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Engine Systems

Fuel oil-both diesel and high-viscosity fuel

The criterion for the choice between the engine types, apart from the size of the ship, the available space and the required power, is the fuel which can be used. Marine fuels can generally be divided into two main categories. Distillate fuels, which are distillate fractions, i.e. marine gas oil or marine diesel oils, being used as fuel for auxiliary and small engines. (The distillate products will not be discussed further in this article.) Heavy fuels oils, which are the bottom fractions (residuals) from the distillation process. Diesel oil (MDO) is best, produces least dirt, but is expensive. The so-called heavy fuel (HFO) is much cheaper, but requires additional systems as precleaning and heating. It produces sludge and dirtier exhaust gases. It contains more sulphur than diesel. The heavy fuel has a higher viscosity and cannot be pressed through injectors without treatment. It needs heating to increase viscosity and purifying to eliminate water and dirt particles, too big to pass the injectors. The fuel is stored on board mostly in the double-bottom tanks, and the bunkers are supplied normally by a bunker boat through a hose, straight into the ship's tanks. From this tank it is pumped to a smaller tank in the engine room, the settling tank, a high, vertical tank, where water and heavy dirt sinks down, and via a high suction the oil is pumped through the separators to the day tank or service tank (the clean-oil tank), the separated water and dirt go straight to the sludge tank. Two system of transferring and service of the fuel are give below. Marine Diesel Oil Systems Fill, Transfer, Storage and Purification System Figure 1 illustrates a basic diesel oil fill, transfer, and storage and purification system. The diesel oil is bunkered at a dedicated deck connection for transfer and distribution to the ships storage tanks. A sample cock is provided at the deck connection to permit obtaining fuel samples during the bunkering process. Diesel oil is transferred from the storage tanks by means of a transfer pump and/or a purifier mounted pump to the service tank (settling tank). Single stage purification is typically operated at 100% throughput. However, a reduction in throughput to 60-70% of rated capacity may be made when purifying the more contaminated diesel oils. The only heating requirement for diesel oil is a pre-heater for purification purposes.

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Storage tank stripping connections should be provided to permit pumping the tank contents to any other storage tank, the purifier, or a sludge tank.

Figure 1. Typical Diesel Oil Fill, Transfer, Storage and Purification System

The basic system illustrated in Figure 1 provides the following capabilities: i) Diesel oil sampling while bunkering ii) Diesel oil transfer from storage to service tank(s) by way of the purifier system iii) Diesel oil transfer from any storage tank to any other storage tank, or directly to the service tank iv) Diesel oil supplied to the emergency diesel generator by either the transfer pump or the purifier v) Diesel oil service tank bottom drains directly to the sludge tank.

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Service System The diesel oil service system depicted in, Figure 2 can supply purified fuel from the service tank to any of the following consumers: i) Main Propulsion Engine(s) ii) Auxiliary Boiler iii) Ships Service Diesel Generator and emergency generator

Figure 2. Typical Diesel Oil Service System Diesel oil flows from the service tank to the engine driven fuel oil service pump via a duplex strainer. Next, a fuel oil meter and bypass are fitted. The fuel then flows to the engine via a final fine filter designed to remove impurities that could damage fuel injection pumps and injectors which may have been introduced downstream of the service pump discharge filter. Excess fuel is returned to the top of the service tank via a second fuel oil meter bypass. The engines fuel oil return line is fitted with a pressure control (regulating) valve to maintain the proper inlet pressure at the engines injection pumps.

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Heavy Fuel Oil Systems Fill, Transfer, Storage and Purification System Figure 3 illustrates a basic fill, transfer, and storage and purification system for a heavy fuel oil propulsion plant. Fuel oil is transferred from storage tanks to settling tanks via a fuel oil transfer pump and its associated suction strainer. From the settling tanks it is transferred to service tanks by way of the purification system. Two fuel oil centrifugal separators are installed with appropriate supply pumps, heaters and controls. The system and equipment is configured to permit operation of the separators in parallel or in series, either in a purifier/purifier or clarifier/clarifier or purifier/clarifier sequence. Centrifuge heater crossover capability also is illustrated. Fuel oil is discharged from the separators to the service tanks either directly, or via an additional duplex filter. The fuel oil is retained in the service tanks until it is drawn to the main engine via the fuel oil service system. Trace heating of the fuel oil piping, is facilitate for smooth transfer operations.

