about the proposed hydroelectricity projects in NE India states. Union Power Minister

hydroelectricity projects in NE India states. Union Power Minister N. E. Quest; Volume 2, Issue 1,

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

Contents

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum C ontents The Forum 5 6 7 9 10

The Forum

5

6 7 9 10 13 14 15 25 27
6
7
9
10
13
14
15
25
27

29

32

36

40

47

51

52

57

North-East Indians Made Us ProudNews

NewsNorth-East Indians Made Us Proud

a) Science News

b) Forum Members in News

Instrument of the Issue Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) Dr. Arindam Adhikari Some Award Winning SEM Images Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) Dr. Arindam Adhikari Some Award Winning SEM Images

Molecule and Material of the Issue Sagopilone: A Modified Epothilone Analogue as Promising Anti Cancer Agent Dr. Joshodeep Boruwa Sagopilone: A Modified Epothilone Analogue as Promising Anti Cancer Agent Dr. Joshodeep Boruwa

Article Sectionas Promising Anti Cancer Agent Dr. Joshodeep Boruwa I. II. III. IV. Invited Article Zeta Potential

I.

II.

III.

IV.

Invited Article Zeta Potential Characteristics of an Iron Rich Kaolinite Clay Mr. Pinaki Sengupta

Green Clean: A Hope Ms. Nabanita Bhattacharyya

Positron Emission Tomography Dr. Diganta Sarma

Thermo Responsive Magnetic Nanoparticles and their Applications Dr. Smriti R. Deka

V. RNA interference(RNAi) Mr. Khirud Gogoi VI. Higher Study Abroad
V.
RNA interference(RNAi)
Mr. Khirud Gogoi
VI.
Higher Study Abroad

Nanoscience and Nanotechnology for Improvement of Human Lives Mr. Pankaj Bharali

Ph. D. Thesis Abstract Abstract 1: Adsorption of Organic Anions on the Metal Oxide Surfaces Dr. Manash R. Das

Abstract 2: De Novo Designed Molecules Based on Non-covalent Interactions: Design, Synthesis and Structural Studies Dr. Pranjal K. Baruah

Information About Forum Members

Through the Lenses of Forum Members

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

The Forum

North East India Research Forum was created on 13th November 2004.

maximum number of votes and hence it is accepted as the name of the Newsletter.

How often should we publish our newsletter '' N. E. Quest'' ?

1. Every 3 months = 61% 2. Every 6 months = 38% 1. How we
1. Every 3 months = 61%
2. Every 6 months = 38%
1. How we are growing?
3. Once a year = 0%
Today the forum comprised of a force of
more than 191 researchers.
4. NE-Quest Issues
2. Discussions held in the forum
• Necessity of directory of all the members
1. Vol. 1 Issue 1 April, 2007
Editor: Dr. Arindam Adhikari
of the forum.
• Possibility of organising conference in the
2. Vol. 1 Issue 2 July 2007
Editor: Dr. Tankeswar Nath
N E India.
• Taking initiation on setting up of South
3. Vol. 1 Issue 3 November 2007
Editor: Dr. Ashim Jyoti Thakur
East Asian Scientific Institute.
• On selection of Best paper award.
4. Vol. 1 Issue 4 January 2008
Editor: Mr. Pranjal Saikia
3. Poll conducted and results
5. Vol. 2 Issue 1 April 2008
Editor: Dr. Sasanka Deka
North East India is lacking behind the rest of the
country due to-
5. Future activities
1. Geographical constrain =0%
2. Bad leadership = 40%
3. Lack of work culture = 36%
4. Corruption = 18%
5. Apathy from Central Govt. = 4%
Which area of science is going to dominate by
creating
a
great
impact
on
society
in
next
decade?
1. Nanoscience & nanotechnology = 22%
2. Biotechnology = 11%
3. Nanobiotechnology = 38%
4. Chemical Engineering = 0%
5. Medicine = 11%
6. Others = 16%
7. None = 0%
Kindly let us know your view regarding the
following topic. What activities of this group you
like most ?
1. Research articles= 33%
2. Information about vacancy/positions
Proper planning and consequent
implementation always play an important
role in every aspect. Some of the
topics/activities/suggestions which were
being discussed, time to time in the forum
will get top priorities in our future activities.
Those are mentioned here,
Preparing complete online database of
N.E. researchers with details.
Organising conference in the N.E.
region-proposed by Dr. Utpal Bora.
Research collaboration among forum
members.
Motivate student to opt for science
education.
Help master’s students in doing projects
in different organisationproposed by Mr.
Khirud Gogoi.
Supporting schools in rural areas by
different ways.
available=10%
3. Way
to
have
a
contact
with
all
members =29%
4. Scientific discussions = 14%
5. Others = 2%
Selection of name for Newsletter

There were total 36 proposals submitted by members of the forum for the Newsletter.

proposed by Mr. Abhishek N. E. QUEST received the

Choudhury,

The

name

To run the forum smoothly, to make it more organised and to speed up activities, formation of a committee/team is essential. The combined discussion of the moderators and senior members make the forum feel the importance of Advisors, coordinator, volunteer, webmasters etc. Of course it needs more discussion and will be approved by poll.

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

North-East Indians Made Us Proud

East India Research Forum N orth-East Indians Made Us Proud D r. Prasanta K. Kalita P
East India Research Forum N orth-East Indians Made Us Proud D r. Prasanta K. Kalita P

D r. Prasanta K. Kalita

P rof. Ranjan Deka

Dr. P. K. Kalita is Associate Professor of Agricultural and Biological Engineering at the Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He is expertise in water quality and environmental protection; watershed water-quality management and non-point source pollution control; soil erosion, chemical and microbial transport processes modelling and some more.

P rof. Ranjan Deka is a faculty member of the Center for Genome Information (CGI), Department of Environment Health, College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati, USA. He is one example, who moved towards the destiny of carrier step by step. He is one of the expert in the field of Human Genetics.

P rof. R. Deka did his B. Sc. in biology and

Sc. in Anthropology in the Dibrugarh

University, in 1970 and 1972, respectively.

From the same university he obtained his

doctorate degree in 1976. The topic of his

A fter Ph. D., Prof. Deka became Assistant Anthropologist, Anthropological Survey of India. Then he shifted to Dibrugarh University as lecturer. In 1985 he received Alexander von Humboldt Fellow and went for postdoctoral research to the Department of Human Genetics, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Hannover, Germany. During his research carrier he served as Assistant Professor and Associate Professor in the Department of Human Genetics, University of Pittsburgh, PA.

We wish him a happy and long life…

of Pittsburgh, PA. We wish him a happy and long life… M. H e hails from
M. H e hails from Chapar, Dhuburi District of Assam. Dr. Kalita received his B.
M.
H e hails from Chapar, Dhuburi District of
Assam. Dr. Kalita received his B. S. degree
in Agricultural Engineering from the Punjab
Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India. For
the M. S. degree he went to Thailand and
studied for M. S. in the Asian Institute of
Technology, Bangkok. He did his Ph. D. in
Agricultural Engineering in the Iowa State
University, Ames, Iowa.
Ph. D. thesis is Human Genetics.

D uring the professional carrier, Dr. Kalita served in many places, like, Post-Doctoral Research Associate in Iowa State University; Post-Doctoral Research Associate in USDA- ARS, Washington State University; Assistant Professor in Kansas State University; Assistant Professor in Agricultural Engineering Department, University of Illinois, etc. As a scholar and as a teacher, Dr. Kalita received more than 25 National and International Awards in USA.

We wish him a happy and long life…

and International Awards in USA. We wish him a happy and long life… N. E. Quest;

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

Science News

North-East India:

National & International News:

News North-East India: National & International News: T he State Government of Assam has prepared a

T he State Government of Assam has prepared a concept paper for establishing a science and technology university in the State. The Science and Technology Department of Assam is holding discussions with Education Department with this aim in view. The Assam Government is planning to set up a science city in Guwahati. It has also proposed a biotechnology park in the city during the current year. (March 28, 2008, The Assam Tribune).

India aims for ‘quantum jump’ in science:

In the month of January, 2008, our Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh has announced unprecedented funding for science education and research, saying it is a top priority for the government. He has announced a range of schemes to attract students and replenish government agencies' shrinking pool of scientific personnel.

It is planned to fund 30 new Central Universities, five new Indian Institutes of Science Education and Research, eight new Indian Institutes of Technology, and 20 new Indian Institutes of Information Technology. In the next five years, Dr. Singh added, India will also be launching 1,600 polytechnics, 10,000 vocational schools and 50,000 skill- development centres. One million schoolchildren will receive science innovation scholarships of 5,000 rupees (US$130) each over the next five years, and 10,000 scholarships of 100,000 rupees per year will go to those enrolling on science degree courses. Discipline-specific education programmes will be launched in strategic sectors such as nuclear and space sciences “to capture talent at the school leaving stage itself”. (Courtesy:

NatureNews)

Editorial comment:

announcement by our honourable prime minister will encourage, not only the present

science students, but also will motivate the new generation to do something in science. Everybody should welcome this effort and help the government to fulfil the motive, and of course, forgetting oppositional political views. Hope India will diminish the brain- drain by the 'quantum jump' in science.

the

We

hope

by the 'quantum jump' in science. the We hope The Northeast is likel y to have

The Northeast is likely to have another National Institute of Technology, with the Central Government considering establishment of an institute in Manipur. Addressing the ongoing Social Editor’s Conference, HRD Ministry officials said a Central team after visiting the State has submitted its report last November. The report is under process currently, said the official. (January 29, 2008, The Assam Tribune).

Yengkhom Daevson from Imphal, Manipur, has invented a unique weaving machine that makes garments without any stitches. This news came into focus in a press conference on 19th December 2007 in National Institute of Fashion Technology (NIFT), Delhi, Ministry of Textile, Government of India. A Special event organised for Y. Daevson an alumni of NIFT, who has invented “BEMM” a seamless woven garment making machine that makes woven seamless garments.It is a unique combination of fashion and innovation with technological development. With this new machine, one can combine the textile and the garment industry. There is advantage; it does not involve any stitching.

garment industry. There is advantage; it does not involve any stitching. N. E. Quest; Volume 2,

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

Smallest Black hole: Astrophysicist claimed, they've found the smallest black hole so far, which is less than four times the mass of our sun and about the size of a large city. Nikolai Shaposhnikov of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center says “This black hole is really pushing the limits. For many years astronomers have wanted to know the smallest possible size of a black hole, and this little guy is a big step toward answering that question”. The scientists found the black hole in a system in the southern constellation Ara, in our own Milky Way galaxy. This black hole probably be stronger than bigger black holes found at the centres of galaxies. It was formed by a star that ran out of fuel and shut down, collapsing due to its own gravity. The new black hole has a mass 3.8 times that of our sun and would be about 24 kilometres across, they estimate. (Courtesy: ABC Science)

Nation invests USD 208 million in N.E. education infrastructure: The central government has launched an ambitious Rs. 8.17-billion ($208 million) scheme to develop educational infrastructure in India's eight north-eastern states, according to an official report. “Of the Rs. 8.166 billion, Rs. 6.558 billion have been released so far for various educational projects in Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura,” said an official report of the central human resource development (HRD) ministry. The development plans in the northeast are centrally financed on the basis of 90 percent grant and 10 percent loan, the report said. “In addition to that allocation, Rs. 520 million was released to five universities located in the states of Meghalaya, Nagaland, Mizoram, Assam, Manipur, Arunachal Pradesh and Tripura for setting up of engineering and management faculties.” The central government converted the Arunachal Pradesh and Tripura universities into central universities in August 2007 and established a new central university in Sikkim. According to the report, Tripura Engineering College in Agartala has also been upgraded into a National Institute of Technology (NIT) and the HRD ministry will soon convert Manipur Institute of Technology into a NIT. The HRD ministry, with the help of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and the north-eastern states has launched satellite-based educational facilities in the region aimed at increasing the knowledge base of students. On Aug 14, 2007, the satellite-based facility was started in Tripura with the help of the Edusat, a dedicated satellite of the ISRO to beam educational and training programmes in the country. (Courtesy: National Network of Education, India)

country. ( Courtesy: National Network of Education, India ) Scientists find host of antibiotic-eating germs: Several
country. ( Courtesy: National Network of Education, India ) Scientists find host of antibiotic-eating germs: Several

Scientists find host of antibiotic-eating germs: Several strains of bacteria in the soil can make a meal of the world's most potent antibiotics, researchers said, in a startling finding that illustrates the extent to which these germ-fighting drugs are losing the war against superbugs. A study of soil microbes taken from 11 sites uncovered bacteria that could withstand antibiotics 50 times stronger than the standard for bacterial resistance. George Church, a geneticist at Harvard Medical School in Boston, whose research appears in the journal Science, said “It certainly was very surprising to us. Many bacteria in many different soil isolates can not only tolerate antibiotics, they can actually live on them as their sole source of nutrition.” The bacteria were not known to attack humans, but some were close relatives, such as members of the Burkholderia cepacia complex, a group of bacteria that infect people with cystic fibrosis, and Serratia marcescens, which can cause blood infections in people with compromised immune systems. (Courtesy:

NewsDaily).

in people with compromised immune systems. ( Courtesy: NewsDaily). N. E. Quest; Volume 2, Issue 1,

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

Forum Members in News

Dr. Manash R. Das, an a lumnus of RRL Jorhat, qualified for the Scientist B position at the , an a lumnus of RRL Jorhat, qualified for the Scientist B position at the North East Institute of Science and Technology (formerly RRL) Jorhat. He will join the Material Science Division and will involved in the research of Surface chemistry on Metal oxide surfaces, Propensity of simple organic acid/anions at solution-vapour interface, etc. Currently he is a postdoctoral fellow at Villeneuve d'Ascq, Lille, France.

