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Topic: Historical Foundations of Pakistan Course Instructor: Hanayya Iftikhar Religion and Philosophical debate  World View  Concept

of Man, Universe & God  Four stages of human being South Asia is a sub-continent. Its historical roots dates back to 30005000 BC. Reknowned Thinker and Philosopher Shah Waliullah concludes that there are four stages of human being, are called ‘‘Irtifaqat’’ • 1st Irtifaq (wild life style): from Adam (PBUH) to Sheeth (PBUH) • 2nd Irtifaq (One family life style ): from Sheeth (PBUH) to Nuh (PBUH) • 3rd Irtifaq (Tribal & National life style) from Nuh (PBUH) to Ibrahim (PBUH) • 4th Irtifaq (International life style) from Ibrahim (PBUH) to Mohammad (PBUH)

 Definition of Philosophy: Philosophy is a combination of Reality and Value/Worth

Social Benefits 2. Subjugation in front of Ultimate Reality 3. Outer & Inner Purification 2. Revelation 3.Reality means to know the originality/reality of something Value means to give worth/status to something  Definition of Moral Value: To know what is right and what is wrong by human perception Sources of human perception are: 1. Intellect 2. Experiences by five senses  Three Principles to judge what is right and what is wrong: 1. Every beneficial relation among human being 4. Justice  Definition of Religion: There are two approaches to define Religion . Progressive Approach 3. To give & Take  Four Universal Moral Values: 1.

Imaniat. Ideological System (Beliefs. Preservation of & Protection of Progeny/Upcoming Generation 4.• Western approach: Religion is a relationship between God & Human being • Islamic approach: Religion is a complete code of life Complete code of life contains five systems: 1. Laws ) 2. Preservation of & Protection of Faith 2. Thoughts. Moral System (To develop consciousness about selfaccountability through avoiding bad one and establishing good one)  Objectives of Religion (Deen): 1. Political System (Planning/Management/Implementation of Ideology) 3. Preservation of & Protection of Intellect 5. Economic System (Division of resources to achieve the basic goals of Ideology ) 4. Preservation of & Protection of Life 3. Preservation of & Protection of wealth/all sorts of your belongings . Social System (To form/mold Ideology in a concrete manner on the basis of available resources/best customs) 5.

Literary traditions 5. Monuments or archaeological evidence 4. Coins 3. Contemporary chronicles 6. Misunderstanding of the true ideas Pre Islamic Subcontinent Sources of Ancient Indian History: No Aryan or Hindu tradition of chronological writings. Human laziness 2. The public interest is prior to the private/individual 3. Al Beruni. Priorities within the objectives: 1. The definitive interest prevails over the probable  Three barriers against human progress: 1. Foreign accounts 1. Wrong direction/practice 3. famous historian gave account on these sources of history which included: 1. Inscription 2. The stronger interest shall prevail 2. Inscriptions: .

Literary Traditions:  Vedas. religious books of Hinduism . / remains of buildings etc 4. Mostly engraved on stones and copper plates in Sanskrit. Telegu Languages  Indigenous & Foreign Inscriptions  Asoka is known due to inscriptions  Allahabad inscriptions revealed complete Samudra Gupta’s conquests account of 2. Monuments/Archaeological Evidences  Hrappan/Indus Valley archaeological findings Civilization revealed through  Like Toys. extent of their dominions  Illustrate religious faiths of kings & degree of foreign influence (Greek influence over Kushans) 3. Pali. Tamil. the dates of their accession to the throne. Coins:  Give the names of kings.

a source of information about the political. Pre-historic rulers:  Non-Aryans  Uncivilized people . Contemporary Chronicles:  Dynastic chronicles Harshacharita of Bana Bhatt covers of Harshavadhna 6. Foreign Accounts:  Greek historians Herodotus. Vedas. religious & social systems of early Aryans  Ramayana & Mahabharata give the history of Epic period  Puranas give info regarding Budhism/Jainism 5. Celsius & Megasthenes  Megasthenes sent by Seleuhos to court of Chandragupta Mauria  Chinese traveler Fa-hein during reign of Chandragupta II  Hiuen .Tsang gave reliable info on Harchavardhna Pre Historic Age 1.

 Did not know the use of metal 2. Neolithic or New Stone Age:  Ignorance of use of metals except gold  Knew how to make fire/ to cook  Buried dead 4. Paleolithic or Old Stone Age:  Stone worshipers  Obscured idea of Religion  No Idea of Agriculture 3. The Age of Metals:  No uniformity regarding use of metals in Northern & Southern India  Northern first used copper and then Iron  While in Sothern India Iron age immediately succeeded the stone age 5. The Dravidians: .

Kanarese speaking people in South India are descendents of the ancient Dravidians  Dravidians knew agriculture. silver & copper  Constructed buildings. D. use of gold. forts. Banerjee in 1922. boats & small ships & temples  Later on they accepted the culture of Aryans  Some historians argue that Dravidians were creators of Indus Valley Civilization. Talegu. History:  Harappa was discovered by R. B. Indus Valley Civilization 1. The ancient name of the Tamil country (in Madras presidency) is “Dravida”  Tamil. Larkana  Mature form of civilization five thousands years age  Most important building of Mohenjodaro is the Great Bath which covers an area of 11.446 sq ft  Excellent system of water supply  The system of drainage  The sanitation works . Dayaram Sahri in 1921 near Sahival  Mohenjodaro by R.

Economic Conditions:  Agriculture (wheat. palm-date). dog. fish  Domesticated animals (Bull. barley. sheep. pig. meat.2. silver. Social Life  Dress. goat)  Possibility of trade with Mesopotamia 3. Ornaments made of gold. copper  Discovery of Toys of animal models  IVC people were not interested in hunting & chariot-racing  Enjoyed dancing & singing . iron. cow. milk. buffalo. fruits. camel.