Figure 3.Typical Heavy Fuel Oil Fill, Transfer, Storage, and Purification System

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Transfer Pump Suction Strainers Duplex suction strainers protect fuel oil transfer pumps from solid debris that could cause mechanical damage. The suction strainers are duplexed to permit continuous service. Typically they are equipped with reinforced, corrosion resistant steel mesh baskets with a 20 to 40 mesh rating (840 to 400 m). Crossover valve at the strainers provides continuous flow to the transfer pumps when one strainer is opened for cleaning. Transfer Pump A transfer pump is installed to move fuel oil from storage tanks to settling tanks. One positive displacement transfer pump, protected by suction strainers and a pressure relief valve, and a pump bypass line, is normally fitted. The transfer pump flow rate is dependent upon engine fuel consumption rate and service and settling tank size. Proper arrangement of valves adds distribution to the transfer system to pump any. Settling Tanks Settling tanks have several important functions in the proper treatment of heavy fuel oil. They provide a settling function for gross water and solids, a heating function, a de-aeration function, and a thermal stabilizing function. The two settling tank concept is the most common arrangement, with each tank holding up to one days required fuel oil supply at full power. One tank is being filled from the transfer system and holding fuel while the other tank is supplying fuel to service tanks via heaters and separators. As soon as a settling tank is filled, it is heated to 72oC, or 6 o C below the flash point, whichever is lower (minimum temp by SOLAS is 60oC). From a safety standpoint, fuel oils must never be heated in ships tank at or above the fuels flash point. Once tank contents have been heated to the selected temperature, settling tank heat should be secured and the fuel allowed settling undisturbed for as long as possible. The tanks should be insulated where possible to reduce heat loss. Settling tanks should have bottom drains for water and sludge stripping and these should be removed on a regular basis by means of these drains. Separator Heaters Each heater normally services one separator and is designed to provide an oil outlet temperature of 98oC. Separators Two properly sized, properly adjusted, correctly operated, self-cleaning separators are used for shipboard heavy fuel treatment system. Efficient and consistent separator operation depends on an understanding of and the application of the basic principles of fuel handling, treating and conditioning.

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Service System Figure 4 illustrates a typical heavy fuel oil service system. The fuel oil service system forwards the oil from the respective service tanks to the main propulsion engine(s), auxiliary diesel generator(s) and/or auxiliary boiler. Fuel oil flows from the service tank via the fuel changeover valve to a mixing tank. From the mixing tank, one of two booster pumps delivers the fuel through a fuel oil service heater, a viscosity controller, and a final filter to the main engine fuel pumps. Excess oil is normally returned to the mixing tank or, if desired, to the service tank through a changeover valve. Service Tank Service tanks, or day tanks, have a very important function in the overall treatment of heavy fuel oil for diesel engines. They provide a final settling function for water and solids, a heating function (90oC) and a thermal stabilizing function. The settling function is primarily a backup in the event of a performance failure of the separators and/or during a by-pass of the filtration system. Two service tanks are normally provided. While one service tank is supplying fuel oil to the system, the other is receiving fuel oil conditioned through the separator and filtration systems. The tanks normally have high and low suction lines with downturned diffusers. The cleanest fuel oil is available from the upper (high) suction. Therefore it should be used whenever possible. The service tanks should have bottom drain connections for water and sludge stripping and these should be removed at regular intervals. Mixing Tank The mixing tank is usually a narrow, cylindrical insulated tank into which clean, heavy fuel oil flows from the fuel oil service tank. It also functions as a return tank for recalculated fuel oil from the engine injection pump return rail. A primary function of the tank is to stabilize service fuel oil temperature by mixing hotter return oil with cooler service tank fuel oil. It also acts as deaerating system for the fuel oil. The mixing tank is fitted with a bottom drain. Steam heating coils maintain stable temperature. Filters Duplex suction strainers provide protection to the fuel oil service pumps from any solid debris from the fuel oil service tanks. A 140 micron mesh reinforced, corrosion resistant basket strainer should be used, together with magnetic elements to remove all coarse metallic/magnetic particles from the heavy fuel oil stream. A properly designed filtration system would positively control solids that can damage high pressure pumps, injection systems, and the cylinder bores of diesel engines. Under normal operating conditions, properly designed and operated filtration systems can provide positive protection with 2000-3000 hour intervals between filter element replacements. The filter housing should be

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equipped with a bottom water drain; an air vent and a differential pressure gauge correlation to indicate the pressure drop across the filter so that an accurate determination of filter element replacement requirement can be made.