Dr. Pranjal Baruah q ualified for the prestigious Marie Cu rie fellowship. He will join Cambridge University, UK q ualified for the prestigious Marie Curie fellowship. He will join Cambridge University, UK as a postdoc in October, 2008 for the same fellowship. Presently he is pursuing his Post Doctoral research in UNC Chapel Hill, USA.

Catalysts and Adsorbents, Bhubaneswar,

18

th – 20 th February, 2008".)

18 t h – 20 t h February, 2008".) Mr. Ankur Bordoloi received the Keerti Sangoram

Mr. Ankur Bordoloi received the Keerti Sangoram Memorial Endowment award (2008) of NCL, Pune. Keert i Sangoram memorial received the Keerti Sangoram Memorial Endowment award (2008) of NCL, Pune. Keert i Sangoram memorial endowment award is given to the best research scholars. This award carries a cash prize and a certificate of merit for four students in the area of physical & materials sciences, biological sciences, chemical sciences and engineering sciences.

Mr. Khirud Gogoi received the Keerti Sangoram Memorial Endowment award (2008) and Dr Rajapp a award (2008) Gogoi received the Keerti Sangoram Memorial Endowment award (2008) and Dr Rajapp a award (2008) of NCL, Pune. Dr. Rajappa award is given to the best organic chemistry paper. This award for research student carries a cash prize and a citation.

for research student carries a cash prize and a citation. Mr. Laks hi Saikia of National

Mr. Laks hi Saikia of National Chemical Laboratory (NCL), Pune received the best poster award at the National Science of National Chemical Laboratory (NCL), Pune received the best poster award at the National Science day symposium held at NCL, Pune on 28th February, 2008. Mr. Lakshi Saikia also qualified for the position of Scientist B at NEIST, Jorhat. He will join the Material Science Division. Moreover, one of his paper published in Journal of Catalysis between October-December 2007, become the Top 25 Hottest Articles. The particular paper is “Activation and reactivity of epoxides on solid acid catalysts Journal of Catalysis”, 252 (2) 2007, 148-160 Saikia, L.; Satyarthi, J.K.; Srinivas, D.; Ratnasamy, P.

Saikia, L.; Satyarthi, J.K.; Srinivas, D.; Ratnasamy, P. Dr. Pranjal Kalita recently finished his Ph. D.

Dr. Pranjal Kalita recently finished his Ph. D. from NCL, Pune. The title of his thesis is “Carbon-car bon bond formation reactions using solid porous catalysts”. He is going to join (14 th April, 2008) as a postdoc fellow in the Nano Ionics Materials Group, National Institute for Material Science (NIMS), 1-1, Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 Japan.

Our Heartiest Congratulations to the Aforesaid Members: Editor

Heartiest Congratulations to the Aforesaid Members: Editor Sweet Khejur: Smriti R. Deka Mr. Pankaj Bharali and

Sweet Khejur: Smriti R. Deka

the Aforesaid Members: Editor Sweet Khejur: Smriti R. Deka Mr. Pankaj Bharali and Mr Pra njal

Mr. Pankaj Bharali and Mr Pra njal Saikia, Ph.D. students in IICT, Hyderabad bagged the best poster award jointly in the recent "National Workshop on Catalysis: Futuristic Materials as

NewsletterNewsletter ofof NorthNorth EastEast IndiaIndia ResearchResearch ForumForum

Instrument of the issue

Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)

Dr. Arindam Adhikari

arinda m.adhikari@surfchem.kth.se

Scanning electron microscope or SEM is a microscope that uses electrons instead of light to form an image, i.e. it’s a type of electron microscope that creates various images by focussing high energy beam of electrons onto the surface of a sample and detecting signals from the interaction of the incident electrons with the sample’s surface. Since their development in the early 1950's, scanning electron microscopes have developed new areas of study in the medical and physical science communities. (The SEM was pioneered by Manfred von Ardenne in 1937. The instrument was further

developed by Charles Oatley and first commercialized by Cambridge Instruments.) In the SEM when incident beam interacts with specimen all these signals shown in figure 1 are present, but not all of them are detected and used for information. The signals most commonly used are the Secondary Electrons, the Backscattered Electrons and X-rays. In a SEM, these signals come not only from the primary

In a SEM, these signals come not only from the primary beam impinging upon the sample,

beam impinging upon the sample, but from other interactions within the sample near the surface. The SEM is capable of producing high-resolution images of a sample surface in its primary use mode, secondary electron imaging. The SEM has many advantages over traditional microscopes. The SEM has

a a
a
a

large depth of field, which allows more of

specimen to be in focus at one time. The

Figure 1: Incident beam specimen interaction in SEM.

N. N.

E. Quest; Volume 2, Issue 1, April 2008, 10

E. Quest; Volume 2, Issue 1, April 2008, 10

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

resolution, so

closely spaced specimens can be magnified at much higher levels. Due to the manner in which this image is created, SEM images h ave great depth of field yielding a

characteristic three-dime nsional appearance

useful for understanding

the surface

s tructure of a sample. As characteristic x- are emitted when the electron beam

rays causes the ejection of inner shell electrons from the sample and thus can also be used to

tell the elemental composition of the sample (EDS or EDX, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy). Because the SEM uses electromagnets rather than lenses, the researcher has much more control in the

All of these

degree of magnification.

advantages, as well as the actual strikingly

clear images, make the scanning electron microscope one of the most useful instruments in research today.

SEM also has much higher

typically has a n energy ranging from a few hundred eV to 100 keV, is focused by one or two condenser lenses into a beam with a very fine focal spot sized 0.4 nm to 5 nm. The beam passes through pairs of scanning

0.4 nm to 5 nm. The beam passes throug h pairs of scanning or pairs of

or pairs of deflector plates in the

electron optical column, typically in the objective lens, which deflect the beam horizontally and vertically so that it scans in a raster fashion over a rectangular area of the sample surface. When the primary electron beam interacts with the sample, the electrons lose energy by repeated scattering and absorption within a teardrop-shaped volume of the specimen known as the interaction volume, which extends from less than 100 nm to around 5 µm into the surface. The size of the interaction volume depends on the electrons' landing energy, the atomic number of the specimen and the specimen's density. The energy exchange between the electron beam and the sample results in the emission

coils

beam and the sample results in the emission coils of electrons and electromagnetic radiation, which can
beam and the sample results in the emission coils of electrons and electromagnetic radiation, which can

of electrons and electromagnetic radiation, which can be detected to produce an image. The image consists of thousands of spots of varying intensity on the face of a cathode ray tube that correspond to the topography of the sample.

ray tube that correspond to the topography of the sample. Figure 3: SEM image of polyaniline

Figure 3: SEM image of polyaniline coated silica par ticle.

Figure 3: SEM image of polyaniline coated silica par ticle. Figure 2: Image of SEM In

Figure 2: Image of SEM

polyaniline coated silica par ticle. Figure 2: Image of SEM In a typical SEM, electrons are

In a typical SEM, electrons are thermionically emitted from a electron source [generally tungsten or lanthanum hexaboride (LaB 6 ) cathode] and are accelerated towards an anode. Electrons can also be emitted via field emission (Field emission FE is the emission of electrons from the surface of a condensed phase into another phase due to the presence of high electric fields). The electron beam, which

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum Figure 4: SEM image of Velcro fibre (Image from

Figure 4: SEM image of Velcro fibre (Image from www.fei.com)

When a SEM is used, the column must always be at a vacuum. There are many reasons for this. If the sample is in a gas filled environment, an electron beam cannot be generated or maintained because of a high instability in the beam. Gases could react

with the electron source, causing it to burn out, or cause electrons in the beam to ionize, which produces random discharges and leads to instability in the beam. The transmission of the beam through the electron optic column would also be hindered by the presence of other molecules. Those other molecules, which could come from the sample or the microscope itself, could form compounds and condense on the sample. This would lower the contrast and obscure detail in the image. A vacuum environment is also necessary in part of the sample

preparatio n. One such example is th e sputter c oater. If the chamber isn't
preparatio
n. One such example is th
e sputter
c oater. If the chamber isn't at vacuum before
the s ample is coated, gas molecules would
get in the way of the argon and gold. This
could lead to uneven coating, or no coating
at all.

In the SEM, the magnification is entirely determined by the electronic circuitry that scans the beam over the specimen. Magnification can be as high as 300,000x. In principle the resolution of a SEM is determined by the beam diameter on

the surface of the specimen. The practical resolution however depends on the properties of the specimen and the specimen preparation technique and on many instrumental parameters such as beam intensity, accelerating voltage, scanning speed, distance from the last lens to the specimen (usually referred to as the working distance) and the angle of the specimen surface with respect to the detector. Under optimum conditions a resolution of even 1 nm can be attained.

conditions a resolution of even 1 nm can be attained. Figure 5. Schematic representation of SEM
conditions a resolution of even 1 nm can be attained. Figure 5. Schematic representation of SEM
conditions a resolution of even 1 nm can be attained. Figure 5. Schematic representation of SEM
conditions a resolution of even 1 nm can be attained. Figure 5. Schematic representation of SEM

Figure 5. Schematic representation of SEM

Specimen Preparation There are two basic types of SEM' s. The regular SEM, requires a conductive sam ple. An environmental SEM (ESEM)

c an be used to examine a non-conductive

a conductive

material. Three requirements for preparing

samples for a regular SEM

sample

w

ithou

t coating it with

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

- Re move all water, solvents, or other

in the

Forum - Re move all water, solvents, or other in the m aterials that could vaporize

m aterials that could vaporize while

vacuum.

- Firm ly mount all the samples.

- Non- metallic samples, such as bugs, plants, fingernails, and ceramics, should be coated so they are electrically cond uctive. Metallic samples can be placed direc tly into the SEM.

High resolution scanning electron micrograph of

References gold nanopyramids supported by silicon pedestals 1.www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scanning_el ectron_microscope
References
gold nanopyramids supported by silicon pedestals
1.www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scanning_el
ectron_microscope
2. www.fei.com
3. www.purdue.edu/REM/rs/sem.htm
4. www.mse.iastate.edu/
This article is compiled by Dr. Arindam
Adhikari, Institute of Surface Chemistry YKI
and IPack Vinn Excellence Centre, Royal
Institute of Technology KTH, Stockholm,
Sweden.
Zinc dendritic structures formed by electro-
Some Award Winning
SEM Images
deposition on Cu substrates using a mixed solution
MRS Meetings “Science as Art” Image
competition. www.mrs.org
of ZnO powders and NaOH at room temperature.
Dirty Dice Self-assembled 200 micron size nickel
dice, imaged using scanning electron microscopy in
the lower secondary electron (LEI) mode. The dice

An Early Morning Stroll into Woods

SEM Image of Tin Oxide Nanowires.

were colorized using Adobe Photoshop.