Figure 4. Typical Heavy Fuel Oil Service System

Fuel Oil Service Pumps Two fuel oil service pumps (one standby and one operational) are provided to supply heavy fuel oil to the downstream service system (service heaters, viscometer, flow meter and main engine). Each fuel oil service pump is capable of supplying the total required fuel flow plus an additional margin.

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Fuel Oil Service Heaters Two fuel oil service, steam heated, shell and tube or plate-type heat exchangers with a capability of heating heavy fuel oil to 150oC is installed. The final fuel oil outlet temperature is controlled by the viscometer. The viscosity to the diesel engine injectors is held constant even though the fuel oil temperature might vary slightly. When heating heavy fuel oils to almost 150oC use of properly sized, steam heat exchangers will provide the necessary heat without thermally stressing the fuel oil with hot spots which produce coked heaters and cracked fuel. Viscometer When burning heavy fuel oil in a diesel engine it is necessary to reduce the high viscosity of the fuel to a value at which correct atomization can take place in the fuel injectors. This will allow intimate mixing of fuel oil with heated air for ignition and efficient combustion. Viscosity of a fuel may be reduced by raising its temperature and it is passed through a heater to do this. Automatic control of the heater may be regulated either to maintain a constant temperature, or to measure and control the viscosity. It is possible that oils of varying properties are contained within a ship's bunker tanks or even one tank, when its contents are from a number of different sources. Consequently it is preferable that the actual viscosity of the fuel is controlled within close limits. In most cases this is regulated to have kinematic viscosity between 10 and 15 centistokes at 50C

Figure 5. Viscosity meter The Viscotherm shown in Fig. 5 is an instrument which measures fuel oil viscosity at the heater discharge and regulates the heater temperature to control this. It consists of a small gear type pump rotated at a slow but constant speed

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(40 rpm) and is fitted within the fuel supply close to the heater discharge. The pump draws fuel from the system at a controlled rate and discharges it through a capillary tube. Fuel flows through the capillary without turbulence, i.e. streamline (laminar) flow prevails whilst the remaining oil passes around the pump. The pressure differential is proportional to viscosity of the oil flowing through it. Pressures at the corresponding points are measured and fed to a differential pressure transmitter which can automatically operate the heater control to maintain fuel viscosity within close limits.

Final Filter A duplex, final protection, ten micron filter usually is installed immediately prior to the inlet of the fuel injection pumps to protect pump plungers and barrels from any untreated contamination or random debris remaining in the fuel. While it may appear that this final filter is not necessary due to the cleaning and treatment equipment upstream, high pressure diesel injection pumps are very sensitive to minute particles of debris. This material can cause micro-seizures and finally total failure of the pump plunger and barrel.

Lubricating oil System

The reliability and performance of diesel engines are directly dependent on the effectiveness of their lubricating systems. To be effective, an engine lubricating system must successfully perform the functions of minimizing friction between the bearing surfaces of moving parts, dissipating heat, and keeping the engine parts clean by removing carbon and other foreign matter. In almost all internalcombustion engines, the system that provides the oil for these functions is the forced-lubrication type of design. Although there are many variations in lubricating systems for internal-combustion engines, the components and method of operation are basically the same for all designs. Further in slow speed cross head engines two separate lubrication oil system are in use one the cylinder liner lubrication and the other the crankcase lubrication system. Fig. 6 shows a lubricating oil system for a large main engine crankcase. Pressure pumps, strainers and fine filters are in duplicate, one set being used while the other acts as standby. Fine filters should be capable of being cleaned without interruption of the oil flow. Mesh size will depend upon the bearing materials and clearances: in most large engines it is 50 microns. Capacity of the system must be adequate for the type of installation. If the engine has oil-cooled pistons the capacity and throughput will be increased accordingly. Lubricating oil pressure pumps draw oil from the engine drain tank through suction strainers, the tank suction being clear of the lowest point to avoid picking up