(Collected by Editor)

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

Molecule and Material of the Issue

crisscrosses the inside of the cell, the part of the cytoskeleton that both stabilizes the cell and makes it flexible. The taxanes, already in successful use for many years now, prove that the cytoskeleton provides a suitable target for cancer medication. Originally harvested from the bark of Pacific yew trees, they are now synthesized from substances found in the needles of the European yew. Like the epothilones, the taxanes inhibit the breakdown of the cytoskeleton. But why all the effort to develop the epothilones as an alternative to the taxanes when they both target the same site? As potent as the taxanes are, they have drawbacks: tumor cells are often able to expel the taxanes via pumps before they can attack the cancer cells. Due to this tendency to develop resistance, other agents are very welcome. In addition, unlike the epothilones, the taxanes are not water- soluble and must therefore be administered in an oily solution that can induce allergies. However the synthesis process to th is molecule was very complex, But starting with three purchasable initial materials and m ore than 100 additional ingredients, the research group required a total of 39 individual steps to produce three initial sub- units which they then used to construct th e finished molecule. Report from Bayer Health:

Sagopilone: A Modified Epothilone Analogue as Promising Anti Cancer Agent

D r. Joshodeep Boruwa

as Promising Anti Cancer Agent D r. Joshodeep Boruwa jb oruwa@googlemail.com Cancer cells sometimes defend

jb oruwa@googlemail.com

Cancer

cells sometimes defend against medication by

themselves

transporting active ingredients back out of

the cell through built-in pum ps. Even

ta

xanes, some of the m

ost effective cancer

d

rugs,

are

occasionally

expelled

in

this

m anner and therefore remain virtually

ineffective.

Care are now performing clinical tests on a new substance that is not recognized by the

Researchers at Bayer Health

which sagopilone was of
which sagopilone was
of

pumps. Intensive structural modifications were performed on epothilones to overcome the limitations associated with this novel

class of anticancer substances. During this o ptimization process, more than 350 b iologically active epothilones were

synthesized, from

sele

its outstanding preclinical properties. S agopilone exhibits a high level of in vitro and in vivo activity against a broad range of different human tumour models, including those that are particularly sensitive to taxanes but also those that are resistant to taxanes or other commonly used chemotherapeutic agents and therefore no longer respond to these compounds. It is well known that anticancer agents inhibit cell division and researchers have long focused on cell division, as the

cted for clinical development because

Clinical experts must now prove that sagopilone is really as promising as previous studies indicate. If the results of the following clinical studies are good, cancer researcher Ulrich Klar predicts that sagopilone, either alone or together with other medications, will play an important role in getting a vice-like grip on cancer of various origins and in all of its stages.

About The Author:

Dr. J

research fellow at Fechb ereich Chemie,

Universitst Konstanz, Germany.

oral

. Boruwa is currently a postdoct

Konstanz, Germany. oral . Boruwa is currently a postdoct majority of tumors become dangerous only as

majority of tumors become dangerous only as a result of their unchecked growth. The

first drug products introduced were the cytostatics, which typically damage cells by interfering with metabolic activity during cell division. Epothilones target a very

differ

ike a

vice to the network of protein threads that

ent area. They attach themselves l

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

Invited Article

Zeta Potential Characteristics of an Iron Rich Kaolinite Clay

Potential Characteristics of an Iron Rich Kaolinite Clay Mr. Pinaki Sengupta pinakiajitsengupta@yahoo.com

Mr. Pinaki Sengupta

pinakiajitsengupta@yahoo.com

Introduction

The knowledge of Zeta potential is very much essential in respect of mineral processing and utilization. North Eastern region is endowed with various minerals like clay, limestone, graphite, coal etc. Beneficiation and utility studies are pre- requisites for meaningful utilization of these mineral resources. Kaolin is one of the most versatile materials used in various industries. The term Kaolin is used for near-white clay deposits, which are dominantly composed of kaolinite mineral. The oldest known use of the kaolin clay is as a ceramic raw material.

contains silica in the fo rm quartz. The nature and pro portions of these impurities depend on the mode of origin of the deposit and differs from place to place. For most modern industrial and other uses, kaolin must be extensively refined and processed to enhance certain important characteristics. Removal of iron- and titanium-bearing materials from clay and other minerals, in addition to impurities like silica, is of great interest even today.

impurities like silica, is of great interest even today. The kaolin used in this investigation was

The kaolin used in this investigation was collected from Deopani deposit (latitude 26 o 14 / 27 // to 26 o 14 / 39 // N; longitude 93 o 45 / 54 // to 93 o 46 / 05 // E) of Karbi Anglong district of Assam (India). The clay, which is rich in iron contaminants, is yet to be economically utilized because of lack of detailed characterization and beneficiation process. Before we proceed further in discussing the zeta potential characteristics of the i ron rich Deopani kaolin, it is essential to recapitulate the structure of clay minerals.

essential to recapitulate the structure of clay minerals. Structure of the clay minerals Clay minerals belong

Structure of the clay minerals

Clay minerals belong to the ‘phyllosilicates’ (meaning layered silicates), having two dimen sional arrays of silicon- oxygen tetrahedra and tw o dimensional

arrays

octahedra as the principal building elements. The analogous symmetry and the almost identical dimensions in the tetrahedral and the octahedral sheets allow the sharing of oxygen atoms between these sheets. This sharing of atoms may occur between one

silica and one alumina sheet, as is the case in

the 1:1 layer minerals. In the 2:1

m inerals, one alumina or magnesia sheet shares oxygen atoms w ith two silica sheets, one on each side. The combination of an octahedral sheet and one or two tetrahedral sheet is called a layer. Several su ch layers

filler
filler

of aluminium-oxygen-hydroxyl

Presently, the clay also finds application as a coating and filler pigment for paper, as a

for paint, rubber, insecticide,

formulation of medicine, cosmetics, etc. About 80 % of the total kaolin produced worldwide is used in paper industry and the rest 20 % in ceramics, plastics, rubber, paints, insecticides, etc. Apart from these kaolinite minerals also find application in organic reactions as catalysts. Almost all the economic deposits of kaolin are contaminated by various ferrouginous and titanium-bearing minerals. Mined kaolin also

layer

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

are then stacked together face-to-f ace, with interlayer cations, to build up the unit cells of clay. Kaolinite is the commonest example of 1:1 clay minerals, where as, smectite or montmorillonite represents 1 :2 clay minerals. A diagramm atic sketch of the structures of both the ka olinite and smectite layer is shown in Figure 1.

A schema tic representation of the atom arrangem ents in a ‘unit cell’ of the clay mi nerals of the ‘kaolinite’ group having 1:1 layer structure is show n in Figure 2. The

‘unit cell’ of

the clay minerals of the

‘smectite’ or ‘m ontmorillonite’ and the

‘illite’ groups are

derived from the

prototypes of the struc tures of the 2:1 layer

(Figure 3) by introducin g more or less random atom substitutions in th e octahedral and/or tetrahe dral sheet in the crystal

s

tructur

e.

Zeta potential of clay

If two phases of different chemical composition are in contact, an electric potential difference develops between them. This potential difference is accompanied by a charge separation, one side of the interface being positively charged and the other being negatively charged. When clay particles are suspended in water, the exchangeable cations of the clay would be solvated and ionized. The OH - ions from the water would also get adsorbed at the broken bonds of the clay lattice. These would make the clay surface negatively charged. The negatively charged surface would attract some cations in its vicinity (Figure 4). At equilibrium, therefore, an electrical double layer would exist at the particle-liquid interface. One part of the double layer consists of a negatively charged layer on the surface of the clay particle and the second part of the double layer in the aqueous phase comprises ions with overall positive charge predominance.

The charge

layer, i.e., the negative charge on the surface of the clay particle remains always fixed. The charge on the other side of the double

on the first part of the double

layer, i.e., the solution side containing the counter ions (cations in the case of clay
layer, i.e., the solution side containing the
counter ions (cations in the case of clay
suspension) can be divided into two parts – a
fixed part of the counter ions at a distance
from the clay surface and another diffuse (or
mobile) portion of counter ions with
concentration gradually falling off or rising
to that prevailing in the bulk of the aqueous
phase. T his concept of composite layers is
known
as Stern’s double layer concept.

Because of the charge distribution in the electrical double layer, a sharp drop of potential exists from the negatively charged clay surface to the positively charged fixed part of the double layer on the aqueous phase side. It is then followed by a gradual change in potential across the diffuse part up to the bulk of the solution. The total potential drop from the solid clay surface to the bulk of the solution is called the double layer potential (ψ). The difference in p otential between the fixed part of the counter ions and the diffuse po rtion of the d ouble layer is termed as zeta potential (ζ). When clay particles are suspended in water, the system may be considered as a spherical condenser, with two concentric charged plates (Figure 5). If ‘e’ is the amount of the effective electrical charge on the particle, ‘d’ is the effective distance between the fixed positive and negative layers, and ‘D’ is the dielectric constant of the surrounding liquid (water), then the zeta potential (ζ) of the system is given by –

ζ=

4 πed

D

(1)

zeta potential ( ζ ) of the system is given by – ζ = 4 π

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

Figure 1: Diagrammatic sketch of the structure of kaolinite (A) and smectite (B)
Figure 1: Diagrammatic sketch of the structure of kaolinite (A) and smectite (B)

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

Figure 2: Atom arrangement in the unit cell of a 1:1 layer mineral (schematic) Figure
Figure 2: Atom arrangement in the unit cell of a 1:1 layer mineral (schematic)
Figure 3: Atom arrangement in the unit cell of a 2:1 layer mineral (schematic)

The zeta potential is very important in determining the properties of colloidal clay suspensions, particularly the suspension

stability, flocculation and deflocculation, effect of cations etc. The stability of clay suspension can be explained by DLVO theory (developed by B. Derajaguin & L.

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

Landau and independently by E. Verwey and J. T. G. Overbeek). Acc ording to it there is a balance be tween the repulsive interactions between the charges of the electrical double layer on neighbouring particles (V repulsion ) and the attractiv e interactions arising from Van der Waals interaction s between the

molecules in the partic

les (V attraction ). When

Figure 4: A schematic representation of the structure of electrical double layer (Stern’s double layer)
Figure 4: A schematic representation of the
structure of electrical double layer (Stern’s
double layer)

The zeta potential (ζ) of clay depends upon various factors like structural defects, isomorphous substitution, cation exchange capacity, presence of adsorbed impurities, coatings of other materials etc. Removal of impurities from the clay would, therefore, alter its zeta potential. The zeta potential (ζ) can be determined by measuring the mobility of the fine particles in an applied electric field. The mobility of the fine particle can be converted to zeta potential using Smoluchowski equation –

μ =

E

4πε ε ζ (1

0

r

+

κα / 6πη

)

where, μ E is the particle mobility, ε o and ε r are the relative dielectric constant and relative permittivity of vacuum respectively, η is the fluid phase viscosity, a is the particle radius and κ is the Debye-Huckel parameter.

V repulsion

>

V

attraction , , the clay suspension

become s a stable dispersion or a

deflocculated system . Whereas when

V repulsion < V attract

ion ,, because of aggregation

of particles

flocculated

interactions

directly related to the zeta potential (ζ) of the system. By addition of cations or bulky

a

between the particles are

the clay suspension becomes a system. The repulsive

nions, the zeta potential (ζ) and thereby

the V repulsio n

of the system can be controlled,

re sulting in flocculation or deflocculation of the clay suspension. The concept of zeta potential is applied in selective separation of minerals. This concept is also utilized in processing of fine particles of various origins like coal, graphite, clay, limestone, chalcopyrite, hematite etc. by the technique of ‘froth floatation’. The knowledge of zeta potential is also very much important in respect of application of these materials, e.g., clay minerals in drilling muds, ceramics, paper, plastics, polymers, insecticide/pesticides, cosmetics etc. The zeta potential (ζ) of solid suspension is highly depended upon the potential determining ions H + or OH - . On changing the pH of the suspension the surface may become positive or negative due to interaction with H + or OH - ions. At a

due to interaction with H + or OH - ions. At a certain pH majority of
due to interaction with H + or OH - ions. At a certain pH majority of

certain pH majority of surface sites of a material may become neutral and the zeta potential of the m aterial become zero. This pH is kn own as a point of zero charge or isoelectric point (iep). Each material is characterized by its own iep.