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any water or sludge which may have settled. The pumps discharge at pressure through the oil cooler, ensuring that sea water at its lower pressure cannot leak into the oil system in the event of a fault in the cooler. The oil then passes through the fine filters to the engine. It will be distributed to all bearings, piston cooling, sprayers, exhaust valve actuators, control systems etc. Various sections of the lubricating system may require different pressures and to accommodate this engine driven booster pumps may raise the supply pressure, while pressure reducing valves and restricted orifices may reduce pressure or flow to other parts. Used oil drains to the bottom of the crankcase and passes through strainers by gravity to the drain tank. Drain returns are kept remote from the pump suction and must be submerged to reduce aeration and to make a safe seal. With oil-cooled pistons each piston oil return has its temperature monitored and it then passes through a sight glass before returning to the crankcase.

Figure 6. Lubricating oil System

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Tanks and Sumps The oil drain tank is usually built into the ship's double bottom usually under the engine to collect the oil as it drains from the engine crankcase to collect, store, and recirculate oil after it has been used for lubrication and cooling, it must be surrounded by a coffer dam to prevent any contamination from leakages. It is fitted with an air vent, level measuring gauge and sounding pipe. Central positioning of the level gauge will reduce fluctuation in readings due to pitching and rolling at sea. The tank must be of sufficient size to accommodate the full charge of oil. Its interior surfaces may be coated to prevent rusting due to condensation on its non-flooded surfaces. The system should also have low pressure, high temperature and low tank level alarms fitted. In auxiliary engines separate storage and sump tanks are not so common but generally contain the oil supply directly within the engine oil pan. Centrifuge A centrifuge system is fitted to purify oil from the drain tank to remove water, sludge and in solubles. This should be operated continuously at sea with a slow throughput, the oil being preheated to 70-90C to assist separation. When the engine is not in use batch purification of the whole charge may be carried out. It is most important that water content in the oil is eliminated or kept to a minimum.

Pumps Positive-displacement, rotary-gear pumps deliver oil under pressure to the various parts of the engine. Whilst in slow speed engines the pumps are separate and are electric motor driven and in auxiliary and medium speed engines they are gear driven by the engine camshaft or, in some engines, directly by the crankshaft. The operating pressure is normally controlled by one or more pressure-regulating valves. Some engines may have a priming pump to keep the parts lubricated when in stop condition.

COOLERS The lubricating oil systems of most engines use coolers (heat exchangers) to maintain the oil temperature within the most efficient operating range. Oil, passing through the operating engine, absorbs heat from the metal parts. Since engine oil is recirculated and used over and over, it is continually absorbing additional heat. Unless the heat is removed, the oil temperature will rise to excessive values. At extremely high temperatures, oil tends to oxidize rapidly and form carbon deposits. Excessive engine operating temperatures also cause an increase in the rate of oil consumption. Consequently, oil coolers are

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required to remove excess heat from the oil so that the oil will retain its lubricating qualities.

Filtering Devices Oil must be clean before it goes into the lubricating system of an engine. Oil must also be cleaned regularly while it is being recirculated through the engine. Dust and dirt particles get into the oil system (intake air, flakes of metal from the engine parts, incomplete combustion products, and deteriorated oil sludge and gummy). The lubricating oil system of an engine uses strainers and filters to remove abrasives and foreign materials which tend to increase wear of engine parts and cause the lubricating oil to deteriorate. A variety of strainers and filters are in use. Lubricating oil strainers may be either simplex or duplex. A duplex strainer is two strainers elements in one assembly. A manual valve directs the flow of oil through either of the elements. When duplex strainers are used, one element can be bypassed, and the element can be removed and cleaned without disturbing the flow of oil through the other element to the engine. Metal-edge strainers consist of a strainer element surrounded by a case that serves as a sump to collect foreign material and water. The element has an edge-wound metal ribbon or a series (stack) of edge-type disks. Most strainers have devices for manually rotating the strainer element against metallic scrapers, which remove the material caught by the element. Lagging and/ or sheathing on hot surfaces As per SOLAS the External high-pressure fuel delivery lines between the high pressure fuel pumps and fuel injectors shall be protected with a jacketed piping system capable of containing fuel from a high-pressure line failure. A jacketed pipe incorporates an outer pipe into which the high-pressure fuel pipe is placed, forming a permanent assembly. The jacketed piping system shall include a means for collection of leakages and arrangements shall be provided with an alarm in case of a fuel line failure. All pipes are to be lagged which gives reduction in heat loss and prevent any oil spraying in the event of a failure. Further all flanges are to be sheathed to prevent oil spurting out during a gasket failure.