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum Figure 5. Distribution of charges and the electrical double

Figure 5. Distribution of charges and the electrical double layer on a colloidal particle of clay suspended in water

Zeta potential analyses

The zeta potentials of the various clay fractions of Deopani kaolin were evaluated with the help of Zetasizer 3000 HS attached with autotitrator MPT 1 (Malvern Instruments, UK). The zeta potential was measured by the technique of electrophoresis. The technique of electrophoresis involves measurement of the movement of particles when they are placed in an electric field. This method gives the value of mobility of particles which is related to the zeta potential. For some samples, zeta potential was determined by single point zeta potential determ ination, which gives the zeta potential value of a material at a particular condition of pH, ionic concentration etc. In case of few samples, the variation of zeta potential with respect to pH was evaluated by using the auto titrator attached with the zeta potential analyzer. For the single point zeta potential determination, the samples after fractionation or separation by various physico-chemical methods were utilized. All the samples used for sing le point zeta p otential determination washed and are prepared under similar conditions and are comparable. For evaluation of variation of

zeta potential with respect to pH, a requisite amount of clay was suspended in distilled water with vigorous stirring and the pH of suspension was adjusted to ~ 6.0. The suspension was then centrifuged (11500 rpm, 15 min, Centrifuge model R24, make Remi, India) and the clear supernatant decanted off. The process of addition of distilled water, stirring, centrifugation and decantation of the clear supernatant were continued till all the soluble matter content was washed off as indicated by the pH and conductivity of the supernatant (supernatant pH and conductivity at this point was very near to that of the used distilled water). Before zeta potential measurement the clay suspension was ultrasonicated for about 3 min at 35 kHz with a sonicator (Julabo USR 3, Germany). The zeta potential of the clay particles in the suspension was measured at room temperature conditions (30 ± 2 o C).

measured at room temperature conditions (30 ± 2 o C). Zeta potential of some fractions of
measured at room temperature conditions (30 ± 2 o C). Zeta potential of some fractions of

Zeta potential of some fractions of Deopani clay

The ζ potentials of some oxalic acid leached fractions along with as such – 53 μm fraction clay, its – 4 μm fraction, nonmagnetic and magnetic portions as determined by the method of single point zeta potential determination are shown in Table 1. The Fe 2 O and TiO 2 contents of the sample s and the pH of the suspensions (6.0 ± 0.3) used for ζ potential measurement are also indicated. The magnetic portion, separated from the as such – 53 μm fraction clay by Wet High Int ensity Magnetic Separator (WHIMS) treatment, contains high amount of iron and titanium bearing minerals. XRD investiga ti on showed that the crude clay contains siderite as the major iron bearing mineral with goethite/hematite and pyrite as the other iron bearing mineral and ilmenite as the titaniferrous mineral. The XRD pattern also indicated that the magnetic portion contains siderite and ilmenite as the

3

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

major iron and titanium bearing mi nerals. The SEM-EDXA investigation showed that apart from being present as discrete particles, the iron and titanium bearin g

Figures 6 shows the variation of zeta potential with pH in oxalic acid leached (Fe 2 O 3 : Oxalic acid mol ratio = 1.0:1.0) fine (- 4 μm) and medium (- 10 μm + 4 μm) fractions of the clay. The samples used for this experiment were prepared under similar conditions and were washed completely free of all soluble matters. The trend line of the zeta potential was drawn by using a polynomial equation of 3 rd degree chosen automatically by the software used (Microsoft Excel 2002 version 10.2614.2625). The correlation factors (R 2 ) shown on the graph indicate that the trend of ζ potential is well fitted with the experimental points. Clay particles when suspended in water develop two types of charges, negative charges on its surfaces and positive charges on its edges. Various factors like isomorphic substitution in clay crystal lattice, hydrati on a nd dissociation of the exchangeable cations, splitting of clay crystals / particles, hetero geneous splitting of the – Si – O – Al

minerals are also present as coatings of the clay particles. It is very much possible
minerals are also present as coatings
of the
clay particles. It is very much possible tha t
these naturally occurring iron and titanium
bearing minerals have structural def ects and
structural & adsorbed anionic impuritie s.
Due to this, the isoelectric points (iep ) of
these minerals are possibly shifted to low pH
values. The ζ potential value of the ma gnetic
portion, containing high amount of iron and
titanium, is found to be highly negative (-
36.7 mV) at the pH of m easurement. The
lo wer iron and titanium content of the
nonmagnetic portion than
the as such – 53
μ m fraction clay indicate that the
nonma gnetic portion obtained after removal
of the magnetic portion is partially free from
the iron and titanium bearing minerals. The ζ
potential value of the nonmagnetic portion,
therefore, decreases from that of the – 53 μm
fraction clay due to removal of the iron and
titanium bearing minerals having high
negative ζ potential value.
Although the iron content of the fine
fraction separated from the untreated – 53
μm fraction clay decreases, the titanium
content increases, possibly
due to the
– O - bonds etc. are responsible for this.
Howev er, the effective charges on clay
particles are always negative because the
amount of negative charges developed due
to isomorphic substitution in octahedral sites
of clay crystal lattice is always higher than
the amount of positive charges developed
due to other reasons. Consequently, the clay
particles always show negative ζ potential
value. For a particular system of clay
suspension, the D of the suspension medium
(in this
case water) is constant and the ζ
potential value depends on e and d (cf.
equation 1).
At acidic pH range (pH < 7.0), the
clay particles will adsorb H + ions at the
negatively charged sites resulting in decrease
in the e. The exchangeable cations will also
be replaced by the H + ions. The size of the

accumu lation of titanium bearing minerals in the finer fraction. The ζ potential value of the untreated fine fraction is found to be higher than that of the – 53 μm fraction clay. On leaching with oxalic acid, the iron and titanium content of the fine fraction decreases with increase in acid concentration. The removal of the iron and titanium bearing miner als, therefore, results in the d ecrease of the ζ potential value of the fine fraction with increasing oxalic acid concentration. The iron content of the three oxalic acid leached fractions increases in the order:

fine < medium < coarse. Consequently, the ζ potential value of these fractions increases in the order: fine < medium < coarse.

H + ions and its hydration sphere is small. The e/r ratio (e = charge on the hydrated ionic sphere and r = radius of the hydrated ion) of the H + ions is high. As a result the

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

attraction between the negatively and positively charged layers of the electrical double layer of the
attraction between the negatively and
positively charged layers of the electrical
double layer of the clay particle in
suspension increases. The thickness of the
electrical double layer (d) of H + exchanged
clay particle, therefore, reduces resulting in
decreased ζ potential at acidic pH range.
At alkaline pH range (pH > 7.0), the
clay particle adsorbs OH - ions at the
positively charged sites (edges). The
effective surface charge density (e) of the
clay particles consequently increases. The
OH - ions are also adsorbed on the surfaces
of the clay particles and as there size is very
big (e/r ratio low), the thickness of the
electrical double layer (d) of the clay
particles increases in presence of OH - ions.
The ζ potential value of the clay particles,
therefore, increases at alkaline pH range.
Figure 6 show that the clay particles
have negative ζ potential value throughout
the entire pH range of measurement (2 to
10). The iso electric point (iep), i.e., the
point of zero charge was never attained and
it may be below pH 2.0. At all pH level, the
ζ potential value of the ox alic acid leached
finer fr action (- 4 μm) having lower Fe 2 O 3
content (0.95 %) is lower than that of the
oxalic acid leached medium fraction (- 10
μm + 4 μm) having higher Fe 2 O 3 content
(1.30 %). The trend of variation of the ζ
potential with pH in both the fraction is
similar. In the acidic range (pH < 7.0), with
decrease in pH (increasing H + ion
concen tration), the ζ potential value
decreases due to progressive decrease in e
(effective surface charge density) and d
(thickness of electrical double layer). In the
alkaline range (pH > 7.0), with the increase
in pH (increasing OH - ion concentration),
the ζ potential value increases due to
progressive inc rease in e (effective surface
charge density) and d (thickness of electrical
double layer). The ζ potential value, in both
the cases, attains a constant value at a pH of
about 9.08, indicating that no further
adsorpt ions of OH - ions are taking place and
all adsorption sites are saturated.
10
pH
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
-10
-20
Oxalic acid leached fine fraction
Oxalic acid leached medium fraction
-30
-40
-50
R
2 = 0.9938
-60
R
2 = 0.9819
Figure 6:
Influence of pH on the zeta
potential (ζ) of oxalic acid leached fine (- 4
μm) and medium (- 10 μm + 4 μm)
fractions.
Conclusion
The ξ potential of the iron and titanium
bearing magnetic materials present as
contaminants in Deopani clay is highly
negative. Removal of these materials from
the clay either by oxalic acid leaching or by
WHIMS treatment decreases the ξ potential
of the clay. The kaolinite fraction, as
expected, showed negative ξ potential. The
removal of the iron and titanium bearing
minerals with increasing oxalic acid
concentration results in the decrease of the ξ
potential value of the fine fraction. The iron
content of the three oxalic acid leached
fractions increases in the order: fine <
medium <coarse. Consequently, the ξ
potential value of these fractions increases in
the order: fine < medium < coarse. The ξ
Zeta potential (mV)

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

Table 1. Zeta potential values (ξ ) of the o xali c acid leached fraction of Deopani clay

Sl. Clay sample TiO 2 Suspension p H no. Fe 2 O 3 : Oxali
Sl.
Clay sample
TiO 2
Suspension p H
no.
Fe 2 O 3 : Oxali c
acid (M)
Fe 2 O 3
content
(%)
ζ (mV)
content
(%)
1
As such – 53 μm clay
0.0:0.0
2.86
0.90
5.8
- 27.8
2
Nonmagnetic portion of as
such clay
0.0:0.0
1.10
0.70
5.7
- 21.7
3
Magnetic portion of as such
clay
0.0:0.0
20.94
8.13
6.3
- 36.7
4
Fine fraction of the as such
untreated clay
0.0:0.0
2.17
1.01
6.2
- 29.9
5
Fine fraction of the oxalic
acid treated clay
1.0:0.2
1.17
0.66
6.2
- 25.7
6
- do -
1.0:1.0
0.95
0.51
5.9
- 22.7
7
Medium fraction of the
oxalic acid treated clay
1.0:1.0
1.30
- 6.3
- 25.9
8
Coarse fraction of the oxalic
acid treated clay
1.0:1.0
2.09
- 6.2
- 29.9
Coarse: – 53 μm + 10 μm, Medium: – 10 μm + 4 μm , Fine
: –
4 μm.; Shearing rate: high ~ 14000 rpm;
Shearing time: 12 hours; Leaching temperature: roo m tem perature (28 ± 4 o C).
2.
Veglio, F., Pagliarini, A. and Toro, L.,
1993.
Factorial experiments for the
development of a kaolin bleaching
process. Int. J. of Miner. Process., 39, pp
87-99.
3.
Bhatt, J. V., 1998. Opportunities for
value added china clay projects in
Gujarat. Report of Industrial Extension
Bureau, Govt. of Gujarat, Ahmedabad,
India. pp 27-32.

4. Theng, B. K. G., 1974. Chemistry of clay organic reactions. John Wiley & Sons, New York. pp 1-3, 198-206, 261-291.

5. Tsimus, S. G., Komiotou, M. A., Moutsatson, A. K. and Parrisakis, G. K.,

the

kaolin from Milos, Greece, by a hydrometullurgical process. Trans. Inst.

1995. Reducing

iron

content

of

potential value of the medium and fine fractions increases with increase in pH of the suspension due to adsorption of OH - ions and attains a constant value (– 58.5 and - 53.9 mV respectively) at a pH of about 9.08, indicating that no further adsorptions of OH - ions takes place and all adsorption sites are saturated beyond this pH. The iso electric point (iep) of the clay fractions possibly lies below pH 2.0 and could not be determined.

possibly lies below pH 2.0 and could not be determined. References and further readings 1. Searle,

References and further readings

1. Searle, A. B. and Grimshaw, R. W., 1960. The Chemistry and Physics of

Clays and Other Ceramic Materials. 3 rd ed., Ernest Benn Limited, London, pp 100-104, 126-143, 273, 280, 292-293,

436.

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

M in. Metall. (Sect. C: min. Process.

Extr. Metal.), 104, May-August 1995, pp

C

110

-C114 .

aqueous hydroxo complex sys tems. Chem. Rev., 65, pp 177-198.

pH-dependent

16. Ko smulski,

M.,

2004.

6.

7.

8.

S tyria kova, I., Styriak, I., Nandak umar, surf ac e charg ing and points
S
tyria
kova, I., Styriak, I., Nandak umar,
surf ac
e
charg
ing
and
points
of
zero
M.
P. and Mattiasson, B., 2003. Bacterial
ch arge
II.
U
pdate.
J.
of
Colloid
and
destruction of mica during bioleaching of
kaolin and quartz sands by Ba cillus
cereus. World J. of Microbiology &
Biotechnology, 19, pp 583-590.
Interface Science. 275, pp 214-224.
1
7. H
unter
,
R.
J., 198
6. 2 nd printing. Zeta
Po tenti
al
in
Coll
oid:
Princ iples
and
Applications. Academ ic
Press, London,
Styriakova, I., Styriak, I., Malachovsky,
ch. 3, p 69.
P.
and
Lovas,
M.,
2006.
Biological,
chemical and electromagnetic treatment
Short biography of the author:
of
three typ es of feldspar raw m
ateria ls,
Mr. Pinaki Sengupta is
pre
sently
Scie
ntist
M
i
ner. Eng., 19, pp 348-354.
F
and is the Head of the Materials
Worrall,
W.
E.,
1982.
Ceramic
raw
Science D
ivisio
n, Nort
h-E
ast In
stitut
e of
nd
materia
ls,
2
rev.
ed.,
I
nstitut
e
of
Ceramics
Textbook
Series,
Pergamon
Science and Technology, Jorhat 785 006,
Assam. He has 26 years R & D experience
P
re
ss Ltd., Oxf ord, p
p 5, 14-17, 2
6-33,
62.
i
n
th
e
ar
eas
o
f oil
field
chem
icals
and

9.

Grim, R

. E., 1968. Clay min

eralog

y, 2 nd

materials, ores and minerals, building

materials, environmental issues related to

fields; Completed several projects for

OIL Duliajan, ONGCL, CMPDIL Ranchi, Min. of Mines, Min. of Environment & Forests etc. Mr. Sengupta is memb ers of

e Indian Institute of

Mineral Engineers, Society of Petroleum

various societies lik

Eng ineers (USA), Indian Science Con gress, Assam Science Society, Bureau

Indian Standard: Specification

for Burnt Clay Products, CED

30. In 1990-1991 he visited and

mittee

ducted research in Institute of Deep

lling Technology, Technical Unversity usthal, Germany.

-----------------0

00---------------------

Germany. ------------- ----0 00-------- ------------- Albert Einstein “ An empty stomach is not a good

Albert Einstein

An empty stomach is not a good political adviser.

---- -----------------000---------------------

oil any, New York, pp18-3 0, 5 1-52, Olphen, H., 1977. An introduction clay colloid
oil
any, New York, pp18-3
0,
5
1-52,
Olphen, H., 1977. An introduction
clay colloid chemistry, John Wiley &
622-624.
of
Com
con
Dri
Cla

to

Sons, New York, pp 57-70.

Rakshit, P. C., 1973. Physical Chemistry.

3

pp

Physical

rd ed., Science book Agency, Calcutta,

G.

W.,

1994.

----

ed., International Series in the Earth and

Planetary Sciences, McGraw-Hill Book

Comp

57-79.

10. Van

11.

12. Castellan,

Chemistry. 3 rd ed. (14 th reprint), Narosa publishing House, New Delhi, pp 432-

438

Atkins, P. and Paula, J. de, 2006. Atkin’s Physical Chemistry. 1 st Indian ed., Oxford University Press, New Delhi, pp

13.

14.
14.

682-685.

Kosmulski, M., 2001. Chemical Properties of Material Surfaces. Marcel Dekker, New York.

15. Parks, G. A., 1965. The isoelectric poins

of solid oxides, solid hydroxides, and

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

Article section

Green Clean: A Hope

India Research Forum A rticle section Green Clean: A Hope Phytoremediation is a wide concept involves

Phytoremediation is a wide concept involves several ways to clean up

is a wide concept involves several ways to clean up that con tamination by plants, such

that

con tamination by plants, such as-

Phytovolatilization, where plants take up water and organic contaminants through the roots, transport them to the leaves and release the contaminants as a reduced form of detoxified vapor into the atmosphere.

Microorganism stimulation, w here organic substances and enzymes exerted by the plant roots stimulate the growth of some fungi and bacteria in their root zone and those microbes in turn metabolize the organic contaminants.

Ms . Nabanita Bhattacharyya

msn bhattacharyya@yahoo.co.uk

► ►

Biology

in

modified form of

Bio technology is one of the most important scie ntific and technological revolutions of

the

various aspects of human life. The potentials are enormous and many breakthroughs have

century and has greatly benefited

Phytostabilization, where plants prevent contaminants to migrate laterally by reducing run off, surface erosion, and ground water flow rates.

last

alre ady been achieved in the area of hea lthcare, food, agriculture products, env ironmental pollution etc. The

dev elopmen

immediate benefits to mankind and offer

Phytoaccumulation or Phytoextraction, where plant roots take up metals from contaminated sites and accumulate them in aerial parts like leaves and stems.

ts in this important area provide

env ironmental friendly technologies for

sus tainable development. And n ‘ph ytoremediatio and n could realize it in the m
sus
tainable development. And n
‘ph
ytoremediatio
and
n could realize it in the m

Phytodegradation, where plants absorb organic contaminants and break down (metabolize) them into non-toxic molecules by biochemical processes within the plant body. Currently phytoremediation

technology is being used to clear off various polluting elements such as heavy metals, insecticides, petro-products, explosives,

and industrial by-

chlorinated solvents

products. The major advantage of

phytoremediation technology is the low cost

mplementation an

d maintenance

and ease of i compared to

other treatment

methods. For

example, the cost of cleaning up one acre of

sandy loam

soil at a depth of 50 cm with

plants esti

mated

at

$60,000-$10

0,000

compared to $400,000 for the conventional excavation and disposal method. Besides, it

ow, it is time

for ‘biological cleaning’ popularly known as ‘gre en clean’ and scientifically termed as

n’- defined by a novel

strategy for the removal of toxic inorganic or organic contaminants from the environment by plants. Like all other biological solutions of ever increasing global problem s, the concept of phytoremediation or green clean is also cost effective and user friendly alte rnative to traditional remediation me thods. In fact, this is an old process that

occurs naturally in ecosystems as both inorganic and organic constituents of soil

water cycle through plants. However,

me century when some Italian researchers first rep orted nickel hyper accumulation in the Italian serpentine plant Alyssum bertolonii.

iddle of the 20 th

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

is an aesthetically pleasing mechanism to the public, which can be implemented in situ as w ell as ex situ conditions. Major disadvan tage of this mechanism is the slower rate of clean up than conventional m ethods, which poses a great challenge in the m arket place. This

challenge

scientists, environm ental engineers and regulators to prove the technology’s efficacy at pilot sites. Another m ajor concern with p hytoremediation is the possible effects on the food chain as vegetation us ed to absorb the toxic elements accumula te toxins and are

e aten by th

should be faced jointly by

plants. R ecently, Richard Meagher at the Universi ty of Georgia (Athens) by inserting an altered mercury ion reductase gene (mer

A) int o Arabidopsis thaliana, produced mercury resistant transgenic mer A plants which are soon to be tested in soil. Results to date suggest that the cost of phy toremediation of mercury contaminated soil s will be one-tenth to one-hundredth the cost of other traditional engineering met hods, including land filling, thermal

trea tments and c hemical extraction (Rai et al, 1999). During the 1980s, the US
trea
tments and c
hemical extraction (Rai et
al, 1999). During the 1980s, the US
Gov ernment initiated a large program for the
dev elopment of environmental clean up
tech nologies (The Comprehensive
Env ironmental Response, Compensation and
Lia
bility
Act
or
Superfund),
which
h
as
accelerated the growth of a new productive
rese arch field worldwide. As a result,
rese archers have come to learn that the
dev
elopment
of
ph
ytoremediation
technologies requires a thorough
und erstanding of the underlying processes at
the
genetic, molecular, biochemical,
phy siological and agronomic levels (Kramer,
200 5).

By employing the phytoremediation technologies as part of living culture, eco logical systems, we can bring our

und erstanding and appreciation of green

clea

societa l benefits.

s for increased

n into sharper focu

References:

1. Rai UN and Pal A (1999). Toxic metal and phytoremediation; Archives of Enviro News (Newsletters of International Society of Environmental Botanists, India): Vol. 5, No. 4. 2. Kramer U (2005). Phytoremediation:

novel approaches to cleaning up polluted soils. Current Opinion in Biotechnology,

16: 133-141.

e moles or voles, which in turn

are eaten by the predators. Hence, there may

be a continuous chain of victims of intoxication that may lead to a threat like biological magnification. More field work

and analysis is necessary to understand such

dangerous

this may prove as a major research area in near future. Despite certain short comings, many forms of phytoremediations have emerged from the laboratories and are currently in practice and public acceptance is very encouraging. For instance, this strategy has already been successfully implemented by the US Air Force to clean trichloroethylene from ground water using poplar trees and by the US Army to clean 2,4,6-trinitrotolune (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5- triazine (RDX) from contaminated wetlands using variety of plants. In India, aquatic vascular plants like Hydrilla verticillata,

effects of phytoremediation and

like Hydrilla verticillata, effects of phytoremediation and Spirodela polyrrhiza, Bacopa monnierii, Phragmites karka
like Hydrilla verticillata, effects of phytoremediation and Spirodela polyrrhiza, Bacopa monnierii, Phragmites karka
like Hydrilla verticillata, effects of phytoremediation and Spirodela polyrrhiza, Bacopa monnierii, Phragmites karka

Spirodela polyrrhiza, Bacopa monnierii, Phragmites karka and Scirpus lacustris have been used to treat chromium contaminated effluent and sludge from leather tanning industries. Two routs are currently being explored to improve the efficiency of contaminant accumulating plants: genetic engineering and the selective breeding of naturally occurring hyper-accumulator

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

About the Author:

Ms N. Bhattacharyya has received her B.Sc. from Nalbari College and M.Sc. in Botany (Advanced Plant Physiology and Biochemistry) from Gauhati University, Assam in 2000. After her M.Sc., she had joined in the Department of Biotechnology, Gauhati University to pursue her Ph.D under the guidance of Prof. S. Sar ma. Later, she has joined as a Lecturer in the Department of Botany, Nowgong College, Assam. Her current research interests include Plant Physiology, Biochemistry and Environmental Biotechnology.

---------------------000---------------------

involved in biochemical processes and biofunctions in vital systems. The need to develop new PET tracers has grown with the increase in use of this technique in biochemistry, medicine, and drug development.

technique in biochemistry, medicine, and drug development. Principle The principle of PET imaging using 1 1

Principle

The principle of PET imaging using 11 C as a representative radionuclide is illustrated in Fig. 1. 11 C undergoes β + decay with a half-life of 20.3 min as a result of conversion of a proton into a neutron and an emitted positron (e + ), yielding 11 B as the stable nuclide. The positron ejected by this process has a range of a few millimeters in tissue and is annihilated by collision with an electron, producing two high energy γ-ray photons of 511 keV each. These photons travel in opposite directions, penetrating the body, and can be detected by a pair of opposing scintillation detectors. If two opposite detectors are hit simultaneously, it is assumed that the photons come from the same decay event. The data are fed to a compute r that reconstructs the spatial distribu tion of the decay events produced. The fate of a 11 C-incorporated compound can be imaged quantitatively with high sensitivity and high spatial resolution. The other commonly used positron-emitting radionuclides for PET studies are N, O, a nd F, which have half-lives of 9.96, 2.07, and 109.7 mi n, respectively. Because of the

13

15

really high specific radioactivity of positron- emi tter labeled compounds, PET enables in viv o imaging at extremely small mass of the com pound (sub-femtomol) and at extremely

far

low

below the critical concentration of pha rmacological effects.

concentrations

(sub-picomola

r),

Problems in synthesizing PET tracers

ho urs)

The short life (several minutes to

radionuclides

of

positron

emitting

Positron Emission Tomography Dr. Diganta Sarma dsarma22@yahoo.co.in 18 Introduction
Positron Emission Tomography
Dr. Diganta Sarma
dsarma22@yahoo.co.in
18
Introduction

Positron emission tomography (PET) is a particularly powerful non-invasive method for molecular imaging in living systems, including the brain, the heart, and other active tissues and organs. A positron emitting radionuclide is incorporated into a PET tra cer as an efficient molecular probe to monitor the dynamic behavior of the corresponding non-radioactive compound, as well as to localize its target molecules

non-radioactive compound, as well as to localize its target molecules N. E. Quest; Volume 2, Issue

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

makes PET imaging

e xamination in terms of radiation exposure. T his is in marked contrast to commonly used l ong lived radionuclides, including 3 H

(tritium ) and 14 C, with half-lives of 12.3 and 5 730 years, respectively, which cannot be used in hum ans. However, the short-life of p ositron emitting radionuclides places a tem poral restriction on the preparation of

safer than X-ray

organic framework; work-up and chromatographic purification of the tracer; and, administration of the tracer to humans.