Fresh Water Cooling Systems

Slow and medium speed engines use fresh water to circulate and cool the cylinder jackets and covers. The same system may also circulate exhaust valves and water cooled turbochargers if fitted. In large, slow engines the cooling water pumps are independently driven and controlled. Pumps are arranged in

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duplicate, each being sufficient to operate the system alone while the other acts as standby. They should be changed over regularly. Pressure relief valves are fitted and alarms to give warning of pressure loss, high or low tank levels or excess temperature. Fresh water coolers are circulated and cooled with sea water and have bypass valves. Pressure of the fresh water must exceed that of the sea water to prevent any possibility of sea water leakage into the system. In medium speed engines the fresh water cooling system may be split, or comprise two sections. Each incorporates a pump, salt water circulated cooler, temperature regulators and bypass valve. Pumps are usually main engine driven. A high temperature section circulates the cylinder jackets, covers, exhaust valves, the turbocharger and the first stage of the charge air cooler. This section can be regulated to maintain a fairly constant high temperature, irrespective of the engine speed or load. An additional electric driven pump and a pre-heater are included to facilitate warming of the engine before starting from cold. A low temperature section circulates the lubricating oil cooler and the second stage of the charge air cooler. At low speed or power, the temperature regulator in this section directs heat from the lubricating oil cooling to be used to raise the temperature of the charge air before it enters the engine. Fresh water may cause the deposit of scale on heated surfaces and although demineralised or distilled water will prevent this, it may still cause pitting and erosion and become acidic with use. Corrosion inhibitors and alkaline agents are added to the system to protect metal surfaces. They must be soluble in water, but cannot be poisonous if a domestic fresh water generator is present in the system. Chemical additives such as nitrite-borates may be used; they create a thin passive oxide surface layer on most metals. They do not harm water seal rings but will attack any zinc present. With this treatment, therefore, no zinc anodes are fitted; galvanised piping and all solder joints must also be avoided. A reserve concentration of the agents is held within the water and this replaces any areas of surface layer which may, have been removed by cavitation or vibration. Frequent tests must be carried out to check the concentration and alkalinity. Soluble emulsion oils may be used in high speed engines, provided they do not have small cooling passages such as those used in water-cooled exhaust valves. These oils form a greasy protective film which adheres to surfaces and prevents corrosion. Its tenacity gives better protection against cavitation than chemical additives. Emulsion oils must be maintained within close concentration limits and the system kept clean: any "contamination causes deposits to build up, with the risk of choking of passages causing overheating. The oil deteriorates in time and the system should be cleaned and recharged annually. It is possible for microorganisms to exist in water containing either of these additives. Any biocide added to kill these micro-organisms must be compatible with the domestic fresh water generator if one is fitted. Fig. 7 shows line diagrams for fresh water cooling of cylinder jackets and pistons in a large two-stroke engine. These are in

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fact separate systems and only the jacket water cooling is required for engines which have oil-cooled pistons.