Thus, the time allowed for tracer synthesis should be only about 5–10 min, necessitating a rapid chemica l reaction. Another difficulty e ncountered in PET-tracer synthesis is the

availability

re quiring the use of an extremely dilute

solution

(of the order of pM–µM) of the

of tiny amounts of precursor, 11 CH 3
of tiny amounts of precursor,
11 CH 3

P

ET

trace s.

r

In

general,

the

total

time

a

llowed for PET-tracer synthesis, i

nc

luding

p

urification should be within two- o-three

t

h alf-lives of the corresponding radionuclide

a 11 C-labeled tracer

s hould be accomplished within 40–60 min). T his should include: derivatization of the radionuclide produced by the synchrotron as

(e.g., the synthesis of

11

reaction mixture, much lower than those used in normal organic reactions mM–M. In

addition, the efficient purification of a small

amount of synthesized tracer from large amounts of remaining precursors must also be considered. These severe demands on

PET-tracer synthesis have limited

an appropriate precursor, such as CH I, incorporation to N- and O-methylations. 11 CO, or 11 CO ; incorporation of 11 C into an

3

2
2

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

Common Uses

Thermo Responsive Magnetic Nanoparticles and their Applications

PET scans are performed to (1) detect cancer (2) determine the how much a cancer has spread in the body (3) assess the effectiveness of a treatment plan, such as cancer therapy (3) determine if a cancer has returned after treatment (4) determine blood flow to the heart muscle (5) determine the effects of a heart attack, or myocardial infarction, on areas of the heart (6) identify areas of the heart muscle that would benefit

from a procedure such as angioplasty or Dr. Smriti R. Deka

combination with a

scan ) (7) evaluate brain abnormalities, such as tumors, memory disorders and seizures and other central nervous system disorders and (8) to map normal human brain and heart function.

Future Perspectives

normal human brain and heart function. Future Perspectives smriti.deka@unile.it myocardial perfusion Introduction
normal human brain and heart function. Future Perspectives smriti.deka@unile.it myocardial perfusion Introduction

Introduction

Magnetic materials are key component in modern technology, with applications ranging from data storage to magnetic resonance contrast agents. The unique size dependent properties of magnetic nanoparticles lead to a growing interest in nanostructural magnetic materials, composites and dispersions. Colloidal magnetic dispersions, known as magnetic fluids or ferrofluids, usually contain magnetic particles in the range from 10-20 nm. They behave as liquids whose physical properties and flow behaviours can be controlled by external magnetic field. The particles in ferrofluids are coated with layers of surfactants to enable stabilization against gravitation force and to avoid strong interaction and agglomeration of the particles. The magnetic heatability of the particles is an additional feature; the ability of ferrofluid to convert magnetic energy into heat.

Magnetic fluids are of high interest for basic research as well as for various applications. Novel properties of ferrofluid suitable for biological applications, such as solubility in physiological fluids and biocompatibility are important.

in physiological fluids and biocompatibility are important. PET imaging has seen truly exciting advances in recent

PET imaging has seen truly exciting advances in recent years. Not only can technological advances create new and better ways to extract information about our bodies, but they also offer the promise of making some existing imaging tools more convenient and economical.

About the author:

Diganta Sarma was born and brought up in Naharani of Golaghat District, Assam. After completing his M.Sc. degree (2000) from the Department of Chemistry, Gauhati University, he moved to National Chemical Laboratory, Pune to pursue his Ph.D. degree. Currently, he is working as a post doctoral research fellow (JSPS) in the Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Kyoto, Japan.

---------------------000---------------------

Kyoto, Japan . ----------------- ----000-------- ------------- N. E. Quest; Volume 2, Issue 1, April 2008, 29

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

In current research, much respect is paid to the combination of such particles with stimuli responsive polymers to benefit from their materials properties or the presence of functional group along the polymer chain to receive organic-inorganic nanocomposits. Stimuli-responsive materials show a sharp change in properties upon a small or minor change in environmental condition, e.g. temperature, light, salt concentration, electric and magnetic field or pH. Thus, combining the stimuli-responsive “smart” behaviour with the properties of magnetic nanoparticles is an effective approach to fabricate a drug carrier. Thermoresponsive magnetic colloids are characterized by a coupled magnetoresponsive and thermoresponsive behaviour by the combination of magnetic nanoparticles with a suitable polymer system.

What are Thermo-responsive polymers?

Temperature-responsive polymers and hydrogels exhibit a volume phase transition at a certain temperature; this causes a sudden change in the solvation state. Polymers, which become insoluble upon heating, have a so-called lower critical solution temperature (LCST). Systems, which become soluble upon heating, have an upper critical solution temperature (UCST). Poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) is one of the most important thermo-responsive polymer. It has a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of 32 0 C in water. It collapses and shrinks above LCST and swells and expands below the LCST. Due to its well-defined and reversible low critical solubility temperature PNIPAM has long been investigated as a versatile tool in biology. Water-based thermoresponsive microgels show a high application potential for controlled drug delivery. PNIPAM copolymers have been mainly studied for the oral delivery of calcitonin and insulin.

Synthesis

thermoresponsive polymers

of

Magnetic

Colloids

with

There are different methods for synthesis of magnetic core-shell polymer nanoparticles coated with stimuli responsive

polymers. But a straightforward strategy for the synthesis of polymer-coated inorganic nanoparticles is the grafting
polymers. But a straightforward strategy for
the synthesis of polymer-coated inorganic
nanoparticles is the grafting from approach
or so called surface initiated polymerization.
Surface-initiated polymerization is a
relatively new pathway for the preparation
of functional coatings, which can be
achieved by different method, such as
Living ring opening polymerization
Living anionic polymerization
Living cationic polymerization
Ring opening metathesis
polymerization (ROMP)
Nitroxide-mediated radical
polymerization (NMRP)
Reversible addition-fragmentation
chain transfer (RAFT)
polymerization
Atom transfer radical polymerization
(ATRP)

But the most popular strategy is the ATRP due to tolerance to a wide range of monomers, flexible experimental conditions, etc. The technique is based on the growth of polymer molecules at the surface of a substrate in situ from surface-bound initiators and results in a irreversibly attached, covalently bound polymeric shell. Consequently, covalently anchored end- tethered polymeric chains with a high grafting density on the particle surface are formed. The approach offers the opportunity to form single-cored core-shell nanoparticles. A high potential for applications of magnetic fluids based on iron oxides is promised in the biomedical field. The general scheme for synthesis of magnetic polymer brush particle is shown in scheme-1. First step consists of synthesis of magnetic nano particles by co-precipitation,

consists of synthesis of magnetic nano particle s by co-precipitation, N. E. Quest; Volume 2, Issue

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum Scheme-1 in the second step the surface of the

Scheme-1

in the second step the surface of the particle can be modified by different functional group such as carboxyl group and finally magnetic core polymer brushes synthesized by polymerization with a thermoresponsive monomer. By the combination of superparamagnetic nanoparticles with thermoresponsive polymers, the hybrid materials show the typical response of the particles to magnetic fields and the temperature responsive properties (Fig: 1) of the polymer are maintained and can be used to manipulate the material properties by conventional heating. On the other hand, temperature responsive properties of the polymer are maintained and can be used to manipulate the material properties by conventional heating.

Applications

Thus the combination of magnetic nanoparticles with thermoresponsive polymer systems leads to the formation of hybrid particle dispersions or composites with a variety of interesting properties and perspectives, including instant dispensability, thermoreversible formation of magnetic fluids, and novel magnetoresponsive properties. Special interest is gained by the magnetic heatability of magnetic particles that allows the activation of thermal effects by the application of a high-frequency electromagnetic field. The concept of magnetic targeting is to inject magnetic nanoparticles to which drug molecules are attached, to guide these particles to a chosen site under the localized magnetic field gradients, hold them there until the therapy is complete, and then to remove them. The magnetic drug carriers have the potential to carry a large dose of drug to achieve high local concentration, and avoid toxicity and other adverse side effects arising from high drug doses in other parts of the organism. Another interesting application of magnetic nanoparticles is in hyperthermia treatment which is considered as a supplementary treatment to chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery in cancer therapy. The idea of using magnetic induction hyperthermia is based on the fact that when magnetic nanoparticles are exposed to a varying magnetic field, heat is generated by the magnetic hysteresis loss. Thus, when a magnetic fluid is exposed to an alternating magnetic field the particles become powerful heat sources, destroying tumor cells since these cells are more sensitive to temperatures. The amount of heat generated by magnetic nanoparticles depends strongly on the structural properties of the particles (e.g., size, shape) and should be as high as possible to reduce the dose to a minimum level. Such magnetic nanoparticles can also

to a minimum level. Such magnetic nanoparticles can also Figure 1. Schematic behaviour of polymer brush
to a minimum level. Such magnetic nanoparticles can also Figure 1. Schematic behaviour of polymer brush

Figure 1. Schematic behaviour of polymer brush particles in thermoreversible magnetic fluids a) temperature dependent behaviour, b) the particles precipitates below critical temperature and particle dispersion is formed above critical temperature under the influence of an external magnet.

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

be very useful to assist an effective separation of catalysts, nuclear waste, biochemical products etc.

Summary Stimuli-responsive polymers offer great advantages in drug delivery. Instead of acting passively as pure drug carriers, they will interact and respond to the environmental settings. This allows us to aim further for tailor-made drug delivery with superior pharmacokinenetics while having all safely questioned addressed.

About the Author:

Dr. Smriti Rekha (Baruah) Deka hails

from Jorhat, Assam. She received her B.

Sc.

degree from J. B. College, Jorhat and

M.

Sc. degree from the department of

Chemistry, Gauhati University, Guwahati. She carried out her Ph. D. research in the same department and obtained her doctorate degree in 2007. Currently she is a postdoc fellow at the National Nanotechnology Laboratory of CNR- INFM-ISUFI, University of Lecce, Italy.

transcription of specific genes. Small interfering RNA strands (siRNA) are key to the RNAi process, and have complementary nucleotide sequences to the targeted RNA strand. Specific RNAi pathway proteins are guided by the siRNA to the targeted messenger RNA (mRNA), where they "cleave" the target, breaking it down into smaller portions that can no longer be translated into protein. A type of RNA transcribed from the genome itself, microRNA (miRNA), works in the same way.

The RNAi pathway is initiated by the enzyme dicer, which cleaves long, dsRNA molecules into short fragments of 20-25 base pairs. One of the two strands of each fragment, known as the guide strand, is then incorporated into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) and pairs with complementary sequences. The well-studied outcome of this recognition event is post- transcriptional gene silencing. This occurs when the guide strand specifically pairs with a mRNA molecule and induces the degradation by argonaute, the catalytic component of the RISC complex. Another outcome is epigenetic changes to a gene- histone modification and DNA methylation- affecting the degree the gene is transcribed. The selective and robust effect of RNAi on gene expression makes it a valuable research tool, both in cell culture and in living organisms because synthetic dsRNA introduced into cells can induce suppression of specific genes of interest. RNAi may also be used for large-scale screens that systematically shut down each gene in the cell, which can help identify the components necessary for a particular cellular process or an event such as cell division. Exploitation of the pathway is also a promising tool in biotechnology and medicine. In 2006, Andrew Fire and Craig C. Mello shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their work on

Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their work on ----------------- ----000-------- ------------- RNA
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their work on ----------------- ----000-------- ------------- RNA
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their work on ----------------- ----000-------- ------------- RNA

---------------------000---------------------

RNA interference(RNAi)

Mr. Khirud Gogoi khirudg@yahoo.com
Mr. Khirud Gogoi
khirudg@yahoo.com

RNA interference (RNAi) is a mechanism that inhibits gene expression at the stage of translation or by hindering the

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

RNA interference in the nematode worm C. elegans, which they published in 1998.

History and discovery

The discovery of RNAi was preceded first by observations of transcriptional inhibition by antisense RNA expressed in transgenic plants, and more directly by reports of unexpected outcomes in experiments performed by plant scientists in the U.S. and the Netherlands in the early 1990s. In an attempt to alter flower colors in petunias, researchers introduced additional copies of a gene encoding chalcone synthase, a key enzyme for flower pigmentation into petunia plants of normally pink or violet flower color. The overexpressed gene was expected to result in darker flowers, but instead produced less pigmented, fully or partially white flowers, indicating that the activity of chalcone synthase had been substantially decreased; in fact, both the endogenous genes and the transgenes were downregulated in the white flowers (Fig.1).

carrying only short, non-coding regions of viral RNA sequences would show similar levels of protection. Researchers believed that viral RNA produced by transgenes could also inhibit viral replication. The reverse experiment, in which short sequences of plant genes were introduced into viruses, showed that the targeted gene was suppressed in an infected plant. This phenomenon was labeled "virus-induced gene silencing" (VIGS), and the set of such phenomena were collectively called post transcriptional gene silencing. After these initial observations in plants, many laboratories around the world searched for the occurrence of this phenomenon in other organisms. Craig C. Mello and Andrew Fire's 1998 Nature paper reported a potent gene silencing effect after injecting double stranded RNA into C. elegans. In investigating the regulation of muscle protein production, they observed that neither mRNA nor antisense RNA injections had an effect on protein production, but double-stranded RNA successfully silenced the targeted gene (Fig. 2). As a result of this work, they coined the term RNAi. Fire and Mello's discovery was

coined the term RNAi . Fire and Mello's discovery was Figure 2. Phenotypic effect after injection

Figure 2. Phenotypic effect after injection of single-stranded or double-stranded UNC-22 RNA into the gonad of C. ELEGANS. The UNC-22 gene encodes a myofilament protein. Decrease in UNC-22 activity is known to produce severe twitching movements. Injected double-stranded RNA, but not single-stranded RNA, induced the twitching phenotype in the progeny.

RNA, induced the twitching phenotype in the progeny. Figure 1. Petunia plants in which genes for
RNA, induced the twitching phenotype in the progeny. Figure 1. Petunia plants in which genes for

Figure 1. Petunia plants in which genes for pigmentation are silenced by RNAi. The left plant is wild-type; the right plants contain transgenes that induce suppression of both transgene and endogenous gene expression, giving rise to the unpigmented white areas of the flower.

giving rise to the unpigmented white areas of the flower. Not long after, plant virologists working
giving rise to the unpigmented white areas of the flower. Not long after, plant virologists working

Not long after, plant virologists working on improving plant resistance to viral diseases observed a similar unexpected phenomenon. While it was known that plants expressing virus-specific proteins showed enhanced tolerance or resistance to viral infection, it was not expected that plants

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

particularly notable because it represented the first identification of the causative agent for the phenomenon. Fire and Mello were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2006 for their work.

Cellular mechanism

RNAi is an RNA-dependent gene silencing process that is controlled by the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) and is initiated by short double-stranded RNA molecules in a cell's cytoplasm, where they interact with the catalytic RISC component argonaute. When the dsRNA is exogenous (coming from infection by a virus with an RNA genome or laboratory manipulations), the RNA is imported directly into the cytoplasm and cleaved to short fragments by the enzyme dicer. The initiating dsRNA can also be endogenous (originating in the cell), as in pre-microRNAs expressed from RNA- coding genes in the genome. The primary transcripts from such genes are first processed to form the characteristic stem- loop structure of pre-miRNA in the nucleus, then exported to the cytoplasm to be cleaved by dicer (Fig. 3). Thus the two pathways for exogenous and endogenous dsRNA converge at the RISC complex, which mediates gene silencing effects.

at the RISC complex, which mediates gene silencing effects. Technological applications of RNAi Gene knockdown The

Technological applications of RNAi Gene knockdown

effects. Technological applications of RNAi Gene knockdown The RNA interference pathway is often exploited in

The RNA interference pathway is often exploited in experimental biology to study the function of genes in cell culture and in vivo in model organisms. Double- stranded RNA is synthesized with a sequence complementary to a gene of interest and introduced into a cell or organism, where it is recognized as exogenous genetic material and activates the RNAi pathway. Using this mechanism, researchers can cause a drastic decrease in the expression of a targeted gene. Studying

the effects of this decrease can show the physiological role of the gene product. Since

can show the physiological role of the gene product. Since Figure 3. The RNA interference process

Figure 3. The RNA interference process and the biochemical machinery involved. Double- stranded RNA is cut into short pieces (siRNA) by the endonuclease Dicer. The antisense strand is loaded into the RISC complex and links the complex to the mRNA strand by base-pairing. The RISC complex cuts the mRNA strand, and the mRNA is subsequently degraded.

RNAi may not totally abolish expression of the gene, this technique is sometimes referred as a "knockdown", to distinguish it from "knockout" procedures in which expression of a gene is entirely eliminated. Most functional genomics applications of RNAi in animals have used C. elegans (Fig. 2) and Drosophila (Fig. 4), as these are the common model organisms in which RNAi is most effective. C. elegans is particularly useful for RNAi research for two reasons:

firstly, the effects of the gene silencing are

research for two reasons: firstly, the effects of the gene silencing are N. E. Quest; Volume

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

generally heritable, and secondly because delivery of the dsRNA is extremely simple.

secondly because delivery of the dsRNA is extremely simple. Figure 4. A normal adult Drosophila fly,

Figure 4. A normal adult Drosophila fly, a

RNAi

experiments

Medicine It may be possible to exploit RNA interference in therapy. Although it is difficult to introduce long dsRNA strands into mammalian cells due to the interferon response, the use of short interfering RNA mimics has been more successful. Among the first applications to reach clinical trials were in the treatment of macular degeneration and respiratory syncytial virus, RNAi has also been shown to be effective in the reversal of induced liver failure in mouse models. Other proposed clinical uses center on antiviral therapies, including the inhibition of viral gene expression in cancerous cells, knockdown of host receptors and coreceptors for HIV, the silencing of hepatitis A and hepatitis B genes, silencing of influenza gene expression, and inhibition of measles viral replication. Otential treatments for neurodegenerative diseases have also been proposed, with particular attention being paid to the polyglutamine diseases such as Huntington's disease. RNA interference is also often seen as a promising way to treat cancer by silencing genes differentially upregulated in tumor cells or genes involved in cell division. A key area of research in the use of RNAi for clinical applications is the

common

organism

model

used

in

clinical applications is the common organism model used in development of a safe delivery method, which

development of a safe delivery method, which to date has involved mainly viral vector systems similar to those suggested for gene therapy.

vector systems similar to those suggested for gene therapy. Biotechnology RNA interference has been used for

Biotechnology RNA interference has been used for applications in biotechnology, particularly in the engineering of food plants that produce lower levels of natural plant toxins. Such techniques take advantage of the stable and heritable RNAi phenotype in plant stocks. For example, cotton seeds are rich in dietary protein but naturally contain the toxic terpenoid product gossypol, making them unsuitable for human consumption. RNAi has been used to produce cotton stocks whose seeds contain reduced levels of delta- cadinene synthase, a key enzyme in gossypol production, without affecting the enzyme's production in other parts of the plant, where gossypol is important in preventing damage from plant pests. Similar efforts have been directed toward the reduction of the cyanogenic natural product linamarin in cassava plants.

cyanogenic natural product linamarin in cassava plants. Conclusions: The discovery that cells have a special

Conclusions:

The discovery that cells have a special mechanism for suppressing the expression of homologous genes by recognizing and processing double-stranded RNA was totally unexpected and has dramatically expanded the knowledge of gene control. Remarkably, the RNAi machinery can handle double-stranded RNA entering the cell as well as double-stranded RNA generated within the cell. The development of an organism and proper function of its cells and tissues are dependent on an intact RNAi machinery. Infection by RNA viruses can be blocked by RNAi, especially in plants and lower animals, and foreign elements in the genome (viruses and transposons) can be kept silent. Finally, the discovery of RNAi has not only provided a powerful new experimental tool

of RNAi has not only provided a powerful new experimental tool N. E. Quest; Volume 2,

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

to study the function of genes but also raises expectations about future applications of RNAi in medicine.

References 1.Fire A., Xu S., Montgomery M., Kostas S., Driver S. and Mello C. (1998) Nature ,391 (6669): 806-11. 2. Daneholt, B. Advanced Information: RNA interference. The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2006. 3. Elbashir S .M., Harborth, J., Lendeckel, W., Yalcin, A., Weber, K. and Tuschl, T . (2001) Nature, 411, 494-498.

About The author

Khirud Gogoi has recently completed Ph. D. from National Chemical Laboratory, Pune, India in the area of Nucleic Acids Chemistry. His areas of research include design and synthesis of novel oligonucleotides for therapeutics purpose, ribozymes and cellular delivery of siRNA.

current photolithography; that is, the science of objects with smallest dimensions ranging from a few nanometers to less than 100 nanometers. In chemistry, this range of sizes has historically been associated with colloids, micelles, polymer molecules, phase-separated regions in block copolymers, and similar structures typically, very large molecules, or aggregates of many molecules. More recently, structures such as buckytubes, silicon nanorods, and compound semiconductor quantum dots have emerged as particularly interesting classes of nanostructures. In physics and electrical engineering, nanoscience is most often associated with quantum behavior, and the behavior of electrons and photons in nanoscale structures. Biology and biochemistry also have a deep interest in nanostructures as components of the cell; many of the most interesting structures in biology from DNA and viruses to subcellular organelles and gap junctions can be considered as nanostructures. The combination of the promise of new phenomena new science with an extension of an extremely important technology is the force that drives nanoscience. Nanoscience has now been with us for a decade. Technologies growing from it are still few, and the rate at which they have emerged has seemed slower than that in areas such as biotechnology. There will certainly be in fact, there already is an evolutionary nanotechnology, based on products that already exist, and that have micro- and nanometer-scale features. Commercial nanotechnology exists, and is in the robust health of early childhood. The more interesting question is whether there will be revolutionary nanotechnologies, based on fundamentally new science, with products that we cannot presently imagine. The nanotechnology that is already with us is that of microelectronics where engineers have already shown how to extend existing methods for making microelectronic devices

extend existing methods for making microelectronic devices ----------------- ----000-------- ------------- Nanoscience
extend existing methods for making microelectronic devices ----------------- ----000-------- ------------- Nanoscience
extend existing methods for making microelectronic devices ----------------- ----000-------- ------------- Nanoscience

---------------------000---------------------

Nanoscience and Nanotechnology for Improvement of Human Lives

Mr. Pankaj Bharali
Mr. Pankaj Bharali
for Improvement of Human Lives Mr. Pankaj Bharali pankaj_rrlj@yahoo.co.in Nanoscience is the emerging science

Nanoscience is the emerging science of objects that are intermediate in size between the largest molecules and the smallest structures that can be fabricated by

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

to new systems with sub-70-nm wires and components, materials science where many of the properties of polymers, metals, and ceramics are determined by 1–100 nm structures, and chemistry where nanometer- scale drugs are routinely used to control proteins and signaling complexes, and where macromolecules have dimensions of many nanometers. These technologies are evolutionary nano. The nanotechnology whose form and importance is yet undefined is revolutionary nano; that is, technologies emerging from new nanostructured materials (e.g., buckytubes), or from the electronic properties of quantum dots, or from fundamentally new types of architectures based on nanodevices for use in computation and information storage and transmission. Nanosystems that use or mimic biology are also intensely interesting. There is no question that revolutionary nanoscience exists in the laboratories now, and that new forms of nanotechnology will be important; it is just not clear at the moment how much of this exciting, revolutionary science will migrate into new technology, and how rapidly this migration will occur. The history of technology suggests, however, that where there is smoke, there will eventually be fire; that is, where there is enough new science, important new technologies will eventually emerge. In the next paragraphs some aspects of nanoscience and nanotechnology for the improvement of human lives are described.

for the improvement of human lives are described. Life, environment, energy and nanotechnology Nanotechnology
for the improvement of human lives are described. Life, environment, energy and nanotechnology Nanotechnology
for the improvement of human lives are described. Life, environment, energy and nanotechnology Nanotechnology
for the improvement of human lives are described. Life, environment, energy and nanotechnology Nanotechnology

Life, environment, energy and nanotechnology

Nanotechnology will also help with water resources, allowing low energy purification and desalination, and reducing water waste in manufacturing and farming. Nanoscale-

related improvements in energy technology will reduce the dependence on fossil fuels, make photovoltaic energy
related improvements in energy technology
will reduce the dependence on fossil fuels,
make photovoltaic energy production
competitive with other sources, allow
entrance into a potential hydrogen economy,
and improve renewable energy systems like
biomass. In order to preserve the
environment, we would use nanotechnology
to remediate waste and pollution, produce
systems and materials that use resources
most efficiently, recycle pollution into raw
materials, and ensure safety and
sustainability of new materials.
Developments in cognitive sciences and
humanities resulting from scientific and
technological developments will increase
their contribution to the quality of life.
Potential risks and unexpected consequences
need to be monitored and included in any
assessment of overall changes of quality of
life.