Figure7. Fresh water cooling systems Jacket Cooling Water Systems Form a closed circuit. Water passing from the engine returns through a cooler to the pump suction and then back to the engine (the order between cooler and pump may be reversed in some systems). A header or expansion tank is placed at a reasonable height to allow venting and pressurising of the system. This is connected to both the engine discharge and the pump suction lines. A heater is included, with a bypass, and the system can warm the engine through when necessary. Alternatively, auxiliary engines' fresh water systems may be coupled, to use waste heat from these for warming the main engine during stand-by periods. A fresh water generator may be added to use further waste heat. Cooling water enters at the lower end of the cylinder jackets, passing up to connections from the top of the jacket to the cylinder covers and then to the exhaust valve cages and seats. A restricted amount of water is taken from this discharge and passes through the turbocharger cooling spaces, returning to the

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main discharge through a baffle which creates a pressure difference in the line. An air separator is fitted in the return and this discharges any trapped air to the expansion tank. Other venting connections arc taken from the top of the engine system, the turbocharger and the cooler. Piston Cooling Water System Also shown in Fig.7, but this system is being phased off for oil cooling system. It is independent of the jacket system, allowing piston temperatures to be higher and preventing possible contamination of the jackets in the event of piston gland leakage passing lubricating oil to the system. The circulating pump draws water from a drain tank, passing it through a cooler to the piston cooling inlet glands. Cooling returns pass through sight glasses and thermometers before flowing by gravity to the drain tank. Air vents are fitted at high points adjacent to the glands to eliminate 'water hammer'. Leakage from glands may be drained back to the tank after passing through an oil separator and inspection chamber. A heating coil fitted in the drain tank allows heating when warming through the engine in preparation for sea. Load-Controlled Cylinder Cooling In an effort to reduce the danger of local liner corrosion over the whole engine load some manufacturers are employing cooling systems that are load dependant. In such a system, shown in Fig. 8, the cooling flow is split into a primary circuit, bypassing the liner, for cylinder head cooling. In the secondary circuit uncooled water from engine outlet is directed to cool the liner. To avoid vapour formation as a result of maintaining higher cooling temperatures the system is pressurised to 4 to 6 bar. The advantages claimed for such a system include: 1. Possible savings in cylinder lubrication oil feed rate. 2. Omission of cylinder bore insulation. 3. Reduced cylinder liner corrosion.

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Figure 8. Load-Controlled Cylinder Cooling.

Fuel-valve-cooling water In modern marine engines the fuel injectors are uncooled or oil cooled type (mostly medium & some slow speeds), nevertheless some older version of slow speed marine engine fuel valves is water cooled. The cooling system for the fuel injector nozzles is separate from the other cooling systems (fig.9) of the engine. In the in- and outlet pipes of each fuel injector a stop valve is fitted making it possible to remove an individual fuel injector with-out draining the system. A heater is incorporated to warm fuel injectors before starting on heavy fuel and the temperature should remain the same over the whole power range. The fuel valve or injector is the component from where fuel is injected through nozzles. This component of the engine is subjected to intense heat of the combustion and

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needs to be cooled. Passages are drilled into the nozzles to enable water to be circulated within the nozzle. The water is maintained between 85oC and 90oC so as not to flash into steam. Because of the close loop, this cooling system also has an expansion tank, which is used as header tank and an inspection tank.

Figure 9. Typical Fuel valve cooling F.W pipe line diagram

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Starting air
Marine diesel engines use high pressure compressed air to start them. The air flows into the cylinder when the piston is moving down the cylinder on the power stroke. To minimise the risk of an air start explosion, fuel is not injected into the cylinder whilst the air is being admitted. Air start systems vary in their design and can be quite complex. There will be a means to start the engine locally as well as from a remote location (The Bridge or the engine control room). This system is not representative of one type of engine but is simplified to give a basic understanding.