Medicine and nanotechnology

Understanding the cell, that is, understanding life is one of the great unanswered questions in science. The cell is the quantum of biology the smallest and most fundamental unit the one from which the rest is built. The cell is a system of molecules and remarkable nanoscale machines functional molecular aggregates of great complexity. Understanding these

molecular nanostructures in their full, mechanistic, molecular complexity is vital to

a reductionist understanding of the cell.

Doing so will require new methods of examining these systems: in isolation, in the cell, and in the organism. The methods that emerge from this research will help us to move closer to understanding human life and health, and thus toward nanomedicine. Nanostructures may also be useful in

toward nanomedicine. Nanostructures may also be useful in Research should indentify the qualities of work, life

Research should indentify the qualities of work, life and the environment to which citizens give highest priority and identify branches of nanotechnology most relevant to them. Nanotechnology will help ensure that we can produce enough food by improving inventory storage and the ability to grow at high yield and a diversity of crops locally.

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

delivering drugs, as imaging agents, and in clinical analysis.

Ethical issues and nanotechnology

The news model of public involvement, in which technical experts and the media impart information to a passive audience, fails to bring about an informed public. We need information systems that facilitate two- way conversation. Innovative technologies bring about unintended consequences. Instead of trying to predict the future, it will be more fruitful to try to shape the future by building institutions that can learn while preserving core values. A range of projects could develop infrastructures for balanced and inclusive public participation in decision making, with many different, innovative models used to assure two-way interchange

between nano-engineers or scientists and their publics. There must be genuine respect for interdisciplinary discussion of ethical and social dimensions of nanoscale science, engineering, and technology. Research should be carried out to achieve better understanding of complex systems and uncertainty, and better understanding of how research directions themselves are decided. Risks and uncertainties are expected to increase with the transforming capabilities provided by nanotechnology, and must be evaluated by considering global factors in governance.

be evaluated by considering global factors in governance. Some of problematic social trends and ways nanotechnology

Some of problematic social trends and ways nanotechnology could contribute to the solutions for these problems are presented in Table 1.

Social problems Healthcare and working capacity of aging population Collapse of birth rate in most
Social problems
Healthcare
and
working
capacity
of
aging
population
Collapse of birth rate in most advanced nations,
below level required for population stability
Poverty and inequality, most urgently in under
developed nations
Threatened exhaustion of natural resources

Table 1: Some of problematic social trends and ways nanotechnology could contribute to solutions

Nanotechnology contribution to solution

Convergence of nanotechnology with biotechnology, information technology and neurotechnology would address chronic illnesses, losing sensorial capacity, and maintaining work capacity

Convergence of nanotechnology with biotechnology to overcome infertility

Economic progress, fueled by technological developments requiring systematic control of nanoscale processes and materials

Nano-enabled technologies for improved efficiency in use of non-renewable resources, including energy production, water filtration, and invention of many high-quality nano-fabricated substitute materials

Environmental

degradation,

including

global

Reduced pollution from more efficient use of

warming

materials; specific new pollution remediation nanotechnologies; improved environmental

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

monitoring by means of nano-enabled sensor nets

Security issues within industrial nations

Numerous specific nanotechnology-based solutions, such as: sensors to detect bioterrorism substances; inexpensive smart labels to deter theft of valuable goods; armor and vehicle components from nanostructured materials

armor and vehicle components from nanostructured materials Medical: diminishing returns from research; rising cost of

Medical: diminishing returns from research; rising cost of health care

Fresh approaches to disease diagnosis and treatment from nanotechnology; prevention of disease from better nutrition and from quick detection and treatment of conditions predisposing to disease

and treatment of conditions predisposing to disease About the author: Pankaj Bharali was born in Duliajan,
and treatment of conditions predisposing to disease About the author: Pankaj Bharali was born in Duliajan,

About the author:

Pankaj Bharali was born in Duliajan, Dibrugarh, Assam. He obtained his B.Sc. from Government Science College, Jorhat (Dibrugarh University) in 1999 and M.Sc. in Chemistry from Gauhati University in 2002. After his masters he spent nearly two years in Material Science Division, NEIST (formerly RRL) Jorhat as junior research fellow under externally funded project. Latter on moved to IICT, Hyderabad to continue his doctoral research at I & PC Division, IICT under the guidance of Dr. B. M. Reddy, Deputy Director. Recently, he visited Ruhr University of Bochum, Germany for three months (October to December, 2007) under a bilateral DST-DAAD collaborative program. He has co-authored seven papers published in highly reputed international journals and presented eleven papers in seminar/conferences. His research interest includes synthesis and characterization of nanostructured metal oxides for different catalytic applications.

metal oxides for different catalytic applications. (Collection from web: Editor) Richard P. Feynman “What I

(Collection from web: Editor)

Richard P. Feynman

“What I am going to tell you about is what we teach our physics students in the third or fourth year of It is my task to convince

in the third or fourth year of It is my task to convince graduate school you

graduate school

you not to turn away because you don't understand it. You see my physics students

don't understand it

That is because I don't

understand it. Nobody does.”

----------------------- -----------------------

-------------------- --------------------

P h.D. Thesis Abstract

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

beneficiation of iron ore (Mahiuddin et al., 1989; 1992). Due to structural complexity of humate (Figure 1), the interaction and adsorption behaviour of humate on the hematite and other metal oxides surfaces is ill defined. Therefore, small aromatic organic anions with well defined structure e.g. benzoate, salicylate, p-hydroxy benzoate and phthalate (Figure 2) with different polydispersity and polyfunctionality, which are considered to be constituting models of functional groups occurring in humic acid, are chosen for studying adsorption and surface complexation on the surfaces of hematite, alumina and silica. Therefore, depending on the structure, functionality and conformational factors, the adsorption profile and surface complexation of these model anions on the oxide surfaces are different (Ali and Dzombak, 1996a,b; Evanko and Dzombak, 1998). Their adsorption properties could be similar to humate (Ali and Dzombak, 1996a,b; Evanko and Dzombak, 1998). Both humate and small aromatic organic anions show the similar ligand exchange reaction involving carboxylic and phenolic OH groups and the hydroxyl group on metal oxide surfaces.

Abstract

1:

Adsorption

of

Organic

Anions on the Metal Oxide Surfaces

1 : Adsorption of Organic Anions on the Metal Oxide Surfaces Dr. Manash R. Das manashrdas@yahoo.com

Dr. Manash R. Das

The results of the studies recorded in the thesis provide the knowledge of kinetics of adsorption, adsorption behaviour of small aromatic organic anions at metal oxidewater interface at different pH and surface complexation. The title of the thesis is “Adsorption of organic anions on the metal oxide surfaces” and thesis has seven chapters.

Chapter I: Introduction

In this chapter the importance of the adsorption studies of small aromatic organic anions on the metal oxide surfaces has been highlighted. Adsorption of surface-active agent at the solid-liquid interface is of immense importance in the field of mineral processing (Mahiuddin et al., 1989; Subramanian and Natarajan, 1991; Weissenborn et al., 1994), environment (Biber and Stumm, 1994) and geochemical processes (Mesuere and Fish, 1992a,b; Tombácz, et al., 2000). In the mineral processing industries surface-active agents are used to recover selectively the desired mineral from mineral mixtures adopting the dispersion-cum-settling or flocculation and flotation techniques. Sodium humate is a supramolecular species and an effective surface-active agent (Beckett, 1990) for the

an effective surface-active agent (Beckett, 1990) for the Figure 1 Most probable structure of humic acid
an effective surface-active agent (Beckett, 1990) for the Figure 1 Most probable structure of humic acid

Figure 1 Most probable structure of humic acid (Stevenson, 1994)

Adsorption of surface-active agent at the metal oxide-water interface depends on time, pH and the ionic strength of the medium. Kummert and Stumm (1980) reported 6 h to attain the state of equilibrium

Kummert and Stumm (1980) reported 6 h to attain the state of equilibrium N. E. Quest;

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

for the adsorption of benzoate and salicylate on γ-Al O 3 . Whereas, Parfitt (1977) found that the state of equilibrium for adsorption of benzoate on goethite (α-FeOOH) surfaces was attained after one week. In the case of oleate-natural hematite system in aqueous medium, the state of equilibrium found to be 36 min (Ofor and Anusiem, 1999). In most of the reported studies, adsorption isotherms are carried out at arbitrary chosen equilibration time (Yost et al., 1990; Tejedor-Tejedor et al., 1992; Filius et al., 1997; Szekeres et al., 1998; Hur and Schlautman, 2003; Tombácz et al., 2004). Therefore, adsorption kinetics is an important parameter for subsequent adsorption isotherms of adsorption of surface-active agent at the metal oxide-water interface.

2

anions on the metal oxide surfaces (Biber and Stumm, 1994; Nordin et al., 1997, Klug and Forsling, 1999; Phambu, 2002; Rosenqvist et al., 2003). In the case of adsorbate containing carboxylic group the

difference between the ν (COO − ) and as ν (COO − ) bands, their
difference between the ν
(COO
− ) and
as
ν (COO
− ) bands, their relative shifting and
s
boarding of the asymmetric carboxylic band
have been considered for the plausible
surface complexation structure on metal
oxide and oxy(hydroxide) surfaces. Based
on the shifting of ν
(COO ) and ν (COO
)
as
s
bands of benzoate after adsorption on
bayerite (α-Al(OH) 3 ), Phambu (2002)
concluded that the benzoate forms bidentate
bridging complex on bayerite surface. Biber
and Stumm (1994) reported the different
types of surface complexation of salicylate
on the metal oxide and oxy(hydroxide)
surfaces depending on the shifting of the
(COO ) and ν (COO
) bands. Phthalate
ν as
s
COOH
COOH
OH
Benzoic acid
Salicylic acid
COOH
COOH
COOH
OH
P-hydroxy benzoic acid
Phthalic acid
Figure 2 Structure of small well-defined
aromatic acids, which are the constituting
models of functional groups occurring in
humic acid
also form different types of surface
complexes either outer sphere (Nilsson et al.,
1996; Rosenqvist et al, 2003) or both outer-
and inner-sphere (Nordin et al., 1997;
Persson et al., 1998; Klug and Forsling,
1999) complexes with aluminium oxide,
aluminium (oxy)hydroxide and goethite
depending on the pH and ionic strength of
the medium. Surface complexation of small
aromatic organic anions with different
polydispersity and polyfunctionality at
different pH and ionic strength are markedly
different (Nordin et al., 1997; Persson et al.,
1998; Rosenqvist et al., 2003). Therefore,
surface complexation of the model anions
onto different adsorbents using FTIR
spectroscopy would be worth to this field of
research.
Chapter II: Experimental

Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy studies provide the information regarding nature of surface complexation of small aromatic organic anion on metal oxide surfaces. Literatures have focused on the complexation of small aromatic organic

In this chapter, the experimental techniques for the measurement of zeta potential, kinetics of adsorption at three different temperatures, adsorption isotherms

Newsletter of North East India Research Forum

and FTIR spectra have been described. The adsorbents and adsorbates used in the entire study with purity are also included here.

Chapter III: Kinetics and Adsorption Behaviour of Salicylate on α-Alumina in Aqueous Medium

of

influence on the adsorption behaviour of salicylate on α-alumina surfaces, kinetics of adsorption, adsorption isotherms at different pH values and the influence of the ionic strength on the adsorption have been discussed in this chapter. Thermodynamic parameters are estimated from the rate constant for adsorption. Finally, surface complexation of salicylate on α-alumina surface at pH 5 and 7 in aqueous medium is also proposed.

Zeta

potential

α-alumina

and

its

salicylate on α-alumina was studied over a wide range of concentrations of salicylate in aqueous medium over the pH range 49. The adsorption isotherms were found to be