Figure 10. The Air Start System

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The Air Start Distributor The air distributor normally consists of a series of pilot valves, one for each cylinder arranged radially around a cam or inline (other type disc and ports). Timed to the engine and driven from the camshaft, the distributor opens the air start valves of the respective units in the correct sequence. The Air Start Valve The air start valve is located in the cylinder head. When it is opened by the air signal from the distributor, compressed air at 30 bar flows into the cylinder, forcing the piston down. The Bursting Disk or Flame trap The connection to each air start valve is fitted with a protection device. This can be either a flame trap or a bursting disk. The flame trap will prevent any combustion in the cylinder passing to the air start line and causing an explosion, whereas a bursting disk will limit any pressure rise by bursting and exhausting it to the outside. The Automatic Valve The automatic valve is only open whilst an air start is taking place. It incorporates a non return valve to prevent any explosion in the air start system getting back to the air receivers. A slow turn valve is incorporated in the smaller bore pipe work to the side of the valve. This is used to turn the engine slowly before starting, to prevent damage which could be caused if liquid had found its way into the cylinder. The Turning Gear Interlock The turning gear interlock is a control valve which will not allow starting air to operate the system when the turning gear is engaged. The Air Receiver Two air start receivers are fitted. The total capacity of the receivers must be sufficient to start the engine 12 times alternating between ahead and astern without recharging the receivers. In the case of a unidirectional engine, then the capacity must be sufficient for 6 starts. The air receiver will be fitted with a relief valve to limit the pressure rise to 10% of design pressure. A pressure gauge and a drain for the removal of accumulated oil and water must also be fitted. A manhole gives access to the receiver for inspection purposes. The material used in the construction of the air receivers must be of good quality low carbon steel similar to that used for boilers, (0-2% C, 0-35% Si, 01% Mn, 0-05% S, 0-05%P, and u.t.s. 460 MN/m2). The welding are radio graphed, annealed at a temperature of about 600C and a test piece must be

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provided for bend, impact and tensile tests together with micrographic and macro graphic examination. Mountings generally provided are shown in Fig. 11. If the receiver is isolated from the safety valve then it must have a fusible plug fitted, melting point approximately 150o C, and if carbon dioxide is used for fire fighting it is recommended that the discharge from the fusible plug be led to the deck. Stop valves on the receiver generally permit slow opening to avoid rapid pressure increases in the piping system, and piping for starting air has to be protected against the possible effects of explosion.

Figure 11. Air Reservoir

The Air Compressor Two air start compressors are normally supplied which must be capable of charging the air receivers from empty to full in one hour. They are usually two stage reciprocating with inter and after stage cooling. Relief valves will be fitted to each stage which will limit the pressure rise to 10% of design pressure, and a high temperature cut out or fusible plug to limit the HP discharge to 121C. Intercoolers are also fitted with bursting disks or relief valves on the water side. Run the compressor with all drains open to clear the lines of any oil or water, and when filling open drains at regular intervals.

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Scavenge combustion air and exhaust passage

Scavenging is the process whereby air at a pressure greater than that of atmospheric pressure (2.5 3.0 bar) is used to push the exhaust gas out of the cylinder of an engine. Unlike the 4 stroke engine, a two stroke diesel engine does not use the piston to push out the exhaust gas; instead, air enters the cylinder around bottom dead centre and sweeps or scavenges the exhaust gas from the cylinder. 2 stroke engines with an exhaust valve mounted in the cylinder head are known as uniflow scavenged engines. This is because the flow of scavenging air is in one (uni) direction.

Figure 12. Scavenge air and exhaust process

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Compression of the air at the turbo-blower will increase the temperature to about 100-140C with a corresponding reduction in density ,this means the air must be cooled to reduce its temperature (40oC- 55oC) and restore the density of the charge air to optimum conditions. This has a double effect on engine performance by increasing the charge air density it thereby increases the weight of air flowing into the cylinders, and by lowering the air temperature it reduces the maximum cylinder pressure, the exhaust temperature (450oC) and the engine thermal loading. The increased power is obtained without lossand, in fact, with an improvement in fuel economy. It is important that charge air coolers should be designed for low pressure drop on the air side; otherwise, to obtain the required air pressure the turbo blower speed must be increased. The most common type of cooler is the water-cooled design with finned tubes in a casing carrying seawater over which the air passes. To remove any water due to condensation this has a number of detrimental effects to the engine. To prevent the carryover of water a water separator is fitted. Fig. 13 the separator utilises the difference in the mass of water and air. As the moist air flows into the vanes its direction is changed. Because of its lower mass the air is able to change direction easily to flow around the vanes. The water, however, because of its greater mass and, therefore momentum, is not able to change direction so easily and flows into the water trap to be removed at the drain.

Figure 13. Water Separator

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Figure 14. Evaluation of Readings Regarding Combustion Condition

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